Computer Laboratory

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This list covers both hardware and application virtual machines with no further subdivision. The difference between the two types is explained in this Wikepedia entry. The following present reasonably thourough, but probably not complete, lists of examples of the two classes:

Specific examples

BCPL OCode and CIntcode
OCode and CIntcode are intermediate codes designed specifically to support the BCPL programming language. The manual also includes a reference to the BCPL language as well as information about the two virtual machines.
Java Virtual Machine
The 2nd edition of the official Java Virtual Machine (JVM) specification from Sun, providing the same information as the printed version of the book. Should you need to see what's changed, the 1st edition is also available.
Parrot
The Parrot virtual machine is a bytecode which is intended to be used by the forthcoming Perl 6 language, although it has proved to be a reasonable target of a number of other high level laguages. Like Perl 6, Parrot is still in development and this list of documents is one of the few resources available.
Xen
Xen, the current subject of a research project in the Systems Research Group, is a hardware virtual machine which potentially allows several operating systems and environments to run simultaneously on a machine. The list of documentation includes the user's guide and developer's guide.