# Digital Electronics

**Principal lecturer:** Dr Ian Wassell

**Taken by:** Part IA CST

**Term:** Michaelmas

**Hours:** 12 (12 lectures+ 4 practical classes)

**Format:** In-person lectures

**Suggested hours of supervisions:** 3

**This course is a prerequisite for:** ECAD and Architecture Practical Classes, Introduction to Computer Architecture, Operating Systems

**Past exam questions, Moodle, timetable**

## Aims

The aims of this course are to present the principles of combinational and sequential digital logic design and optimisation at a gate level. The use of n and p channel MOSFETs for building logic gates is also introduced.

## Topics

**Introduction.**Semiconductors to computers. Logic variables. Examples of simple logic. Logic gates. Boolean algebra. De Morgan’s theorem.**Logic minimisation.**Truth tables and normal forms. Karnaugh maps. Quine-McCluskey method.**Binary adders.**Half adder, full adder, ripple carry adder, fast carry generation.**Combinational logic design: further considerations.**Multilevel logic. Gate propagation delay. An introduction to timing diagrams. Hazards and hazard elimination. Other ways to implement combinational logic.**Introduction to practical classes.**Prototyping box. Breadboard and Dual in line (DIL) packages. Wiring.**Sequential logic.**Memory elements. RS latch. Transparent D latch. Master-slave D flip-flop. T and JK flip-flops. Setup and hold times.**Sequential logic.**Counters: Ripple and synchronous. Shift registers. System timing - setup time constraint, clock skew, metastability.**Synchronous State Machines.**Moore and Mealy finite state machines (FSMs). Reset and self starting. State transition diagrams. Elimination of redundant states - row matching and state equivalence/implication table.**Further state machines.**State assignment: sequential, sliding, shift register, one hot. Implementation of FSMs.**Introduction to microprocessors.**Microarchitecture, fetch, register access, memory access, branching, execution time.**Electronics, Devices and Circuits.**Current and voltage, conductors/insulators/semiconductors, resistance, basic circuit theory, the potential divider. Solving non-linear circuits. P-N junction (forward and reverse bias), N and p channel MOSFETs (operation and characteristics) and n-MOSFET logic, e.g., n-MOSFET inverter. Power consumption and switching time problems problems in n-MOSFET logic. CMOS logic (NOT, NAND and NOR gates), logic families, noise margin.

## Objectives

At the end of the course students should

- understand the relationships between combination logic and boolean algebra, and between sequential logic and finite state machines;
- be able to design and minimise combinational logic;
- appreciate tradeoffs in complexity and speed of combinational designs;
- understand how state can be stored in a digital logic circuit;
- know how to design a simple finite state machine from a specification and be able to implement this in gates and edge triggered flip-flops;
- understand how to use MOSFETs to build digital logic circuits.

## Recommended reading

* Harris, D.M. and Harris, S.L. (2013). *Digital design and
computer architecture*. Morgan Kaufmann (2nd ed.). The first
edition is still relevant.

Katz, R.H. (2004). *Contemporary logic design*.
Benjamin/Cummings. The 1994 edition is more than sufficient.

Hayes, J.P. (1993). *Introduction to digital logic
design*. Addison-Wesley.

Books for reference:

Horowitz, P. and Hill, W. (1989). *The art of
electronics*. Cambridge University Press (2nd ed.) (more
analog).

Weste, N.H.E. and Harris, D. (2005). *CMOS VLSI Design - a
circuits and systems perspective*. Addison-Wesley (3rd
ed.).

Mead, C. and Conway, L. (1980). *Introduction to VLSI
systems*. Addison-Wesley.

Crowe, J. and Hayes-Gill, B. (1998). *Introduction to digital
electronics*. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Gibson, J.R. (1992). *Electronic logic circuits*.
Butterworth-Heinemann.