Department of Computer Science and Technology

Technical reports

An Introduction to CHERI

Robert N. M. Watson, Simon W. Moore, Peter Sewell, Peter G. Neumann

September 2019, 43 pages

This version of the report incorporates minor changes to the September 2019 original, which were released October 2019 and July 2020.

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

This work was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), under contract FA8750-10-C-0237 (“CTSRD”), with additional support from FA8750-11-C-0249 (“MRC2”), HR0011-18-C-0016 (“ECATS”), and FA8650-18-C-7809 (“CIFV”) as part of the DARPA CRASH, MRC, and SSITH research programs.

The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

We also acknowledge the EPSRC REMS Programme Grant (EP/K008528/1), the ERC ELVER Advanced Grant (789108), the Isaac Newton Trust, the UK Higher Education Innovation Fund (HEIF), Thales E-Security, Microsoft Research Cambridge, Arm Limited, Google, Google DeepMind, HP Enterprise, and the Gates Cambridge Trust.

DOI: 10.48456/tr-941


CHERI (Capability Hardware Enhanced RISC Instructions) extends conventional processor Instruction-Set Architectures (ISAs) with architectural capabilities to enable fine-grained memory protection and highly scalable software compartmentalization. CHERI’s hybrid capability-system approach allows architectural capabilities to be integrated cleanly with contemporary RISC architectures and microarchitectures, as well as with MMU-based C/C++-language software stacks.

CHERI’s capabilities are unforgeable tokens of authority, which can be used to implement both explicit pointers (those declared in the language) and implied pointers (those used by the runtime and generated code) in C and C++. When used for C/C++ memory protection, CHERI directly mitigates a broad range of known vulnerability types and exploit techniques. Support for more scalable software compartmentalization facilitates software mitigation techniques such as sandboxing, which also defend against future (currently unknown) vulnerability classes and exploit techniques.

We have developed, evaluated, and demonstrated this approach through hardware-software prototypes, including multiple CPU prototypes, and a full software stack. This stack includes an adapted version of the Clang/LLVM compiler suite with support for capability-based C/C++, and a full UNIX-style OS (CheriBSD, based on FreeBSD) implementing spatial, referential, and (currently for userspace) non-stack temporal memory safety. Formal modeling and verification allow us to make strong claims about the security properties of CHERI-enabled architectures.

This report is a high-level introduction to CHERI. The report describes our architectural approach, CHERI’s key microarchitectural implications, our approach to formal modeling and proof, the CHERI software model, our software-stack prototypes, further reading, and potential areas of future research.

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BibTeX record

  author =	 {Watson, Robert N. M. and Moore, Simon W. and Sewell, Peter
          	  and Neumann, Peter G.},
  title = 	 {{An Introduction to CHERI}},
  year = 	 2019,
  month = 	 sep,
  url = 	 {},
  institution =  {University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory},
  doi = 	 {10.48456/tr-941},
  number = 	 {UCAM-CL-TR-941}