Department of Computer Science and Technology

Technical reports

Modular fine-grained concurrency verification

Viktor Vafeiadis

July 2008, 148 pages

This technical report is based on a dissertation submitted July 2007 by the author for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to the University of Cambridge, Selwyn College.

DOI: 10.48456/tr-726


Traditionally, concurrent data structures are protected by a single mutual exclusion lock so that only one thread may access the data structure at any time. This coarse-grained approach makes it relatively easy to reason about correctness, but it severely limits parallelism. More advanced algorithms instead perform synchronisation at a finer grain. They employ sophisticated synchronisation schemes (both blocking and non-blocking) and are usually written in low-level languages such as C.

This dissertation addresses the formal verification of such algorithms. It proposes techniques that are modular (and hence scalable), easy for programmers to use, and yet powerful enough to verify complex algorithms. In doing so, it makes two theoretical and two practical contributions to reasoning about fine-grained concurrency.

First, building on rely/guarantee reasoning and separation logic, it develops a new logic, RGSep, that subsumes these two logics and enables simple, modular proofs of fine-grained concurrent algorithms that use complex dynamically allocated data structures and may explicitly deallocate memory. RGSep allows for ownership-based reasoning and ownership transfer between threads, while maintaining the expressiveness of binary relations to describe inter-thread interference.

Second, it describes techniques for proving linearisability, the standard correctness condition for fine-grained concurrent algorithms. The main proof technique is to introduce auxiliary single-assignment variables to capture the linearisation point and to inline the abstract effect of the program at that point as auxiliary code.

Third, it demonstrates this approach by proving linearisability of a collection of concurrent list and stack algorithms, as well as providing the first correctness proofs of the RDCSS and MCAS implementations of Harris et al.

Finally, it describes a prototype safety checker, SmallfootRG, for fine-grained concurrent programs that is based on RGSep. SmallfootRG proves simple safety properties for a number of list and stack algorithms and verifies the absence of memory leaks.

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BibTeX record

  author =	 {Vafeiadis, Viktor},
  title = 	 {{Modular fine-grained concurrency verification}},
  year = 	 2008,
  month = 	 jul,
  url = 	 {},
  institution =  {University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory},
  doi = 	 {10.48456/tr-726},
  number = 	 {UCAM-CL-TR-726}