Theory Vector_Spaces

(*  Title:      HOL/Vector_Spaces.thy
    Author:     Amine Chaieb, University of Cambridge
    Author:     Jose Divasón <jose.divasonm at unirioja.es>
    Author:     Jesús Aransay <jesus-maria.aransay at unirioja.es>
    Author:     Johannes Hölzl, VU Amsterdam
    Author:     Fabian Immler, TUM
*)

section Vector Spaces

theory Vector_Spaces
  imports Modules
begin

lemma isomorphism_expand:
  "f  g = id  g  f = id  (x. f (g x) = x)  (x. g (f x) = x)"
  by (simp add: fun_eq_iff o_def id_def)

lemma left_right_inverse_eq:
  assumes fg: "f  g = id"
    and gh: "g  h = id"
  shows "f = h"
proof -
  have "f = f  (g  h)"
    unfolding gh by simp
  also have " = (f  g)  h"
    by (simp add: o_assoc)
  finally show "f = h"
    unfolding fg by simp
qed

lemma ordLeq3_finite_infinite:
  assumes A: "finite A" and B: "infinite B" shows "ordLeq3 (card_of A) (card_of B)"
proof -
  have ordLeq3 (card_of A) (card_of B)  ordLeq3 (card_of B) (card_of A)
    by (intro ordLeq_total card_of_Well_order)
  moreover have "¬ ordLeq3 (card_of B) (card_of A)"
    using B A card_of_ordLeq_finite[of B A] by auto
  ultimately show ?thesis by auto
qed

locale vector_space =
  fixes scale :: "'a::field  'b::ab_group_add  'b" (infixr "*s" 75)
  assumes vector_space_assms:― ‹re-stating the assumptions of module› instead of extending module›
   allows us to rewrite in the sublocale.
    "a *s (x + y) = a *s x + a *s y"
    "(a + b) *s x = a *s x + b *s x"
    "a *s (b *s x) = (a * b) *s x"
    "1 *s x = x"

lemma module_iff_vector_space: "module s  vector_space s"
  unfolding module_def vector_space_def ..

locale linear = vs1: vector_space s1 + vs2: vector_space s2 + module_hom s1 s2 f
  for s1 :: "'a::field  'b::ab_group_add  'b" (infixr "*a" 75)
  and s2 :: "'a::field  'c::ab_group_add  'c" (infixr "*b" 75)
  and f :: "'b  'c"

lemma module_hom_iff_linear: "module_hom s1 s2 f  linear s1 s2 f"
  unfolding module_hom_def linear_def module_iff_vector_space by auto
lemmas module_hom_eq_linear = module_hom_iff_linear[abs_def, THEN meta_eq_to_obj_eq]
lemmas linear_iff_module_hom = module_hom_iff_linear[symmetric]
lemmas linear_module_homI = module_hom_iff_linear[THEN iffD1]
  and module_hom_linearI = module_hom_iff_linear[THEN iffD2]

context vector_space begin

sublocale module scale rewrites "module_hom = linear"
  by unfold_locales (fact vector_space_assms module_hom_eq_linear)+

lemmas― ‹from module›
      linear_id = module_hom_id
  and linear_ident = module_hom_ident
  and linear_scale_self = module_hom_scale_self
  and linear_scale_left = module_hom_scale_left
  and linear_uminus = module_hom_uminus

lemma linear_imp_scale:
  fixes D::"'a  'b"
  assumes "linear (*) scale D"
  obtains d where "D = (λx. scale x d)"
proof -
  interpret linear "(*)" scale D by fact
  show ?thesis
    by (metis mult.commute mult.left_neutral scale that)
qed

lemma scale_eq_0_iff [simp]: "scale a x = 0  a = 0  x = 0"
  by (metis scale_left_commute right_inverse scale_one scale_scale scale_zero_left)

lemma scale_left_imp_eq:
  assumes nonzero: "a  0"
    and scale: "scale a x = scale a y"
  shows "x = y"
proof -
  from scale have "scale a (x - y) = 0"
     by (simp add: scale_right_diff_distrib)
  with nonzero have "x - y = 0" by simp
  then show "x = y" by (simp only: right_minus_eq)
qed

lemma scale_right_imp_eq:
  assumes nonzero: "x  0"
    and scale: "scale a x = scale b x"
  shows "a = b"
proof -
  from scale have "scale (a - b) x = 0"
     by (simp add: scale_left_diff_distrib)
  with nonzero have "a - b = 0" by simp
  then show "a = b" by (simp only: right_minus_eq)
qed

lemma scale_cancel_left [simp]: "scale a x = scale a y  x = y  a = 0"
  by (auto intro: scale_left_imp_eq)

lemma scale_cancel_right [simp]: "scale a x = scale b x  a = b  x = 0"
  by (auto intro: scale_right_imp_eq)

lemma injective_scale: "c  0  inj (λx. scale c x)"
  by (simp add: inj_on_def)

lemma dependent_def: "dependent P  (a  P. a  span (P - {a}))"
  unfolding dependent_explicit
proof safe
  fix a assume aP: "a  P" and "a  span (P - {a})"
  then obtain a S u
    where aP: "a  P" and fS: "finite S" and SP: "S  P" "a  S" and ua: "(vS. u v *s v) = a"
    unfolding span_explicit by blast
  let ?S = "insert a S"
  let ?u = "λy. if y = a then - 1 else u y"
  from fS SP have "(v?S. ?u v *s v) = 0"
    by (simp add: if_distrib[of "λr. r *s a" for a] sum.If_cases field_simps Diff_eq[symmetric] ua)
  moreover have "finite ?S" "?S  P" "a  ?S" "?u a  0"
    using fS SP aP by auto
  ultimately show "t u. finite t  t  P  (vt. u v *s v) = 0  (vt. u v  0)" by fast
next
  fix S u v
  assume fS: "finite S" and SP: "S  P" and vS: "v  S"
   and uv: "u v  0" and u: "(vS. u v *s v) = 0"
  let ?a = v
  let ?S = "S - {v}"
  let ?u = "λi. (- u i) / u v"
  have th0: "?a  P" "finite ?S" "?S  P"
    using fS SP vS by auto
  have "(v?S. ?u v *s v) = (vS. (- (inverse (u ?a))) *s (u v *s v)) - ?u v *s v"
    using fS vS uv by (simp add: sum_diff1 field_simps)
  also have " = ?a"
    unfolding scale_sum_right[symmetric] u using uv by simp
  finally have "(v?S. ?u v *s v) = ?a" .
  with th0 show "a  P. a  span (P - {a})"
    unfolding span_explicit by (auto intro!: bexI[where x="?a"] exI[where x="?S"] exI[where x="?u"])
qed

lemma dependent_single[simp]: "dependent {x}  x = 0"
  unfolding dependent_def by auto

lemma in_span_insert:
  assumes a: "a  span (insert b S)"
    and na: "a  span S"
  shows "b  span (insert a S)"
proof -
  from span_breakdown[of b "insert b S" a, OF insertI1 a]
  obtain k where k: "a - k *s b  span (S - {b})" by auto
  have "k  0"
  proof
    assume "k = 0"
    with k span_mono[of "S - {b}" S] have "a  span S" by auto
    with na show False by blast  
  qed
  then have eq: "b = (1/k) *s a - (1/k) *s (a - k *s b)"
    by (simp add: algebra_simps)

  from k have "(1/k) *s (a - k *s b)  span (S - {b})"
    by (rule span_scale)
  also have "...  span (insert a S)"
    by (rule span_mono) auto
  finally show ?thesis
    using k by (subst eq) (blast intro: span_diff span_scale span_base)
qed

lemma dependent_insertD: assumes a: "a  span S" and S: "dependent (insert a S)" shows "dependent S"
proof -
  have "a  S" using a by (auto dest: span_base)
  obtain b where b: "b = a  b  S" "b  span (insert a S - {b})"
    using S unfolding dependent_def by blast
  have "b  a" "b  S"
    using b a  S a by auto
  with b have *: "b  span (insert a (S - {b}))"
    by (auto simp: insert_Diff_if)
  show "dependent S"
  proof cases
    assume "b  span (S - {b})" with b  S show ?thesis
      by (auto simp add: dependent_def)
  next
    assume "b  span (S - {b})"
    with * have "a  span (insert b (S - {b}))" by (rule in_span_insert)
    with a show ?thesis
      using b  S by (auto simp: insert_absorb)
  qed
qed

lemma independent_insertI: "a  span S  independent S  independent (insert a S)"
  by (auto dest: dependent_insertD)

lemma independent_insert:
  "independent (insert a S)  (if a  S then independent S else independent S  a  span S)"
proof -
  have "a  S  a  span S  dependent (insert a S)"
    by (auto simp: dependent_def)
  then show ?thesis
    by (auto intro: dependent_mono simp: independent_insertI)
qed

lemma maximal_independent_subset_extend:
  assumes "S  V" "independent S"
  obtains B where "S  B" "B  V" "independent B" "V  span B"
proof -
  let ?C = "{B. S  B  independent B  B  V}"
  have "M?C. X?C. M  X  X = M"
  proof (rule subset_Zorn)
    fix C :: "'b set set" assume "subset.chain ?C C"
    then have C: "c. c  C  c  V" "c. c  C  S  c" "c. c  C  independent c"
      "c d. c  C  d  C  c  d  d  c"
      unfolding subset.chain_def by blast+

    show "U?C. XC. X  U"
    proof cases
      assume "C = {}" with assms show ?thesis
        by (auto intro!: exI[of _ S])
    next
      assume "C  {}"
      with C(2) have "S  C"
        by auto
      moreover have "independent (C)"
        by (intro independent_Union_directed C)
      moreover have "C  V"
        using C by auto
      ultimately show ?thesis
        by auto
    qed
  qed
  then obtain B where B: "independent B" "B  V" "S  B"
    and max: "S. independent S  S  V  B  S  S = B"
    by auto
  moreover
  { assume "¬ V  span B"
    then obtain v where "v  V" "v  span B"
      by auto
    with B have "independent (insert v B)" by (auto intro: dependent_insertD)
    from max[OF this] v  V B  V
    have "v  B"
      by auto
    with v  span B have False
      by (auto intro: span_base) }
  ultimately show ?thesis
    by (meson that)
qed

lemma maximal_independent_subset:
  obtains B where "B  V" "independent B" "V  span B"
  by (metis maximal_independent_subset_extend[of "{}"] empty_subsetI independent_empty)

text Extends a basis from B to a basis of the entire space.
definition extend_basis :: "'b set  'b set"
  where "extend_basis B = (SOME B'. B  B'  independent B'  span B' = UNIV)"

lemma
  assumes B: "independent B"
  shows extend_basis_superset: "B  extend_basis B"
    and independent_extend_basis: "independent (extend_basis B)"
    and span_extend_basis[simp]: "span (extend_basis B) = UNIV"
proof -
  define p where "p B'  B  B'  independent B'  span B' = UNIV" for B'
  obtain B' where "p B'"
    using maximal_independent_subset_extend[OF subset_UNIV B]
    by (metis top.extremum_uniqueI p_def)
  then have "p (extend_basis B)"
    unfolding extend_basis_def p_def[symmetric] by (rule someI)
  then show "B  extend_basis B" "independent (extend_basis B)" "span (extend_basis B) = UNIV"
    by (auto simp: p_def)
qed

lemma in_span_delete:
  assumes a: "a  span S" and na: "a  span (S - {b})"
  shows "b  span (insert a (S - {b}))"
  by (metis Diff_empty Diff_insert0 a in_span_insert insert_Diff na)

lemma span_redundant: "x  span S  span (insert x S) = span S"
  unfolding span_def by (rule hull_redundant)

lemma span_trans: "x  span S  y  span (insert x S)  y  span S"
  by (simp only: span_redundant)

lemma span_insert_0[simp]: "span (insert 0 S) = span S"
  by (metis span_zero span_redundant)

lemma span_delete_0 [simp]: "span(S - {0}) = span S"
proof
  show "span (S - {0})  span S"
    by (blast intro!: span_mono)
next
  have "span S  span(insert 0 (S - {0}))"
    by (blast intro!: span_mono)
  also have "...  span(S - {0})"
    using span_insert_0 by blast
  finally show "span S  span (S - {0})" .
qed

lemma span_image_scale:
  assumes "finite S" and nz: "x. x  S  c x  0"
    shows "span ((λx. c x *s x) ` S) = span S"
using assms
proof (induction S arbitrary: c)
  case (empty c) show ?case by simp
next
  case (insert x F c)
  show ?case
  proof (intro set_eqI iffI)
    fix y
      assume "y  span ((λx. c x *s x) ` insert x F)"
      then show "y  span (insert x F)"
        using insert by (force simp: span_breakdown_eq)
  next
    fix y
      assume "y  span (insert x F)"
      then show "y  span ((λx. c x *s x) ` insert x F)"
        using insert
        apply (clarsimp simp: span_breakdown_eq)
        apply (rule_tac x="k / c x" in exI)
        by simp
  qed
qed

lemma exchange_lemma:
  assumes f: "finite T"
    and i: "independent S"
    and sp: "S  span T"
  shows "t'. card t' = card T  finite t'  S  t'  t'  S  T  S  span t'"
  using f i sp
proof (induct "card (T - S)" arbitrary: S T rule: less_induct)
  case less
  note ft = finite T and S = independent S and sp = S  span T
  let ?P = "λt'. card t' = card T  finite t'  S  t'  t'  S  T  S  span t'"
  show ?case
  proof (cases "S  T  T  S")
    case True
    then show ?thesis
    proof
      assume "S  T" then show ?thesis
        by (metis ft Un_commute sp sup_ge1)
    next
      assume "T  S" then show ?thesis
        by (metis Un_absorb sp spanning_subset_independent[OF _ S sp] ft)
    qed
  next
    case False
    then have st: "¬ S  T" "¬ T  S"
      by auto
    from st(2) obtain b where b: "b  T" "b  S"
      by blast
    from b have "T - {b} - S  T - S"
      by blast
    then have cardlt: "card (T - {b} - S) < card (T - S)"
      using ft by (auto intro: psubset_card_mono)
    from b ft have ct0: "card T  0"
      by auto
    show ?thesis
    proof (cases "S  span (T - {b})")
      case True
      from ft have ftb: "finite (T - {b})"
        by auto
      from less(1)[OF cardlt ftb S True]
      obtain U where U: "card U = card (T - {b})" "S  U" "U  S  (T - {b})" "S  span U"
        and fu: "finite U" by blast
      let ?w = "insert b U"
      have th0: "S  insert b U"
        using U by blast
      have th1: "insert b U  S  T"
        using U b by blast
      have bu: "b  U"
        using b U by blast
      from U(1) ft b have "card U = (card T - 1)"
        by auto
      then have th2: "card (insert b U) = card T"
        using card_insert_disjoint[OF fu bu] ct0 by auto
      from U(4) have "S  span U" .
      also have "  span (insert b U)"
        by (rule span_mono) blast
      finally have th3: "S  span (insert b U)" .
      from th0 th1 th2 th3 fu have th: "?P ?w"
        by blast
      from th show ?thesis by blast
    next
      case False
      then obtain a where a: "a  S" "a  span (T - {b})"
        by blast
      have ab: "a  b"
        using a b by blast
      have at: "a  T"
        using a ab span_base[of a "T- {b}"] by auto
      have mlt: "card ((insert a (T - {b})) - S) < card (T - S)"
        using cardlt ft a b by auto
      have ft': "finite (insert a (T - {b}))"
        using ft by auto
      have sp': "S  span (insert a (T - {b}))"
      proof
        fix x
        assume xs: "x  S"
        have T: "T  insert b (insert a (T - {b}))"
          using b by auto
        have bs: "b  span (insert a (T - {b}))"
          by (rule in_span_delete) (use a sp in auto)
        from xs sp have "x  span T"
          by blast
        with span_mono[OF T] have x: "x  span (insert b (insert a (T - {b})))" ..
        from span_trans[OF bs x] show "x  span (insert a (T - {b}))" .
      qed
      from less(1)[OF mlt ft' S sp'] obtain U where U:
        "card U = card (insert a (T - {b}))"
        "finite U" "S  U" "U  S  insert a (T - {b})"
        "S  span U" by blast
      from U a b ft at ct0 have "?P U"
        by auto
      then show ?thesis by blast
    qed
  qed
qed

lemma independent_span_bound:
  assumes f: "finite T"
    and i: "independent S"
    and sp: "S  span T"
  shows "finite S  card S  card T"
  by (metis exchange_lemma[OF f i sp] finite_subset card_mono)

lemma independent_explicit_finite_subsets:
  "independent A  (S  A. finite S  (u. (vS. u v *s v) = 0  (vS. u v = 0)))"
  unfolding dependent_explicit [of A] by (simp add: disj_not2)

lemma independent_if_scalars_zero:
  assumes fin_A: "finite A"
  and sum: "f x. (xA. f x *s x) = 0  x  A  f x = 0"
  shows "independent A"
proof (unfold independent_explicit_finite_subsets, clarify)
  fix S v and u :: "'b  'a"
  assume S: "S  A" and v: "v  S"
  let ?g = "λx. if x  S then u x else 0"
  have "(vA. ?g v *s v) = (vS. u v *s v)"
    using S fin_A by (auto intro!: sum.mono_neutral_cong_right)
  also assume "(vS. u v *s v) = 0"
  finally have "?g v = 0" using v S sum by force
  thus "u v = 0"  unfolding if_P[OF v] .
qed

lemma bij_if_span_eq_span_bases:
  assumes B: "independent B" and C: "independent C"
    and eq: "span B = span C"
  shows "f. bij_betw f B C"
proof cases
  assume "finite B  finite C"
  then have "finite B  finite C  card C = card B"
    using independent_span_bound[of B C] independent_span_bound[of C B] assms
      span_superset[of B] span_superset[of C]
    by auto
  then show ?thesis
    by (auto intro!: finite_same_card_bij)
next
  assume "¬ (finite B  finite C)"
  then have "infinite B" "infinite C" by auto
  { fix B C assume  B: "independent B" and C: "independent C" and "infinite B" "infinite C" and eq: "span B = span C"
    let ?R = "representation B" and ?R' = "representation C" let ?U = "λc. {v. ?R c v  0}"
    have in_span_C [simp, intro]: b  B  b  span C for b unfolding eq[symmetric] by (rule span_base) 
    have in_span_B [simp, intro]: c  C  c  span B for c unfolding eq by (rule span_base) 
    have B  (cC. ?U c)
    proof
      fix b assume b  B
      have b  span C
        using b  B unfolding eq[symmetric] by (rule span_base)
      have (v | ?R' b v  0. w | ?R v w  0. (?R' b v * ?R v w) *s w) =
           (v | ?R' b v  0. ?R' b v *s (w | ?R v w  0. ?R v w *s w))
        by (simp add: scale_sum_right)
      also have  = (v | ?R' b v  0. ?R' b v *s v)
        by (auto simp: sum_nonzero_representation_eq B eq span_base representation_ne_zero)
      also have  = b
        by (rule sum_nonzero_representation_eq[OF C b  span C])
      finally have "?R b b = ?R (v | ?R' b v  0. w | ?R v w  0. (?R' b v * ?R v w) *s w) b"
        by simp
      also have "... = (i{v. ?R' b v  0}. ?R (w | ?R i w  0. (?R' b i * ?R i w) *s w) b)"
        by (subst representation_sum[OF B])  (auto intro: span_sum span_scale span_base representation_ne_zero)
      also have "... = (i{v. ?R' b v  0}.
           j  {w. ?R i w  0}. ?R ((?R' b i * ?R i j ) *s  j ) b)"
        by (subst representation_sum[OF B]) (auto simp add: span_sum span_scale span_base representation_ne_zero)
      also have  = (v | ?R' b v  0. w | ?R v w  0. ?R' b v * ?R v w * ?R w b)
        using B b  B by (simp add: representation_scale[OF B] span_base representation_ne_zero)
      finally have "(v | ?R' b v  0. w | ?R v w  0. ?R' b v * ?R v w * ?R w b)  0"
        using representation_basis[OF B b  B] by auto
      then obtain v w where bv: "?R' b v  0" and vw: "?R v w  0" and "?R' b v * ?R v w * ?R w b  0"
        by (blast elim: sum.not_neutral_contains_not_neutral)
      with representation_basis[OF B, of w] vw[THEN representation_ne_zero]
      have ?R' b v  0 ?R v b  0 by (auto split: if_splits)
      then show b  (cC. ?U c)
        by (auto dest: representation_ne_zero)
    qed
    then have B_eq: B = (cC. ?U c)
      by (auto intro: span_base representation_ne_zero eq)
    have "ordLeq3 (card_of B) (card_of C)"
    proof (subst B_eq, rule card_of_UNION_ordLeq_infinite[OF infinite C])
      show "ordLeq3 (card_of C) (card_of C)"
        by (intro ordLeq_refl card_of_Card_order)
      show "cC. ordLeq3 (card_of {v. ?R c v  0}) (card_of C)"
        by (intro ballI ordLeq3_finite_infinite infinite C finite_representation)
    qed }
  from this[of B C] this[of C B] B C eq infinite C infinite B
  show ?thesis by (auto simp add: ordIso_iff_ordLeq card_of_ordIso)
qed

definition dim :: "'b set  nat"
  where "dim V = (if b. independent b  span b = span V then
    card (SOME b. independent b  span b = span V) else 0)"

lemma dim_eq_card:
  assumes BV: "span B = span V" and B: "independent B"
  shows "dim V = card B"
proof -
  define p where "p b  independent b  span b = span V" for b
  have "p (SOME B. p B)"
    using assms by (intro someI[of p B]) (auto simp: p_def)
  then have "f. bij_betw f B (SOME B. p B)"
    by (subst (asm) p_def, intro bij_if_span_eq_span_bases[OF B]) (simp_all add: BV)
  then have "card B = card (SOME B. p B)"
    by (auto intro: bij_betw_same_card)
  then show ?thesis
    using BV B
    by (auto simp add: dim_def p_def)
qed

lemma basis_card_eq_dim: "B  V  V  span B  independent B  card B = dim V"
  using dim_eq_card[of B V] span_mono[of B V] span_minimal[OF _ subspace_span, of V B] by auto

lemma basis_exists:
  obtains B where "B  V" "independent B" "V  span B" "card B = dim V"
  by (meson basis_card_eq_dim empty_subsetI independent_empty maximal_independent_subset_extend)

lemma dim_eq_card_independent: "independent B  dim B = card B"
  by (rule dim_eq_card[OF refl])

lemma dim_span[simp]: "dim (span S) = dim S"
  by (auto simp add: dim_def span_span)

lemma dim_span_eq_card_independent: "independent B  dim (span B) = card B"
  by (simp add: dim_eq_card)

lemma dim_le_card: assumes "V  span W" "finite W" shows "dim V  card W"
proof -
  obtain A where "independent A" "A  V" "V  span A"
    using maximal_independent_subset[of V] by force
  with assms independent_span_bound[of W A] basis_card_eq_dim[of A V]
  show ?thesis by auto
qed

lemma span_eq_dim: "span S = span T  dim S = dim T"
  by (metis dim_span)

corollary dim_le_card':
  "finite s  dim s  card s"
  by (metis basis_exists card_mono)

lemma span_card_ge_dim:
  "B  V  V  span B  finite B  dim V  card B"
  by (simp add: dim_le_card)

lemma dim_unique:
  "B  V  V  span B  independent B  card B = n  dim V = n"
  by (metis basis_card_eq_dim)

lemma subspace_sums: "subspace S; subspace T  subspace {x + y|x y. x  S  y  T}"
  apply (simp add: subspace_def)
  apply (intro conjI impI allI; clarsimp simp: algebra_simps)
  using add.left_neutral apply blast
   apply (metis add.assoc)
  using scale_right_distrib by blast

end

lemma linear_iff: "linear s1 s2 f 
  (vector_space s1  vector_space s2  (x y. f (x + y) = f x + f y)  (c x. f (s1 c x) = s2 c (f x)))"
  unfolding linear_def module_hom_iff vector_space_def module_def by auto

context begin
qualified lemma linear_compose: "linear s1 s2 f  linear s2 s3 g  linear s1 s3 (g o f)"
  unfolding module_hom_iff_linear[symmetric]
  by (rule module_hom_compose)
end

locale vector_space_pair = vs1: vector_space s1 + vs2: vector_space s2
  for s1 :: "'a::field  'b::ab_group_add  'b" (infixr "*a" 75)
  and s2 :: "'a::field  'c::ab_group_add  'c" (infixr "*b" 75)
begin

context fixes f assumes "linear s1 s2 f" begin
interpretation linear s1 s2 f by fact
lemmas― ‹from locale module_hom›
      linear_0 = zero
  and linear_add = add
  and linear_scale = scale
  and linear_neg = neg
  and linear_diff = diff
  and linear_sum = sum
  and linear_inj_on_iff_eq_0 = inj_on_iff_eq_0
  and linear_inj_iff_eq_0 = inj_iff_eq_0
  and linear_subspace_image = subspace_image
  and linear_subspace_vimage = subspace_vimage
  and linear_subspace_kernel = subspace_kernel
  and linear_span_image = span_image
  and linear_dependent_inj_imageD = dependent_inj_imageD
  and linear_eq_0_on_span = eq_0_on_span
  and linear_independent_injective_image = independent_injective_image
  and linear_inj_on_span_independent_image = inj_on_span_independent_image
  and linear_inj_on_span_iff_independent_image = inj_on_span_iff_independent_image
  and linear_subspace_linear_preimage = subspace_linear_preimage
  and linear_spans_image = spans_image
  and linear_spanning_surjective_image = spanning_surjective_image
end

sublocale module_pair
  rewrites "module_hom = linear"
  by unfold_locales (fact module_hom_eq_linear)

lemmas― ‹from locale module_pair›
      linear_eq_on_span = module_hom_eq_on_span
  and linear_compose_scale_right = module_hom_scale
  and linear_compose_add = module_hom_add
  and linear_zero = module_hom_zero
  and linear_compose_sub = module_hom_sub
  and linear_compose_neg = module_hom_neg
  and linear_compose_scale = module_hom_compose_scale

lemma linear_indep_image_lemma:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
    and fB: "finite B"
    and ifB: "vs2.independent (f ` B)"
    and fi: "inj_on f B"
    and xsB: "x  vs1.span B"
    and fx: "f x = 0"
  shows "x = 0"
  using fB ifB fi xsB fx
proof (induction B arbitrary: x rule: finite_induct)
  case empty
  then show ?case by auto
next
  case (insert a b x)
  have th0: "f ` b  f ` (insert a b)"
    by (simp add: subset_insertI)
  have ifb: "vs2.independent (f ` b)"
    using vs2.independent_mono insert.prems(1) th0 by blast
  have fib: "inj_on f b"
    using insert.prems(2) by blast
  from vs1.span_breakdown[of a "insert a b", simplified, OF insert.prems(3)]
  obtain k where k: "x - k *a a  vs1.span (b - {a})"
    by blast
  have "f (x - k *a a)  vs2.span (f ` b)"
    unfolding linear_span_image[OF lf]
    using "insert.hyps"(2) k by auto
  then have "f x - k *b f a  vs2.span (f ` b)"
    by (simp add: linear_diff linear_scale lf)
  then have th: "-k *b f a  vs2.span (f ` b)"
    using insert.prems(4) by simp
  have xsb: "x  vs1.span b"
  proof (cases "k = 0")
    case True
    with k have "x  vs1.span (b - {a})" by simp
    then show ?thesis using vs1.span_mono[of "b - {a}" b]
      by blast
  next
    case False
    from inj_on_image_set_diff[OF insert.prems(2), of "insert a b " "{a}", symmetric]
    have "f ` insert a b - f ` {a} = f ` (insert a b - {a})" by blast
    then have "f a  vs2.span (f ` b)" 
      using vs2.dependent_def insert.hyps(2) insert.prems(1) by fastforce
    moreover have "f a  vs2.span (f ` b)"
      using False vs2.span_scale[OF th, of "- 1/ k"] by auto
    ultimately have False
      by blast
    then show ?thesis by blast
  qed
  show "x = 0"
    using ifb fib xsb insert.IH insert.prems(4) by blast
qed

lemma linear_eq_on:
  assumes l: "linear s1 s2 f" "linear s1 s2 g"
  assumes x: "x  vs1.span B" and eq: "b. b  B  f b = g b"
  shows "f x = g x"
proof -
  interpret d: linear s1 s2 "λx. f x - g x"
    using l by (intro linear_compose_sub) (auto simp: module_hom_iff_linear)
  have "f x - g x = 0"
    by (rule d.eq_0_on_span[OF _ x]) (auto simp: eq)
  then show ?thesis by auto
qed

definition construct :: "'b set  ('b  'c)  ('b  'c)"
  where "construct B g v = (b | vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B) v b  0.
      vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B) v b *b (if b  B then g b else 0))"

lemma construct_cong: "(b. b  B  f b = g b)  construct B f = construct B g"
  unfolding construct_def by (rule ext, auto intro!: sum.cong)

lemma linear_construct:
  assumes B[simp]: "vs1.independent B"
  shows "linear s1 s2 (construct B f)"
  unfolding module_hom_iff_linear linear_iff
proof safe
  have eB[simp]: "vs1.independent (vs1.extend_basis B)"
    using vs1.independent_extend_basis[OF B] .
  let ?R = "vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B)"
  fix c x y
  have "construct B f (x + y) =
    (b{b. ?R x b  0}  {b. ?R y b  0}. ?R (x + y) b *b (if b  B then f b else 0))"
    by (auto intro!: sum.mono_neutral_cong_left simp: vs1.finite_representation vs1.representation_add construct_def)
  also have " = construct B f x + construct B f y"
    by (auto simp: construct_def vs1.representation_add vs2.scale_left_distrib sum.distrib
      intro!: arg_cong2[where f="(+)"] sum.mono_neutral_cong_right vs1.finite_representation)
  finally show "construct B f (x + y) = construct B f x + construct B f y" .

  show "construct B f (c *a x) = c *b construct B f x"
    by (auto simp del: vs2.scale_scale intro!: sum.mono_neutral_cong_left vs1.finite_representation
      simp add: construct_def vs2.scale_scale[symmetric] vs1.representation_scale vs2.scale_sum_right)
qed intro_locales

lemma construct_basis:
  assumes B[simp]: "vs1.independent B" and b: "b  B"
  shows "construct B f b = f b"
proof -
  have *: "vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B) b = (λv. if v = b then 1 else 0)"
    using vs1.extend_basis_superset[OF B] b
    by (intro vs1.representation_basis vs1.independent_extend_basis) auto
  then have "{v. vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B) b v  0} = {b}"
    by auto
  then show ?thesis
    unfolding construct_def by (simp add: * b)
qed

lemma construct_outside:
  assumes B: "vs1.independent B" and v: "v  vs1.span (vs1.extend_basis B - B)"
  shows "construct B f v = 0"
  unfolding construct_def
proof (clarsimp intro!: sum.neutral simp del: vs2.scale_eq_0_iff)
  fix b assume "b  B"
  then have "vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B - B) v b = 0"
    using vs1.representation_ne_zero[of "vs1.extend_basis B - B" v b] by auto
  moreover have "vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B) v = vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B - B) v"
    using vs1.representation_extend[OF vs1.independent_extend_basis[OF B] v] by auto
  ultimately show "vs1.representation (vs1.extend_basis B) v b *b f b = 0"
    by simp
qed

lemma construct_add:
  assumes B[simp]: "vs1.independent B"
  shows "construct B (λx. f x + g x) v = construct B f v + construct B g v"
proof (rule linear_eq_on)
  show "v  vs1.span (vs1.extend_basis B)" by simp
  show "b  vs1.extend_basis B  construct B (λx. f x + g x) b = construct B f b + construct B g b" for b
    using construct_outside[OF B vs1.span_base, of b] by (cases "b  B") (auto simp: construct_basis)
qed (intro linear_compose_add linear_construct B)+

lemma construct_scale:
  assumes B[simp]: "vs1.independent B"
  shows "construct B (λx. c *b f x) v = c *b construct B f v"
proof (rule linear_eq_on)
  show "v  vs1.span (vs1.extend_basis B)" by simp
  show "b  vs1.extend_basis B  construct B (λx. c *b f x) b = c *b construct B f b" for b
    using construct_outside[OF B vs1.span_base, of b] by (cases "b  B") (auto simp: construct_basis)
qed (intro linear_construct module_hom_scale B)+

lemma construct_in_span:
  assumes B[simp]: "vs1.independent B"
  shows "construct B f v  vs2.span (f ` B)"
proof -
  interpret c: linear s1 s2 "construct B f" by (rule linear_construct) fact
  let ?R = "vs1.representation B"
  have "v  vs1.span ((vs1.extend_basis B - B)  B)"
    by (auto simp: Un_absorb2 vs1.extend_basis_superset)
  then obtain x y where "v = x + y" "x  vs1.span (vs1.extend_basis B - B)" "y  vs1.span B"
    unfolding vs1.span_Un by auto
  moreover have "construct B f (b | ?R y b  0. ?R y b *a b)  vs2.span (f ` B)"
    by (auto simp add: c.sum c.scale construct_basis vs1.representation_ne_zero
      intro!: vs2.span_sum vs2.span_scale intro: vs2.span_base )
  ultimately show "construct B f v  vs2.span (f ` B)"
    by (auto simp add: c.add construct_outside vs1.sum_nonzero_representation_eq)
qed

lemma linear_compose_sum:
  assumes lS: "a  S. linear s1 s2 (f a)"
  shows "linear s1 s2 (λx. sum (λa. f a x) S)"
proof (cases "finite S")
  case True
  then show ?thesis
    using lS by induct (simp_all add: linear_zero linear_compose_add)
next
  case False
  then show ?thesis
    by (simp add: linear_zero)
qed

lemma in_span_in_range_construct:
  "x  range (construct B f)" if i: "vs1.independent B" and x: "x  vs2.span (f ` B)"
proof -
  interpret linear "(*a)" "(*b)" "construct B f"
    using i by (rule linear_construct)
  obtain bb :: "('b  'c)  ('b  'c)  'b set  'b" where
    "x0 x1 x2. (v4. v4  x2  x1 v4  x0 v4) = (bb x0 x1 x2  x2  x1 (bb x0 x1 x2)  x0 (bb x0 x1 x2))"
    by moura
  then have f2: "B Ba f fa. (B  Ba  bb fa f Ba  Ba  f (bb fa f Ba)  fa (bb fa f Ba))  f ` B = fa ` Ba"
    by (meson image_cong)
  have "vs1.span B  vs1.span (vs1.extend_basis B)"
    by (simp add: vs1.extend_basis_superset[OF i] vs1.span_mono)
  then show "x  range (construct B f)"
    using f2 x by (metis (no_types) construct_basis[OF i, of _ f]
        vs1.span_extend_basis[OF i] subsetD span_image spans_image)
qed

lemma range_construct_eq_span:
  "range (construct B f) = vs2.span (f ` B)"
  if "vs1.independent B"
  by (auto simp: that construct_in_span in_span_in_range_construct)

lemma linear_independent_extend_subspace:
  ― ‹legacy: use termconstruct instead
  assumes "vs1.independent B"
  shows "g. linear s1 s2 g  (xB. g x = f x)  range g = vs2.span (f`B)"
  by (rule exI[where x="construct B f"])
    (auto simp: linear_construct assms construct_basis range_construct_eq_span)

lemma linear_independent_extend:
  "vs1.independent B  g. linear s1 s2 g  (xB. g x = f x)"
  using linear_independent_extend_subspace[of B f] by auto

lemma linear_exists_left_inverse_on:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
  assumes V: "vs1.subspace V" and f: "inj_on f V"
  shows "g. g ` UNIV  V  linear s2 s1 g  (vV. g (f v) = v)"
proof -
  interpret linear s1 s2 f by fact
  obtain B where V_eq: "V = vs1.span B" and B: "vs1.independent B"
    using vs1.maximal_independent_subset[of V] vs1.span_minimal[OF _ vs1.subspace V]
    by (metis antisym_conv)
  have f: "inj_on f (vs1.span B)"
    using f unfolding V_eq .
  show ?thesis
  proof (intro exI ballI conjI)
    interpret p: vector_space_pair s2 s1 by unfold_locales
    have fB: "vs2.independent (f ` B)"
      using independent_injective_image[OF B f] .
    let ?g = "p.construct (f ` B) (the_inv_into B f)"
    show "linear (*b) (*a) ?g"
      by (rule p.linear_construct[OF fB])
    have "?g b  vs1.span (the_inv_into B f ` f ` B)" for b
      by (intro p.construct_in_span fB)
    moreover have "the_inv_into B f ` f ` B = B"
      by (auto simp: image_comp comp_def the_inv_into_f_f inj_on_subset[OF f vs1.span_superset]
          cong: image_cong)
    ultimately show "?g ` UNIV  V"
      by (auto simp: V_eq)
    have "(?g  f) v = id v" if "v  vs1.span B" for v
    proof (rule vector_space_pair.linear_eq_on[where x=v])
      show "vector_space_pair (*a) (*a)" by unfold_locales
      show "linear (*a) (*a) (?g  f)"
      proof (rule Vector_Spaces.linear_compose[of _ "(*b)"])
        show "linear (*a) (*b) f"
          by unfold_locales
      qed fact
      show "linear (*a) (*a) id" by (rule vs1.linear_id)
      show "v  vs1.span B" by fact
      show "b  B  (p.construct (f ` B) (the_inv_into B f)  f) b = id b" for b
        by (simp add: p.construct_basis fB the_inv_into_f_f inj_on_subset[OF f vs1.span_superset])
    qed
    then show "v  V  ?g (f v) = v" for v by (auto simp: comp_def id_def V_eq)
  qed
qed

lemma linear_exists_right_inverse_on:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
  assumes "vs1.subspace V"
  shows "g. g ` UNIV  V  linear s2 s1 g  (vf ` V. f (g v) = v)"
proof -
  obtain B where V_eq: "V = vs1.span B" and B: "vs1.independent B"
    using vs1.maximal_independent_subset[of V] vs1.span_minimal[OF _ vs1.subspace V]
    by (metis antisym_conv)
  obtain C where C: "vs2.independent C" and fB_C: "f ` B  vs2.span C" "C  f ` B"
    using vs2.maximal_independent_subset[of "f ` B"] by metis
  then have "vC. bB. v = f b" by auto
  then obtain g where g: "v. v  C  g v  B" "v. v  C  f (g v) = v" by metis
  show ?thesis
  proof (intro exI ballI conjI)
    interpret p: vector_space_pair s2 s1 by unfold_locales
    let ?g = "p.construct C g"
    show "linear (*b) (*a) ?g"
      by (rule p.linear_construct[OF C])
    have "?g v  vs1.span (g ` C)" for v
      by (rule p.construct_in_span[OF C])
    also have "  V" unfolding V_eq using g by (intro vs1.span_mono) auto
    finally show "?g ` UNIV  V" by auto
    have "(f  ?g) v = id v" if v: "v  f ` V" for v
    proof (rule vector_space_pair.linear_eq_on[where x=v])
      show "vector_space_pair (*b) (*b)" by unfold_locales
      show "linear (*b) (*b) (f  ?g)"
        by (rule Vector_Spaces.linear_compose[of _ "(*a)"]) fact+
      show "linear (*b) (*b) id" by (rule vs2.linear_id)
      have "vs2.span (f ` B) = vs2.span C"
        using fB_C vs2.span_mono[of C "f ` B"] vs2.span_minimal[of "f`B" "vs2.span C"]
        by auto
      then show "v  vs2.span C"
        using v linear_span_image[OF lf, of B] by (simp add: V_eq)
      show "(f  p.construct C g) b = id b" if b: "b  C" for b
        by (auto simp: p.construct_basis g C b)
    qed
    then show "v  f ` V  f (?g v) = v" for v by (auto simp: comp_def id_def)
  qed
qed

lemma linear_inj_on_left_inverse:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
  assumes fi: "inj_on f (vs1.span S)"
  shows "g. range g  vs1.span S  linear s2 s1 g  (xvs1.span S. g (f x) = x)"
  using linear_exists_left_inverse_on[OF lf vs1.subspace_span fi]
  by (auto simp: linear_iff_module_hom)

lemma linear_injective_left_inverse: "linear s1 s2 f  inj f  g. linear s2 s1 g  g  f = id"
  using linear_inj_on_left_inverse[of f UNIV]
  by force

lemma linear_surj_right_inverse:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
  assumes sf: "vs2.span T  f`vs1.span S"
  shows "g. range g  vs1.span S  linear s2 s1 g  (xvs2.span T. f (g x) = x)"
  using linear_exists_right_inverse_on[OF lf vs1.subspace_span, of S] sf
  by (force simp: linear_iff_module_hom)

lemma linear_surjective_right_inverse: "linear s1 s2 f  surj f  g. linear s2 s1 g  f  g = id"
  using linear_surj_right_inverse[of f UNIV UNIV]
  by (auto simp: fun_eq_iff)

lemma finite_basis_to_basis_subspace_isomorphism:
  assumes s: "vs1.subspace S"
    and t: "vs2.subspace T"
    and d: "vs1.dim S = vs2.dim T"
    and fB: "finite B"
    and B: "B  S" "vs1.independent B" "S  vs1.span B" "card B = vs1.dim S"
    and fC: "finite C"
    and C: "C  T" "vs2.independent C" "T  vs2.span C" "card C = vs2.dim T"
  shows "f. linear s1 s2 f  f ` B = C  f ` S = T  inj_on f S"
proof -
  from B(4) C(4) card_le_inj[of B C] d obtain f where
    f: "f ` B  C" "inj_on f B" using finite B finite C by auto
  from linear_independent_extend[OF B(2)] obtain g where
    g: "linear s1 s2 g" "x  B. g x = f x" by blast
  interpret g: linear s1 s2 g by fact
  from inj_on_iff_eq_card[OF fB, of f] f(2)
  have "card (f ` B) = card B" by simp
  with B(4) C(4) have ceq: "card (f ` B) = card C" using d
    by simp
  have "g ` B = f ` B" using g(2)
    by (auto simp add: image_iff)
  also have " = C" using card_subset_eq[OF fC f(1) ceq] .
  finally have gBC: "g ` B = C" .
  have gi: "inj_on g B" using f(2) g(2)
    by (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
  note g0 = linear_indep_image_lemma[OF g(1) fB, unfolded gBC, OF C(2) gi]
  {
    fix x y
    assume x: "x  S" and y: "y  S" and gxy: "g x = g y"
    from B(3) x y have x': "x  vs1.span B" and y': "y  vs1.span B"
      by blast+
    from gxy have th0: "g (x - y) = 0"
      by (simp add: g.diff)
    have th1: "x - y  vs1.span B" using x' y'
      by (metis vs1.span_diff)
    have "x = y" using g0[OF th1 th0] by simp
  }
  then have giS: "inj_on g S" unfolding inj_on_def by blast
  from vs1.span_subspace[OF B(1,3) s]
  have "g ` S = vs2.span (g ` B)"
    by (simp add: g.span_image)
  also have " = vs2.span C"
    unfolding gBC ..
  also have " = T"
    using vs2.span_subspace[OF C(1,3) t] .
  finally have gS: "g ` S = T" .
  from g(1) gS giS gBC show ?thesis
    by blast
qed

end


locale finite_dimensional_vector_space = vector_space +
  fixes Basis :: "'b set"
  assumes finite_Basis: "finite Basis"
  and independent_Basis: "independent Basis"
  and span_Basis: "span Basis = UNIV"
begin

definition "dimension = card Basis"

lemma finiteI_independent: "independent B  finite B"
  using independent_span_bound[OF finite_Basis, of B] by (auto simp: span_Basis)

lemma dim_empty [simp]: "dim {} = 0"
  by (rule dim_unique[OF order_refl]) (auto simp: dependent_def)

lemma dim_insert:
  "dim (insert x S) = (if x  span S then dim S else dim S + 1)"
proof -
  show ?thesis
  proof (cases "x  span S")
    case True then show ?thesis
      by (metis dim_span span_redundant)
  next
    case False
    obtain B where B: "B  span S" "independent B" "span S  span B" "card B = dim (span S)"
      using basis_exists [of "span S"] by blast
    have "dim (span (insert x S)) = Suc (dim S)"
    proof (rule dim_unique)
      show "insert x B  span (insert x S)"
        by (meson B(1) insertI1 insert_subset order_trans span_base span_mono subset_insertI)
      show "span (insert x S)  span (insert x B)"
        by (metis B  span S span S  span B span_breakdown_eq span_subspace subsetI subspace_span)
      show "independent (insert x B)"
        by (metis B(1-3) independent_insert span_subspace subspace_span False)
      show "card (insert x B) = Suc (dim S)"
        using B False finiteI_independent by force
    qed
    then show ?thesis
      by (metis False Suc_eq_plus1 dim_span)
  qed
qed

lemma dim_singleton [simp]: "dim{x} = (if x = 0 then 0 else 1)"
  by (simp add: dim_insert)

proposition choose_subspace_of_subspace:
  assumes "n  dim S"
  obtains T where "subspace T" "T  span S" "dim T = n"
proof -
  have "T. subspace T  T  span S  dim T = n"
  using assms
  proof (induction n)
    case 0 then show ?case by (auto intro!: exI[where x="{0}"] span_zero)
  next
    case (Suc n)
    then obtain T where "subspace T" "T  span S" "dim T = n"
      by force
    then show ?case
    proof (cases "span S  span T")
      case True
      have "span T  span S"
        by (simp add: T  span S span_minimal)
      then have "dim S = dim T"
        by (rule span_eq_dim [OF subset_antisym [OF True]])
      then show ?thesis
        using Suc.prems dim T = n by linarith
    next
      case False
      then obtain y where y: "y  S" "y  T"
        by (meson span_mono subsetI)
      then have "span (insert y T)  span S"
        by (metis (no_types) T  span S subsetD insert_subset span_superset span_mono span_span)
      with dim T = n  subspace T y show ?thesis
        apply (rule_tac x="span(insert y T)" in exI)
        using span_eq_iff by (fastforce simp: dim_insert)
    qed
  qed
  with that show ?thesis by blast
qed

lemma basis_subspace_exists:
  assumes "subspace S"
  obtains B where "finite B" "B  S" "independent B" "span B = S" "card B = dim S"
  by (metis assms span_subspace basis_exists finiteI_independent)

lemma dim_mono: assumes "V  span W" shows "dim V  dim W"
proof -
  obtain B where "independent B" "B  W" "W  span B"
    using maximal_independent_subset[of W] by force
  with dim_le_card[of V B] assms independent_span_bound[of Basis B] basis_card_eq_dim[of B W]
    span_mono[of B W] span_minimal[OF _ subspace_span, of W B]
  show ?thesis
    by (auto simp: finite_Basis span_Basis)
qed

lemma dim_subset: "S  T  dim S  dim T"
  using dim_mono[of S T] by (auto intro: span_base)

lemma dim_eq_0 [simp]:
  "dim S = 0  S  {0}"
  by (metis basis_exists card_eq_0_iff dim_span finiteI_independent span_empty subset_empty subset_singletonD)

lemma dim_UNIV[simp]: "dim UNIV = card Basis"
  using dim_eq_card[of Basis UNIV] by (simp add: independent_Basis span_Basis)

lemma independent_card_le_dim: assumes "B  V" and "independent B" shows "card B  dim V"
  by (subst dim_eq_card[symmetric, OF refl independent B]) (rule dim_subset[OF B  V])

lemma dim_subset_UNIV: "dim S  dimension"
  by (metis dim_subset subset_UNIV dim_UNIV dimension_def)

lemma card_ge_dim_independent:
  assumes BV: "B  V"
    and iB: "independent B"
    and dVB: "dim V  card B"
  shows "V  span B"
proof
  fix a
  assume aV: "a  V"
  {
    assume aB: "a  span B"
    then have iaB: "independent (insert a B)"
      using iB aV BV by (simp add: independent_insert)
    from aV BV have th0: "insert a B  V"
      by blast
    from aB have "a B"
      by (auto simp add: span_base)
    with independent_card_le_dim[OF th0 iaB] dVB finiteI_independent[OF iB]
    have False by auto
  }
  then show "a  span B" by blast
qed

lemma card_le_dim_spanning:
  assumes BV: "B  V"
    and VB: "V  span B"
    and fB: "finite B"
    and dVB: "dim V  card B"
  shows "independent B"
proof -
  {
    fix a
    assume a: "a  B" "a  span (B - {a})"
    from a fB have c0: "card B  0"
      by auto
    from a fB have cb: "card (B - {a}) = card B - 1"
      by auto
    {
      fix x
      assume x: "x  V"
      from a have eq: "insert a (B - {a}) = B"
        by blast
      from x VB have x': "x  span B"
        by blast
      from span_trans[OF a(2), unfolded eq, OF x']
      have "x  span (B - {a})" .
    }
    then have th1: "V  span (B - {a})"
      by blast
    have th2: "finite (B - {a})"
      using fB by auto
    from dim_le_card[OF th1 th2]
    have c: "dim V  card (B - {a})" .
    from c c0 dVB cb have False by simp
  }
  then show ?thesis
    unfolding dependent_def by blast
qed

lemma card_eq_dim: "B  V  card B = dim V  finite B  independent B  V  span B"
  by (metis order_eq_iff card_le_dim_spanning card_ge_dim_independent)

lemma subspace_dim_equal:
  assumes "subspace S"
    and "subspace T"
    and "S  T"
    and "dim S  dim T"
  shows "S = T"
proof -
  obtain B where B: "B  S" "independent B  S  span B" "card B = dim S"
    using basis_exists[of S] by metis
  then have "span B  S"
    using span_mono[of B S] span_eq_iff[of S] assms by metis
  then have "span B = S"
    using B by auto
  have "dim S = dim T"
    using assms dim_subset[of S T] by auto
  then have "T  span B"
    using card_eq_dim[of B T] B finiteI_independent assms by auto
  then show ?thesis
    using assms span B = S by auto
qed

corollary dim_eq_span:
  shows "S  T; dim T  dim S  span S = span T"
  by (simp add: span_mono subspace_dim_equal)

lemma dim_psubset:
  "span S  span T  dim S < dim T"
  by (metis (no_types, opaque_lifting) dim_span less_le not_le subspace_dim_equal subspace_span)

lemma dim_eq_full:
  shows "dim S = dimension  span S = UNIV"
  by (metis dim_eq_span dim_subset_UNIV span_Basis span_span subset_UNIV
        dim_UNIV dim_span dimension_def)

lemma indep_card_eq_dim_span:
  assumes "independent B"
  shows "finite B  card B = dim (span B)"
  using dim_span_eq_card_independent[OF assms] finiteI_independent[OF assms] by auto

text More general size bound lemmas.

lemma independent_bound_general:
  "independent S  finite S  card S  dim S"
  by (simp add: dim_eq_card_independent finiteI_independent)

lemma independent_explicit:
  shows "independent B  finite B  (c. (vB. c v *s v) = 0  (v  B. c v = 0))"
  using independent_bound_general
  by (fastforce simp: dependent_finite)

proposition dim_sums_Int:
  assumes "subspace S" "subspace T"
  shows "dim {x + y |x y. x  S  y  T} + dim(S  T) = dim S + dim T" (is "dim ?ST + _ = _")
proof -
  obtain B where B: "B  S  T" "S  T  span B"
             and indB: "independent B"
             and cardB: "card B = dim (S  T)"
    using basis_exists by metis
  then obtain C D where "B  C" "C  S" "independent C" "S  span C"
                    and "B  D" "D  T" "independent D" "T  span D"
    using maximal_independent_subset_extend
    by (metis Int_subset_iff B  S  T indB)
  then have "finite B" "finite C" "finite D"
    by (simp_all add: finiteI_independent indB independent_bound_general)
  have Beq: "B = C  D"
  proof (rule spanning_subset_independent [symmetric])
    show "independent (C  D)"
      by (meson independent C independent_mono inf.cobounded1)
  qed (use B C  S D  T B  C B  D in auto)
  then have Deq: "D = B  (D - C)"
    by blast
  have CUD: "C  D  ?ST"
  proof (simp, intro conjI)
    show "C  ?ST"
      using span_zero span_minimal [OF _ subspace T] C  S by force
    show "D  ?ST"
      using span_zero span_minimal [OF _ subspace S] D  T by force
  qed
  have "a v = 0" if 0: "(vC. a v *s v) + (vD - C. a v *s v) = 0"
                 and v: "v  C  (D-C)" for a v
  proof -
    have CsS: "x. x  C  a x *s x  S"
      using C  S subspace S subspace_scale by auto
    have eq: "(vD - C. a v *s v) = - (vC. a v *s v)"
      using that add_eq_0_iff by blast
    have "(vD - C. a v *s v)  S"
      by (simp add: eq CsS subspace S subspace_neg subspace_sum)
    moreover have "(vD - C. a v *s v)  T"
      apply (rule subspace_sum [OF subspace T])
      by (meson DiffD1 D  T subspace T subset_eq subspace_def)
    ultimately have "(v  D-C. a v *s v)  span B"
      using B by blast
    then obtain e where e: "(vB. e v *s v) = (v  D-C. a v *s v)"
      using span_finite [OF finite B] by force
    have "c v. (vC. c v *s v) = 0; v  C  c v = 0"
      using finite C independent C independentD by blast
    define cc where "cc x = (if x  B then a x + e x else a x)" for x
    have [simp]: "C  B = B" "D  B = B" "C  - B = C-D" "B  (D - C) = {}"
      using B  C B  D Beq by blast+
    have f2: "(vC  D. e v *s v) = (vD - C. a v *s v)"
      using Beq e by presburger
    have f3: "(vC  D. a v *s v) = (vC - D. a v *s v) + (vD - C. a v *s v) + (vC  D. a v *s v)"
      using finite C finite D sum.union_diff2 by blast
    have f4: "(vC  (D - C). a v *s v) = (vC. a v *s v) + (vD - C. a v *s v)"
      by (meson Diff_disjoint finite C finite D finite_Diff sum.union_disjoint)
    have "(vC. cc v *s v) = 0"
      using 0 f2 f3 f4
      apply (simp add: cc_def Beq finite C sum.If_cases algebra_simps sum.distrib
          if_distrib if_distribR)
      apply (simp add: add.commute add.left_commute diff_eq)
      done
    then have "v. v  C  cc v = 0"
      using independent_explicit independent C finite C by blast
    then have C0: "v. v  C - B  a v = 0"
      by (simp add: cc_def Beq) meson
    then have [simp]: "(xC - B. a x *s x) = 0"
      by simp
    have "(xC. a x *s x) = (xB. a x *s x)"
    proof -
      have "C - D = C - B"
        using Beq by blast
      then show ?thesis
        using Beq (xC - B. a x *s x) = 0 f3 f4 by auto
    qed
    with 0 have Dcc0: "(vD. a v *s v) = 0"
      by (subst Deq) (simp add: finite B finite D sum_Un)
    then have D0: "v. v  D  a v = 0"
      using independent_explicit independent D finite D by blast
    show ?thesis
      using v C0 D0 Beq by blast
  qed
  then have "independent (C  (D - C))"
    unfolding independent_explicit
    using independent_explicit
    by (simp add: independent_explicit finite C finite D sum_Un del: Un_Diff_cancel)
  then have indCUD: "independent (C  D)" by simp
  have "dim (S  T) = card B"
    by (rule dim_unique [OF B indB refl])
  moreover have "dim S = card C"
    by (metis C  S independent C S  span C basis_card_eq_dim)
  moreover have "dim T = card D"
    by (metis D  T independent D T  span D basis_card_eq_dim)
  moreover have "dim ?ST = card(C  D)"
  proof -
    have *: "x y. x  S; y  T  x + y  span (C  D)"
      by (meson S  span C T  span D span_add span_mono subsetCE sup.cobounded1 sup.cobounded2)
    show ?thesis
      by (auto intro: * dim_unique [OF CUD _ indCUD refl])
  qed
  ultimately show ?thesis
    using B = C  D [symmetric]
    by (simp add:  independent C independent D card_Un_Int finiteI_independent)
qed

lemma dependent_biggerset_general:
  "(finite S  card S > dim S)  dependent S"
  using independent_bound_general[of S] by (metis linorder_not_le)

lemma subset_le_dim:
  "S  span T  dim S  dim T"
  by (metis dim_span dim_subset)

lemma linear_inj_imp_surj:
  assumes lf: "linear scale scale f"
    and fi: "inj f"
  shows "surj f"
proof -
  interpret lf: linear scale scale f by fact
  from basis_exists[of UNIV] obtain B
    where B: "B  UNIV" "independent B" "UNIV  span B" "card B = dim UNIV"
    by blast
  from B(4) have d: "dim UNIV = card B"
    by simp
  have "UNIV  span (f ` B)"
  proof (rule card_ge_dim_independent)
    show "independent (f ` B)"
      by (simp add: B(2) fi lf.independent_inj_image)
    have "card (f ` B) = dim UNIV"
      by (metis B(1) card_image d fi inj_on_subset)
    then show "dim UNIV  card (f ` B)"
      by simp
  qed blast
  then show ?thesis
    unfolding lf.span_image surj_def
    using B(3) by blast
qed

end

locale finite_dimensional_vector_space_pair_1 =
  vs1: finite_dimensional_vector_space s1 B1 + vs2: vector_space s2
  for s1 :: "'a::field  'b::ab_group_add  'b" (infixr "*a" 75)
  and B1 :: "'b set"
  and s2 :: "'a::field  'c::ab_group_add  'c" (infixr "*b" 75)
begin

sublocale vector_space_pair s1 s2 by unfold_locales

lemma dim_image_eq:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
    and fi: "inj_on f (vs1.span S)"
  shows "vs2.dim (f ` S) = vs1.dim S"
proof -
  interpret lf: linear by fact
  obtain B where B: "B  S" "vs1.independent B" "S  vs1.span B" "card B = vs1.dim S"
    using vs1.basis_exists[of S] by auto
  then have "vs1.span S = vs1.span B"
    using vs1.span_mono[of B S] vs1.span_mono[of S "vs1.span B"] vs1.span_span[of B] by auto
  moreover have "card (f ` B) = card B"
    using assms card_image[of f B] subset_inj_on[of f "vs1.span S" B] B vs1.span_superset by auto
  moreover have "(f ` B)  (f ` S)"
    using B by auto
  ultimately show ?thesis
    by (metis B(2) B(4) fi lf.dependent_inj_imageD lf.span_image vs2.dim_eq_card_independent vs2.dim_span)
qed

lemma dim_image_le:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
  shows "vs2.dim (f ` S)  vs1.dim (S)"
proof -
  from vs1.basis_exists[of S] obtain B where
    B: "B  S" "vs1.independent B" "S  vs1.span B" "card B = vs1.dim S" by blast
  from B have fB: "finite B" "card B = vs1.dim S"
    using vs1.independent_bound_general by blast+
  have "vs2.dim (f ` S)  card (f ` B)"
    apply (rule vs2.span_card_ge_dim)
    using lf B fB
      apply (auto simp add: module_hom.span_image module_hom.spans_image subset_image_iff
        linear_iff_module_hom)
    done
  also have "  vs1.dim S"
    using card_image_le[OF fB(1)] fB by simp
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

end

locale finite_dimensional_vector_space_pair =
  vs1: finite_dimensional_vector_space s1 B1 + vs2: finite_dimensional_vector_space s2 B2
  for s1 :: "'a::field  'b::ab_group_add  'b" (infixr "*a" 75)
  and B1 :: "'b set"
  and s2 :: "'a::field  'c::ab_group_add  'c" (infixr "*b" 75)
  and B2 :: "'c set"
begin

sublocale finite_dimensional_vector_space_pair_1 ..

lemma linear_surjective_imp_injective:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f" and sf: "surj f" and eq: "vs2.dim UNIV = vs1.dim UNIV"
    shows "inj f"
proof -
  interpret linear s1 s2 f by fact
  have *: "card (f ` B1)  vs2.dim UNIV"
    using vs1.finite_Basis vs1.dim_eq_card[of B1 UNIV] sf
    by (auto simp: vs1.span_Basis vs1.independent_Basis eq
        simp del: vs2.dim_UNIV
        intro!: card_image_le)
  have indep_fB: "vs2.independent (f ` B1)"
    using vs1.finite_Basis vs1.dim_eq_card[of B1 UNIV] sf *
    by (intro vs2.card_le_dim_spanning[of "f ` B1" UNIV]) (auto simp: span_image vs1.span_Basis )
  have "vs2.dim UNIV  card (f ` B1)"
    unfolding eq sf[symmetric] vs2.dim_span_eq_card_independent[symmetric, OF indep_fB]
      vs2.dim_span
    by (intro vs2.dim_mono) (auto simp: span_image vs1.span_Basis)
  with * have "card (f ` B1) = vs2.dim UNIV" by auto
  also have "... = card B1"
    unfolding eq vs1.dim_UNIV ..
  finally have "inj_on f B1"
    by (subst inj_on_iff_eq_card[OF vs1.finite_Basis])
  then show "inj f"
    using inj_on_span_iff_independent_image[OF indep_fB] vs1.span_Basis by auto
qed

lemma linear_injective_imp_surjective:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f" and sf: "inj f" and eq: "vs2.dim UNIV = vs1.dim UNIV"
    shows "surj f"
proof -
  interpret linear s1 s2 f by fact
  have *: False if b: "b  vs2.span (f ` B1)" for b
  proof -
    have *: "vs2.independent (f ` B1)"
      using vs1.independent_Basis by (intro independent_injective_image inj_on_subset[OF sf]) auto
    have **: "vs2.independent (insert b (f ` B1))"
      using b * by (rule vs2.independent_insertI)

    have "b  f ` B1" using vs2.span_base[of b "f ` B1"] b by auto
    then have "Suc (card B1) = card (insert b (f ` B1))"
      using sf[THEN inj_on_subset, of B1] by (subst card.insert_remove) (auto intro: vs1.finite_Basis simp: card_image)
    also have " = vs2.dim (insert b (f ` B1))"
      using vs2.dim_eq_card_independent[OF **] by simp
    also have "vs2.dim (insert b (f ` B1))  vs2.dim B2"
      by (rule vs2.dim_mono) (auto simp: vs2.span_Basis)
    also have " = card B1"
      using vs1.dim_span[of B1] vs2.dim_span[of B2] unfolding vs1.span_Basis vs2.span_Basis eq 
        vs1.dim_eq_card_independent[OF vs1.independent_Basis] by simp
    finally show False by simp
  qed
  have "f ` UNIV = f ` vs1.span B1" unfolding vs1.span_Basis ..
  also have " = vs2.span (f ` B1)" unfolding span_image ..
  also have " = UNIV" using * by blast
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma linear_injective_isomorphism:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
    and fi: "inj f"
    and dims: "vs2.dim UNIV = vs1.dim UNIV"
  shows "f'. linear s2 s1 f'  (x. f' (f x) = x)  (x. f (f' x) = x)"
  unfolding isomorphism_expand[symmetric]
  using linear_injective_imp_surjective[OF lf fi dims]
  using fi left_right_inverse_eq lf linear_injective_left_inverse linear_surjective_right_inverse by blast

lemma linear_surjective_isomorphism:
  assumes lf: "linear s1 s2 f"
    and sf: "surj f"
    and dims: "vs2.dim UNIV