Department of Computer Science and Technology

Technical reports

CheriABI: Enforcing valid pointer provenance and minimizing pointer privilege in the POSIX C run-time environment

Brooks Davis, Robert N. M. Watson, Alexander Richardson, Peter G. Neumann, Simon W. Moore, John Baldwin, David Chisnall, Jessica Clarke, Nathaniel Wesley Filardo, Khilan Gudka, Alexandre Joannou, Ben Laurie, A. Theodore Markettos, J. Edward Maste, Alfredo Mazzinghi, Edward Tomasz Napierala, Robert M. Norton, Michael Roe, Peter Sewell, Stacey Son, Jonathan Woodruff

April 2019, 40 pages

This version of the report incorporates minor changes to the April 2019 original, which were released March 2020.

This technical report extends our paper of the same title published at ASPLOS 2019 with a focus on implementation details of interest to operating system and compiler developers.

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), under contracts FA8750-10-C-0237 (“CTSRD”) and HR0011-18-C-0016 (“ECATS”), as part of the DARPA CRASH, and SSITH research programs. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies, either expressed or implied, of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Additional support was received from St John’s College Cambridge, the Google SOAAP Focused Research Award, a Google Chrome University Research Program Award, the RCUK’s Horizon Digital Economy Research Hub Grant (EP/G065802/1), the EPSRC REMS Programme Grant (EP/K008528/1), the EPSRC Impact Acceleration Account (EP/K503757/1), the ERC Advanced Grant ELVER (789108), the Isaac Newton Trust, the UK Higher Education Innovation Fund (HEIF), Thales E-Security, Microsoft Research Cambridge, Arm Limited, Google DeepMind, and HP Enterprise.

DOI: 10.48456/tr-932


The CHERI architecture allows pointers to be implemented as capabilities (rather than integer virtual addresses) in a manner that is compatible with, and strengthens, the semantics of the C language. In addition to the spatial protections offered by conventional fat pointers, CHERI capabilities offer strong integrity, enforced provenance validity, and access monotonicity.

The stronger guarantees of these architectural capabilities must be reconciled with the real-world behavior of operating systems, run-time environments, and applications. When the process model, user-kernel interactions, dynamic linking, and memory management are all considered, we observe that simple derivation of architectural capabilities is insufficient to describe appropriate access to memory. We bridge this conceptual gap with a notional abstract capability that describes the accesses that should be allowed at a given point in execution, whether in the kernel or userspace.

To investigate this notion at scale, we describe the first adaptation of a full C-language operating system (FreeBSD) with an enterprise database (PostgreSQL) for complete spatial and referential memory safety. We show that awareness of abstract capabilities, coupled with CHERI architectural capabilities, can provide more complete protection, strong compatibility, and acceptable performance overhead compared with the pre-CHERI baseline and software-only approaches. Our observations also have potentially significant implications for other mitigation techniques.

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BibTeX record

  author =	 {Davis, Brooks and Watson, Robert N. M. and Richardson,
          	  Alexander and Neumann, Peter G. and Moore, Simon W. and
          	  Baldwin, John and Chisnall, David and Clarke, Jessica and
          	  Filardo, Nathaniel Wesley and Gudka, Khilan and Joannou,
          	  Alexandre and Laurie, Ben and Markettos, A. Theodore and
          	  Maste, J. Edward and Mazzinghi, Alfredo and Napierala,
          	  Edward Tomasz and Norton, Robert M. and Roe, Michael and
          	  Sewell, Peter and Son, Stacey and Woodruff, Jonathan},
  title = 	 {{CheriABI: Enforcing valid pointer provenance and
         	   minimizing pointer privilege in the POSIX C run-time
  year = 	 2019,
  month = 	 apr,
  url = 	 {},
  institution =  {University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory},
  doi = 	 {10.48456/tr-932},
  number = 	 {UCAM-CL-TR-932}