Computer Laboratory


Reproducing Reality with a High-Dynamic-Range Multi-Focal Stereo Display

Fangcheng Zhong(1) Akshay Jindal(1) Özgür Yöntem(1) Param Hanji(1) Simon J. Watt(2) Rafał K. Mantiuk(1),

(1)University of Cambridge, (2)Bangor University

To be presented at SIGGRAPH Asia 2021, Technical Papers

We built a novel high-dynamic-range multi-focal stereo display with an end-to-end imaging and rendering system that can reproduce virtual 3D objects with high fidelity to the point that they can be confused with physical ones.
Try to guess which objects are real before proceeding to read our paper


With well-established methods for producing photo-realistic results, the next big challenge of graphics and display technologies is to achieve perceptual realism --- producing imagery indistinguishable from real-world 3D scenes. To deliver all necessary visual cues for perceptual realism, we built a High-Dynamic-Range Multi-Focal Stereo Display that achieves high resolution, accurate color, a wide dynamic range, and most depth cues, including binocular presentation and a range of focal depth. The display and associated imaging system have been designed to capture and reproduce a small near-eye three-dimensional object and to allow for a direct comparison between virtual and real scenes. To assess our reproduction of realism and demonstrate the capability of the display and imaging system, we conducted an experiment in which the participants were asked to discriminate between a virtual object and its physical counterpart. Our results indicate that the participants can only detect the discrepancy with a probability of 0.44. With such a level of perceptual realism, our display apparatus can facilitate a range of visual experiments that require the highest fidelity of reproduction while allowing for the full control of the displayed stimuli.

Short video

Long video



Fangcheng Zhong, Akshay Jindal, Ali Özgür Yöntem, Param Hanji, Simon J. Watt, and Rafał K. Mantiuk. 2021. Reproducing Reality with a High-Dynamic-Range Multi-Focal Stereo Display. ACM Trans. Graph. 40, 6, Article 241 (December 2021), 14 pages.


Please contact Fangcheng Zhong or Rafał K. Mantiuk with any questions regarding the project.

Image gallery

Images taken at different stages of the construction of the display.


This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant agreement No 725253 (EyeCode) and under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 765911 (RealVision).