Module RTL

The RTL intermediate language: abstract syntax and semantics. RTL stands for "Register Transfer Language". This is the first intermediate language after Cminor and CminorSel.

Require Import Coqlib.
Require Import Maps.
Require Import Ast.
Require Import Integers.
Require Import Pointers.
Require Import Values.
Require Import Events.
Require Import Mem.
Require Import Globalenvs.
Require Import Op.
Require Import Registers.
Require Import Memcomp.
Require Import Libtactics.
Require Import CminorP.

Abstract syntax

RTL is organized as instructions, functions and programs. Instructions correspond roughly to elementary instructions of the target processor, but take their arguments and leave their results in pseudo-registers (also called temporaries in textbooks). Infinitely many pseudo-registers are available, and each function has its own set of pseudo-registers, unaffected by function calls. Instructions are organized as a control-flow graph: a function is a finite map from ``nodes'' (abstract program points) to instructions, and each instruction lists explicitly the nodes of its successors.

Definition node := positive.
Inductive instruction: Type :=
  | Inop: node -> instruction
No operation -- just branch to the successor.
  | Iop: operation -> list reg -> reg -> node -> instruction
Iop op args dest succ performs the arithmetic operation op over the values of registers args, stores the result in dest, and branches to succ.
  | Iload: memory_chunk -> addressing -> list reg -> reg -> node -> instruction
Iload chunk addr args dest succ loads a chunk quantity from the address determined by the addressing mode addr and the values of the args registers, stores the quantity just read into dest, and branches to succ.
  | Istore: memory_chunk -> addressing -> list reg -> reg -> node -> instruction
Istore chunk addr args src succ stores the value of register src in the chunk quantity at the the address determined by the addressing mode addr and the values of the args registers, then branches to succ.
  | Icall: signature -> reg + ident -> list reg -> reg -> node -> instruction
Icall sig fn args dest succ invokes the function determined by fn (either a function pointer found in a register or a function name), giving it the values of registers args as arguments. It stores the return value in dest and branches to succ.
  | Icond: condition -> list reg -> node -> node -> instruction
Icond cond args ifso ifnot evaluates the boolean condition cond over the values of registers args. If the condition is true, it transitions to ifso. If the condition is false, it transitions to ifnot.
  | Ireturn: option reg -> instruction
Ireturn terminates the execution of the current function (it has no successor). It returns the value of the given register, or Vundef if none is given.
  | Ithreadcreate: reg -> reg -> node -> instruction
Ithreadcreate fn arg creates a thread and runs function fn with the argument arg in the created thread.
  | Iatomic: atomic_statement -> list reg -> reg -> node -> instruction
  | Ifence: node -> instruction.

Definition code: Type := PTree.t instruction.

Record function: Type := mkfunction {
  fn_sig: signature;
  fn_params: list reg;
  fn_stacksize: int ;
  fn_code: code;
  fn_entrypoint: node

A function description comprises a control-flow graph (CFG) fn_code (a partial finite mapping from nodes to instructions). As in Cminor, fn_sig is the function signature and fn_stacksize the number of bytes for its stack-allocated activation record. fn_params is the list of registers that are bound to the values of arguments at call time. fn_entrypoint is the node of the first instruction of the function in the CFG. fn_code_wf asserts that all instructions of the function have nodes no greater than fn_nextpc.

Definition fundef := Ast.fundef function.

Definition program := Ast.program fundef unit.

Definition funsig (fd: fundef) :=
  match fd with
  | Internal f => f.(fn_sig)
  | External ef => ef.(ef_sig)

Operational semantics

Definition genv := Genv.t fundef.
Definition regset := Regmap.t val.

Fixpoint init_regs (vl: list val) (rl: list reg) {struct rl} : regset :=
  match rl, vl with
  | r1 :: rs, v1 :: vs => Regmap.set r1 v1 (init_regs vs rs)
  | _, _ => Regmap.init Vundef

The dynamic semantics of RTL is given in small-step style, as a set of transitions between states. A state captures the current point in the execution. Three kinds of states appear in the transitions: In all three kinds of states, the cs parameter represents the call stack. It is a list of frames Stackframe res c sp pc rs. Each frame represents a function call in progress. res is the pseudo-register that will receive the result of the call. c is the code of the calling function. sp is its stack pointer. pc is the program point for the instruction that follows the call. rs is the state of registers in the calling function.

Inductive stackframe : Type :=
  | Stackframe:
      forall (res: reg) (* where to store the result *)
             (c: code) (* code of calling function *)
             (sp: option pointer) (* stack pointer in calling function *)
             (pc: node) (* program point in calling function *)
             (rs: regset), (* register state in calling function *)

Inductive state : Type :=
  | State:
      forall (stack: list stackframe) (* call stack *)
             (c: code) (* current code *)
             (sp: option pointer) (* stack pointer * *)
             (pc: node) (* current program point in c *)
             (rs: regset), (* register state *)
  | Callstate:
      forall (stack: list stackframe) (* call stack *)
             (f: fundef) (* function to call *)
             (args: list val), (* arguments to the call *)
  | Returnstate:
      forall (stack: list stackframe) (* call stack *)
             (v: val), (* return value for the call *)
  | Blockedstate:
      forall (stack: list stackframe) (* call stack *)
             (efsig: signature), (* pending external function *)

Section RELSEM.

Variable ge: genv.

Definition find_function
      (ros: reg + ident) (rs: regset) : option fundef :=
  match ros with
  | inl r => Genv.find_funct ge rs#r
  | inr symb =>
      match Genv.find_symbol ge symb with
      | None => None
      | Some b => Genv.find_funct_ptr ge b

The transitions are presented as an inductive predicate rtl_step ge st1 t st2, where ge is the global environment, st1 the initial state, st2 the final state, and t the trace of system calls performed during this transition.

Inductive rtl_step: state -> thread_event -> state -> Prop :=
  | exec_Inop:
      forall s c sp pc rs pc',
      c!pc = Some(Inop pc') ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        TEtau (State s c sp pc' rs)
  | exec_Iop:
      forall s c sp pc rs op args res pc' v rs',
      c!pc = Some(Iop op args res pc') ->
      eval_operation ge sp op rs##args = Some v ->
      rs' = (rs#res <- v) ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        TEtau (State s c sp pc' rs')
  | exec_Iload:
      forall s c sp pc rs a chunk v addr args dst pc' rs',
      c!pc = Some(Iload chunk addr args dst pc') ->
      rs' = (rs#dst <- v) ->
      eval_addressing ge sp addr rs##args = Some (Vptr a) ->
      Val.has_type v (type_of_chunk chunk) ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        (TEmem (MEread a chunk v))
        (State s c sp pc' rs')
  | exec_Istore:
      forall s c sp pc rs a v chunk addr args src pc',
      c!pc = Some(Istore chunk addr args src pc') ->
      eval_addressing ge sp addr rs##args = Some (Vptr a) ->
      v = Val.conv (rs#src) (type_of_chunk chunk) ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        (TEmem (MEwrite a chunk (cast_value_to_chunk chunk v)))
        (State s c sp pc' rs)
  | exec_Icall:
      forall s c sp pc rs sig ros args res pc' f,
      c!pc = Some(Icall sig ros args res pc') ->
      find_function ros rs = Some f ->
      funsig f = sig ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        TEtau (Callstate (Stackframe res c sp pc' rs :: s) f (rs##args))
  | exec_Icond_true:
      forall s c sp pc rs cond args ifso ifnot,
      c!pc = Some(Icond cond args ifso ifnot) ->
      eval_condition cond rs##args = Some true ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        TEtau (State s c sp ifso rs)
  | exec_Icond_false:
      forall s c sp pc rs cond args ifso ifnot,
      c!pc = Some(Icond cond args ifso ifnot) ->
      eval_condition cond rs##args = Some false ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        TEtau (State s c sp ifnot rs)
  | exec_Ireturn:
      forall s c sp pc rs or lab,
      c!pc = Some(Ireturn or) ->
      lab = (match sp with
               None => TEtau |
               Some stk => TEmem (MEfree stk MObjStack) end) ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs) lab
        (Returnstate s (regmap_optget or Vundef rs))
  | exec_Ithread_create:
      forall s c sp pc rs arg pc' fn pfn,
      c!pc = Some(Ithreadcreate fn arg pc') ->
      rs#fn = Vptr pfn ->
      rtl_step (State s c sp pc rs)
        (TEstart pfn ((rs # arg) :: nil))
        (State s c sp pc' rs)
  | exec_Iatomic:
      forall s c sp pc rs op args res pc' v rs' lab
      (H : c!pc = Some(Iatomic op args res pc'))
      (ASME : atomic_statement_mem_event op rs##args v lab)
      (Ers' : rs' = (rs#res <- v))
      (HTv : Val.has_type v Tint),
        (State s c sp pc rs)
        (TEmem lab)
        (State s c sp pc' rs')
  | exec_Ifence:
      forall s c sp pc rs pc'
      (H : c!pc = Some(Ifence pc')),
        (State s c sp pc rs)
        (TEmem MEfence)
        (State s c sp pc' rs)
  | exec_function_internal_empty:
      forall s f args,
      f.(fn_stacksize) = ->
      rtl_step (Callstate s (Internal f) args)
        (State s
          (init_regs args f.(fn_params)))
  | exec_function_internal_nonempty:
      forall s f args stksize code epoint regs stk,
      stksize = f.(fn_stacksize) ->
      code = f.(fn_code) ->
      epoint = f.(fn_entrypoint) ->
      regs = init_regs args f.(fn_params) ->
      stksize <> ->
      rtl_step (Callstate s (Internal f) args)
         (TEmem (MEalloc stk f.(fn_stacksize) MObjStack))
         (State s code (Some stk) epoint regs)
  | exec_function_external_call:
      forall s ef args eargs lab,
      args = map val_of_eval eargs ->
      lab = TEext (Ecall ef.(ef_id) eargs ) ->
      rtl_step (Callstate s (External ef) args) lab
         (Blockedstate s ef.(ef_sig))
  | exec_function_external_return:
      forall s efsig typ eres res,
      typ = (match sig_res efsig with Some x => x | None => Tint end) ->
      res = val_of_eval eres ->
      Val.has_type res typ ->
      rtl_step (Blockedstate s efsig)
         (TEext (Ereturn typ eres))
         (Returnstate s res)
  | exec_return:
      forall res c sp pc rs s vres,
      rtl_step (Returnstate (Stackframe res c sp pc rs :: s) vres)
        TEtau (State s c sp pc (rs#res <- vres))
  | exec_return_exit:
      forall vres,
      rtl_step (Returnstate nil vres)
        TEexit (Returnstate nil vres).

Inductive rtl_trace : state -> list thread_event -> state -> Prop :=
  | rtl_trace_refl: forall s, rtl_trace s nil s
  | rtl_trace_step : forall st1 lab st2 t st3
    (ST: rtl_step st1 lab st2)
    (TR: rtl_trace st2 t st3),
    rtl_trace st1 (weakcons lab t) st3.

Lemma weakcons_app:
  forall l t1 t2,
    weakcons l t1 ++ t2 = weakcons l (t1 ++ t2).
  by intros; destruct l.

Lemma rtl_trace_step_one:
  forall st1 lab st2
    (ST: rtl_step st1 lab st2),
      rtl_trace st1 (weakcons lab nil) st2.
  by eapply rtl_trace_step, rtl_trace_refl.

Lemma rtl_trace_trans:
  forall st1 st2 st3 t1 t2 t
    (TR1: rtl_trace st1 t1 st2)
    (TR2: rtl_trace st2 t2 st3)
    (L: t = (t1 ++ t2)),
    rtl_trace st1 t st3.
  intros. subst.
  induction TR1; [done|].
  rewrite weakcons_app; eapply rtl_trace_step; eauto.

Lemma trace_step_right:
  forall s1 s2 s3 t1 e2 t,
  rtl_trace s1 t1 s2 ->
  rtl_step s2 e2 s3 ->
  t = t1 ++ (weakcons e2 nil) ->
  rtl_trace s1 t s3.
  intros. subst.
  eapply rtl_trace_trans. eassumption.
  eby eapply rtl_trace_step_one. done.

Inductive rtl_trace_plus: state -> list thread_event -> state -> Prop :=
 | plus_left: forall s1 t1 s2 t2 s3 t
     (ST: rtl_step s1 t1 s2)
     (TR: rtl_trace s2 t2 s3)
     (E : t = (weakcons t1 nil) ++ t2),
       rtl_trace_plus s1 t s3.

Lemma plus_right:
  forall s1 t s2 l s3 t'
    (TR: rtl_trace s1 t s2)
    (ST: rtl_step s2 l s3)
    (E : t' = t ++ (weakcons l nil)),
    rtl_trace_plus s1 t' s3.
  intros; subst.
  inv TR. econstructor. edone. vauto. by destruct l.
  econstructor. edone. eby eapply trace_step_right.
  by rewrite !weakcons_app.

Lemma step_one:
  forall s1 t s2
    (ST: rtl_step s1 t s2),
      rtl_trace s1 (weakcons t nil) s2.
  intros. eapply rtl_trace_step_one; eauto.

Lemma plus_one:
  forall s1 t s2
    (ST: rtl_step s1 t s2),
      rtl_trace_plus s1 (weakcons t nil) s2.
  intros. eapply plus_left. eauto. eapply rtl_trace_refl.
  unfold weakcons; destruct t; by simpl.

Lemma step_nonempty_weak:
 forall lab t,
  lab <> TEtau -> lab :: t = (weakcons lab t).
  intros. unfold weakcons; destruct lab; try done.

Definition rtl_init (p : pointer) (vs : list val) : option state :=
  match Genv.find_funct_ptr ge p with
   | Some (Internal f) =>
       if beq_nat (length vs) (length f.(fn_sig).(sig_args))
         then Some (Callstate nil (Internal f) (Val.conv_list vs f.(fn_sig).(sig_args)))
         else None
   | _ => None


Tactic Notation "rtl_step_cases" tactic(first) tactic(c) :=
    first; [
      c "exec_Inop" |
      c "exec_Iop" |
      c "exec_Iload" |
      c "exec_Istore" |
      c "exec_Icall" |
      c "exec_Icond_true" |
      c "exec_Icond_false" |
      c "exec_Ireturn" |
      c "exec_Ithread_create" |
      c "exec_Iatomic" |
      c "exec_Ifence" |
      c "exec_function_internal_empty" |
      c "exec_function_internal_nonempty" |
      c "exec_function_external_call" |
      c "exec_function_external_return" |
      c "exec_return" |
      c "exec_return_exit"].

Operations on RTL abstract syntax

Computation of the possible successors of an instruction. This is used in particular for dataflow analyses.

Definition successors_instr (i: instruction) : list node :=
  match i with
  | Inop s => s :: nil
  | Iop op args res s => s :: nil
  | Iload chunk addr args dst s => s :: nil
  | Istore chunk addr args src s => s :: nil
  | Icall sig ros args res s => s :: nil
  | Icond cond args ifso ifnot => ifso :: ifnot :: nil
  | Ireturn optarg => nil
  | Ithreadcreate _ _ s => s :: nil
  | Iatomic aop args res s => s :: nil
  | Ifence s => s :: nil

Definition successors (f: function) : PTree.t (list node) := (fun pc i => successors_instr i) f.(fn_code).

Transformation of a RTL function instruction by instruction. This applies a given transformation function to all instructions of a function and constructs a transformed function from that.

Section TRANSF.

Variable transf: node -> instruction -> instruction.

Definition transf_function (f: function) : function :=
    ( transf f.(fn_code))


Definition rtl_ge_init (p: program) (ge: genv) (m : Mem.mem) :=
  Genv.globalenv_initmem p ge low_mem_restr m.

TSO machine set up

Section RTL_TSO.

Ltac atomic_dtac :=
  match goal with
    | H : atomic_statement_mem_event ?A ?B ?C ?D |- _ => inv H

Lemma rtl_receptive :
  forall ge l l' s s',
    rtl_step ge s l s' ->
    te_samekind l' l ->
    exists s'', rtl_step ge s l' s''.
  intros g l l' s s' Step Te_Samekind.
  inversion Step; subst;
     destruct l'; try destruct ev;
     try destruct sp;
     simpl in *; clarify;
     try rewrite Te_Samekind;
     try (decompose [and] Te_Samekind; subst);
     try (match goal with [H: _ = _ /\ _ |- _] => destruct H end; subst);
     try (by eexists; solve [ eassumption | econstructor; try edone; auto ]);
     atomic_dtac; try done; destruct Te_Samekind as (-> & -> & -> & HTI);
     eexists; (eapply exec_Iatomic; [edone | | reflexivity | apply HTI, HTv]).
   eby rewrite <- H2; econstructor.
   eby rewrite <- H2; econstructor.
   eby rewrite <- H2; econstructor.
   eby rewrite <- H2; econstructor.

Ltac determinate_aux_tac :=
  repeat match goal with
    | H' : ?a = _, H'' : ?a = _ |- _ => rewrite H' in H''; clarify; determinate_aux_tac
    | H : map val_of_eval ?x = map val_of_eval ?y |- _ => rewrite (map_val_of_eval_eq H); done
    | H : atomic_statement_mem_event _ _ _ _,
      H' : atomic_statement_mem_event _ _ _ _ |- _ =>
      try (eby clarify'; eapply atomic_statement_determinate);
      rewrite (atomic_statement_determinate_eq H H') in *

Lemma rtl_determinate:
  forall ge s s' s'' l l',
    rtl_step ge s l s' ->
    rtl_step ge s l' s'' ->
    (te_samekind l l' /\ (l = l' -> s' = s'')).
  intros g s s' s'' l l' ST1 ST2.

  by destruct ST1; inv ST2; simpl; clarify; determinate_aux_tac;
     try destruct sp.

  intro; subst.
  by destruct ST1; inv ST2; clarify; determinate_aux_tac.

Require Import Classical.

Lemma rtl_progress_dec:
  forall ge s, (forall s' l', ~ rtl_step ge s l' s') \/
    (exists l', exists s', rtl_step ge s l' s').
  intros g s.
  set (P := exists l' : thread_event, exists s' : state, rtl_step g s l' s').
  by destruct (classic P) as [|N]; [|left; red; intros; case N]; vauto.

Definition rtl_sem : SEM :=
  mkSEM state genv program
  (@prog_main _ _) (@Genv.find_symbol _)
  rtl_step rtl_init rtl_progress_dec rtl_receptive rtl_determinate.