Course pages 2013–14

# Experimental Methods

## An introduction to data analysis using R

R is a free suite of software for statistical computing that runs on Windows, Unix and MacOS.

Download a copy of R from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

See Peter Dalgaard's book for details of R, or type

?routine

for on-line help about a particular function.

## Preliminaries

Examples of different techniques will be illustrated with some data
from Chapter 4 of Lazar (Table 4.11).
It could be entered in a text file, `lazar.txt`, laid out with
tabs as follows:

std prd spc

245 246 178

236 213 289

321 265 222

212 189 189

267 201 245

334 197 311

287 289 267

259 224 197

This would be read into R as follows:

times <- read.table ("lazar.txt", header=T)

attach (times)

giving three vectors `std`, `prd` and `spc`.

**Warning:** The same set of data will be analysed here as if it has been collected in several different ways.
Any real data could only be analysed in ways that were appropriate for the design of the experiment.

## Visual inspection

Inspect the data by grouping it into bins and plotting the resulting histogram:

bins <- seq (175, 350, 25)

hist (std, breaks=bins)

## Check for normality

Most of the statistical tests rely on the sample data, or at least the residuals, having a normal distribution. This can be checked visually by superimposing a continuous distribution curve over the histogram. The histograms should be scaled as probabilities first:

hist (std, breaks=bins, prob=T)

lines (density (std))

Alternatively, compare quantiles in the sample data with quantiles in a normal distribution with the same mean and standard deviation, and then superimposing a line at 45°:

qqnorm (std)

qqline (std)

## Investigating relationships

Each participant's number of years' experience using computers from Lazar Table 4.20 could be stored in a vector, and then the correlation with the standard data entry time investigated as follows:

exp <- c (12, 6, 3, 19, 16, 5, 8, 11)

plot (exp, std)

m <- lm (std~exp)

coef (m)

abline (m)

summary (m)

Observe that the slope of the least-squares line (the *regression coefficient*) is negative,
and that the squared Pearson correlation coefficient *R*^{2} is 0.5222,
giving a `p-value` of 0.04286
which is significant at the 95% level.

The actual residuals are available as:

resid(m)

and it would be worth inspecting their distribution.

## Box plots

The distributions can be compared using box plots:

alltimes <- c (std, prd, spc)

method <- gl (3, 8, 24, labels = names(times))

plot (method, alltimes)

The horizontal bars in the middle of the boxes indicate the median value, and the boxes themselves approximately cover the central two quartiles.

## Mean and standard deviation

The means and standard deviations of the three series can be calculated:

tapply (alltimes, method, mean)

tapply (alltimes, method, sd)

*t* test

The graphs and box plots suggest that the task completion time for
predictive entry is less than for standard entry.
This can be checked with a *t* test:

t.test (std, prd, alternative="greater")

Observe that `t` is 2.1688 and `p-value` is 0.02414.
This would be reported as:

An independent-samples

ttest showed a significant effect of the predictive software against the standard input on the task completion time (t(13.7) = 2.17,p< 0.05).

If the data had been collected in a paired-samples experiment, the analysis would be:

t.test (std, prd, alternative="greater", paired=T)

In this case, `t` is 2.6313 and `p-value` is
0.01693.
This would be reported as:

A paired-samples

ttest showed a significant effect of the predictive software against the standard input on the task completion time (t(7) = 2.60,p< 0.05).

The graphs also suggest that there is little difference between
predictive and speech-based entry.
A *t* test shows that `t` is -0.4325 and `p-value`
is 0.3363.
This would be reported as:

An independent-samples

ttest showed no significant difference between the speech and predictive software on the task completion time (t(12.8) = 0.432,p> 0.05).

## One-way ANOVA

Analysis of variance compares the means of two or more groups.
(If there are only two groups, this is the same as a *t* test.)

a <- aov (alltimes~method)

summary (a)

Observe that `F value` is 2.1738 and `Pr(>F)` is
0.1387.
This would be reported as:

A one-way ANOVA test showed no significant effect of the three input methods on the task completion time (

F(2,21) = 2.17,p> 0.05).

## Repeated measures ANOVA

The one-way ANOVA assumes a between-group design which involves recruiting 24 participants. A within-group design is more economical, inviting each participant to undertake all the tasks (as shown in Table 4.11 of Lazar). This requires a further factor in the analysis:

participant <- gl (8, 1, 24)

a <- aov(alltimes~(method+Error(participant/method)))

summary (a)

`Pr(>F)` is 0.0868, outside the 95% confidence level.
This would be reported as:

A repeated measures ANOVA test showed no significant effect of the task on completion time (

F(2,14) = 2.93,p> 0.05).

## Factorial ANOVA

Suppose that trials of the three input methods were also performed
for a second task, giving the data in Table 4.9 of Lazar. `alltimes` now contains 48 values
and the corresponding factors and analysis are:

method <- gl (3, 16, 48, labels = names (times))

task <- gl (2, 8, 48, labels = c ("Transcription", "Composition"))

a <- aov (alltimes~task*method)

summary (a)

Observe that the additional data reveals a difference between the different methods but not between the tasks. This would be reported as:

A factorial ANOVA test showed no significant effect of the task on completion time (

F(1,42) = 1.41,p> 0.05). There was a significant effect of input method on the completion time (F(2,42) = 4.51,p< 0.05).

The same data could be analysed as a repeated measures experiment (as shown in Table 4.14 of Lazar) by introducing a further factor:

participant <- gl (8, 1, 48)

a <- aov(alltimes~(task*method+Error(participant/(task*method))))

summary (a)

The task type has a significant effect on the time taken to complete the task, but there is no significant difference between the input methods and no interaction effects between the task and input method. This would be reported as:

A repeated measures ANOVA test showed a significant effect of the task on completion time (

F(1,7) = 14.2,p< 0.01). There was no significant effect of input method on the completion time (F(2,14) = 2.93,p> 0.05), and there was no interaction effect between the independent variables (F(2,14) = 0.760, n.s.).

## Mixed design ANOVA

A within-group design requires each participant to undertake all the tasks, which may be tiring. A mixed design (split-plot) has some particpants undertaking only some of the tasks (as shown in Table 4.17 of Lazar). This requries slighlty different factors in the analysis:

participant <- gl (16, 1, 48)

a <- aov(alltimes~(task*method+Error(participant/(task*method))))

summary (a)

There is no significant difference between the participants who undertook the two tasks, but there is a significant difference between the three input methods. There are no interaction effects between the task and input method. This would be reported as:

A split-plot ANOVA test showed a significant effect of the input method on the completion time (

F(2,28) = 5.70,p< 0.01). There was no significant difference between the participants undertaking the two tasks (F(1,14) = 0.995, n.s.) and there was no interaction effect between the independent variables (F(2,28) = 0.0373,p> 0.1).

## Further examples

See the Personality Project web pages for further examples.

Google has published a style guide for programming in R. The is also an R client for the Google Prediction API.

The formulae for models in R are described in *Symbolic description of factorial models for analysis of variance* by GN Wilkinson and CE Rogers (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 22(3), 1973, pp. 392-399).