Theory Kronecker_Approximation_Theorem

chapter ‹Kronecker's Theorem with Applications›

theory Kronecker_Approximation_Theorem

imports Complex_Transcendental Henstock_Kurzweil_Integration
"HOL-Real_Asymp.Real_Asymp"

begin

section ‹Dirichlet's Approximation Theorem›

text ‹Simultaneous version. From Hardy and Wright, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers, page 170.›
theorem Dirichlet_approx_simult:
fixes θ :: "nat ⇒ real" and N n :: nat
assumes "N > 0"
obtains q p where "0<q" "q ≤ int (N^n)"
and "⋀i. i<n ⟹ ¦of_int q * θ i - of_int(p i)¦ < 1/N"
proof -
have lessN: "nat ⌊x * real N⌋ < N" if "0 ≤ x" "x < 1" for x
proof -
have "⌊x * real N⌋ < N"
using that by (simp add: assms floor_less_iff)
with assms show ?thesis by linarith
qed
define interv where "interv ≡ λk. {real k/N..< Suc k/N}"
define fracs where "fracs ≡ λk. map (λi. frac (real k * θ i)) [0..<n]"
define X where "X ≡ fracs  {..N^n}"
define Y where "Y ≡ set (List.n_lists n (map interv [0..<N]))"
have interv_iff: "interv k = interv k' ⟷ k=k'" for k k'
using assms by (auto simp: interv_def Ico_eq_Ico divide_strict_right_mono)
have in_interv: "x ∈ interv (nat ⌊x * real N⌋)" if "x≥0" for x
using that assms by (simp add: interv_def divide_simps) linarith
have False
if non: "∀a b. b ≤ N^n ⟶ a < b ⟶ ¬(∀i<n. ¦frac (real b * θ i) - frac (real a * θ i)¦ < 1/N)"
proof -
have "inj_on (λk. map (λi. frac (k * θ i)) [0..<n]) {..N^n}"
using that assms by (intro linorder_inj_onI) fastforce+
then have caX: "card X = Suc (N^n)"
by (simp add: X_def fracs_def card_image)
have caY: "card Y ≤ N^n"
by (metis Y_def card_length diff_zero length_map length_n_lists length_upt)
define f where "f ≡ λl. map (λx. interv (nat ⌊x * real N⌋)) l"
have "f  X ⊆ Y"
by (auto simp: f_def Y_def X_def fracs_def o_def set_n_lists frac_lt_1 lessN)
then have "¬ inj_on f X"
using Y_def caX caY card_inj_on_le not_less_eq_eq by fastforce
then obtain x x' where "x≠x'" "x ∈ X" "x' ∈ X" and eq: "f x = f x'"
by (auto simp: inj_on_def)
then obtain c c' where c: "c ≠ c'" "c ≤ N^n" "c' ≤ N^n"
and xeq: "x = fracs c" and xeq': "x' = fracs c'"
unfolding X_def by (metis atMost_iff image_iff)
have [simp]: "length x' = n"
by (auto simp: xeq' fracs_def)
have ge0: "x'!i ≥ 0" if "i<n" for i
using that ‹x' ∈ X› by (auto simp: X_def fracs_def)
have "f x ∈ Y"
using ‹f  X ⊆ Y› ‹x ∈ X› by blast
define k where "k ≡ map (λr. nat ⌊r * real N⌋) x"
have "¦frac (real c * θ i) - frac (real c' * θ i)¦ < 1/N" if "i < n" for i
proof -
have k: "x!i ∈ interv(k!i)"
using ‹i<n› assms by (auto simp: divide_simps k_def interv_def xeq fracs_def) linarith
then have k': "x'!i ∈ interv(k!i)"
using ‹i<n› eq assms ge0[OF ‹i<n›]
by (auto simp: k_def f_def divide_simps map_equality_iff in_interv interv_iff)
with assms k show ?thesis
qed
then show False
by (metis c non nat_neq_iff abs_minus_commute)
qed
then obtain a b where "a<b" "b ≤ N^n" and *: "⋀i. i<n ⟹ ¦frac (real b * θ i) - frac (real a * θ i)¦ < 1/N"
by blast
let ?k = "b-a"
let ?h = "λi. ⌊b * θ i⌋ - ⌊a * θ i⌋"
show ?thesis
proof
fix i
assume "i<n"
have "frac (b * θ i) - frac (a * θ i) = ?k * θ i - ?h i"
using ‹a < b› by (simp add: frac_def left_diff_distrib' of_nat_diff)
then show "¦of_int ?k * θ i - ?h i¦ < 1/N"
by (metis "*" ‹i < n› of_int_of_nat_eq)
qed (use ‹a < b› ‹b ≤ N^n› in auto)
qed

text ‹Theorem 7.1›
corollary Dirichlet_approx:
fixes θ:: real and N:: nat
assumes "N > 0"
obtains h k where "0 < k" "k ≤ int N" "¦of_int k * θ - of_int h¦ < 1/N"
by (rule Dirichlet_approx_simult [OF assms, where n=1 and θ="λ_. θ"]) auto

text ‹Theorem 7.2›
corollary Dirichlet_approx_coprime:
fixes θ:: real and N:: nat
assumes "N > 0"
obtains h k where "coprime h k" "0 < k" "k ≤ int N" "¦of_int k * θ - of_int h¦ < 1/N"
proof -
obtain h' k' where k': "0 < k'" "k' ≤ int N" and *: "¦of_int k' * θ - of_int h'¦ < 1/N"
by (meson Dirichlet_approx assms)
let ?d = "gcd h' k'"
show thesis
proof (cases "?d = 1")
case True
with k' * that show ?thesis by auto
next
case False
then have 1: "?d > 1"
by (smt (verit, ccfv_threshold) ‹k'>0› gcd_pos_int)
let ?k = "k' div ?d"
let ?h = "h' div ?d"
show ?thesis
proof
show "coprime (?h::int) ?k"
by (metis "1" div_gcd_coprime gcd_eq_0_iff not_one_less_zero)
show k0: "0 < ?k"
using ‹k'>0› pos_imp_zdiv_pos_iff by force
show "?k ≤ int N"
using k' "1" int_div_less_self by fastforce
have "¦θ - of_int ?h / of_int ?k¦ = ¦θ - of_int h' / of_int k'¦"
also have "… < 1 / of_int (N * k')"
using k' * by (simp add: field_simps)
also have "… < 1 / of_int (N * ?k)"
using assms ‹k'>0› k0 1
finally show "¦of_int ?k * θ - of_int ?h¦ < 1 / real N"
using k0 k' by (simp add: field_simps)
qed
qed
qed

definition approx_set :: "real ⇒ (int × int) set"
where "approx_set θ ≡
{(h, k) | h k::int. k > 0 ∧ coprime h k ∧ ¦θ - of_int h / of_int k¦ < 1/k⇧2}"
for θ::real

text ‹Theorem 7.3›
lemma approx_set_nonempty: "approx_set θ ≠ {}"
proof -
have "¦θ - of_int ⌊θ⌋ / of_int 1¦ < 1 / (of_int 1)⇧2"
by simp linarith
then have "(⌊θ⌋, 1) ∈ approx_set θ"
by (auto simp: approx_set_def)
then show ?thesis
by blast
qed

text ‹Theorem 7.4(c)›
theorem infinite_approx_set:
assumes "infinite (approx_set θ)"
shows  "∃h k. (h,k) ∈ approx_set θ ∧ k > K"
proof (rule ccontr, simp add: not_less)
assume Kb [rule_format]: "∀h k. (h, k) ∈ approx_set θ ⟶ k ≤ K"
define H where "H ≡ 1 + ¦K * θ¦"
have k0:  "k > 0" if "(h,k) ∈ approx_set θ" for h k
using approx_set_def that by blast
have Hb: "of_int ¦h¦ < H" if "(h,k) ∈ approx_set θ" for h k
proof -
have *: "¦k * θ - h¦ < 1"
proof -
have "¦k * θ - h¦ < 1 / k"
using that by (auto simp: field_simps approx_set_def eval_nat_numeral)
also have "… ≤ 1"
using divide_le_eq_1 by fastforce
finally show ?thesis .
qed
have "k > 0"
using approx_set_def that by blast
have "of_int ¦h¦ ≤ ¦k * θ - h¦ + ¦k * θ¦"
by force
also have "… < 1 + ¦k * θ¦"
using * that by simp
also have "… ≤ H"
using Kb [OF that] ‹k>0› by (auto simp add: H_def abs_if mult_right_mono mult_less_0_iff)
finally show ?thesis .
qed
have "approx_set θ ⊆ {-(ceiling H)..ceiling H} × {0..K}"
using Hb Kb k0
by (smt (verit, best) ceiling_add_of_int less_ceiling_iff)
then have "finite (approx_set θ)"
by (meson finite_SigmaI finite_atLeastAtMost_int finite_subset)
then show False
using assms by blast
qed

text ‹Theorem 7.4(b,d)›
theorem rational_iff_finite_approx_set:
shows "θ ∈ ℚ ⟷ finite (approx_set θ)"
proof
assume "θ ∈ ℚ"
then obtain a b where eq: "θ = of_int a / of_int b" and "b>0" and "coprime a b"
by (meson Rats_cases')
then have ab: "(a,b) ∈ approx_set θ"
by (auto simp: approx_set_def)
show "finite (approx_set θ)"
proof (rule ccontr)
assume "infinite (approx_set θ)"
then obtain h k where "(h,k) ∈ approx_set θ" "k > b" "k>0"
using infinite_approx_set by (smt (verit, best))
then have "coprime h k" and hk: "¦a/b - h/k¦ < 1 / (of_int k)⇧2"
by (auto simp: approx_set_def eq)
have False if "a * k = h * b"
proof -
have "b dvd k"
using that ‹coprime a b›
by (metis coprime_commute coprime_dvd_mult_right_iff dvd_triv_right)
then obtain d where "k = b * d"
by (metis dvd_def)
then have "h = a * d"
using ‹0 < b› that by force
then show False
using ‹0 < b› ‹b < k› ‹coprime h k› ‹k = b * d› by auto
qed
then have 0: "0 < ¦a*k - b*h¦"
by auto
have "¦a*k - b*h¦ < b/k"
using ‹k>0› ‹b>0› hk by (simp add: field_simps eval_nat_numeral)
also have "… < 1"
by (simp add: ‹0 < k› ‹b < k›)
finally show False
using 0 by linarith
qed
next
assume fin: "finite (approx_set θ)"
show "θ ∈ ℚ"
proof (rule ccontr)
assume irr: "θ ∉ ℚ"
define A where "A ≡ ((λ(h,k). ¦θ - h/k¦)  approx_set θ)"
let ?α = "Min A"
have "0 ∉ A"
using irr by (auto simp: A_def approx_set_def)
moreover have "∀x∈A. x≥0" and A: "finite A" "A ≠ {}"
using approx_set_nonempty by (auto simp: A_def fin)
ultimately have α: "?α > 0"
using Min_in by force
then obtain N where N: "real N > 1 / ?α"
using reals_Archimedean2 by blast
have "0 < 1 / ?α"
using α by auto
also have "… < real N"
by (fact N)
finally have "N > 0"
by simp
from N have "1/N < ?α"
by (simp add: α divide_less_eq mult.commute)
then obtain h k where "coprime h k" "0 < k" "k ≤ int N" "¦of_int k * θ - of_int h¦ < 1/N"
by (metis Dirichlet_approx_coprime α N divide_less_0_1_iff less_le not_less_iff_gr_or_eq of_nat_0_le_iff of_nat_le_iff of_nat_0)
then have §: "¦θ - h/k¦ < 1 / (k*N)"
also have "… ≤ 1/k⇧2"
using ‹k ≤ int N› by (simp add: eval_nat_numeral divide_simps)
finally have hk_in: "(h,k) ∈ approx_set θ"
using ‹0 < k› ‹coprime h k› by (auto simp: approx_set_def)
then have "¦θ - h/k¦ ∈ A"
by (auto simp: A_def)
moreover have "1 / real_of_int (k * int N) < ?α"
proof -
have "1 / real_of_int (k * int N) = 1 / real N / of_int k"
by simp
also have "… < ?α / of_int k"
using ‹k > 0› α ‹N > 0› N by (intro divide_strict_right_mono) (auto simp: field_simps)
also have "… ≤ ?α / 1"
using α ‹k > 0› by (intro divide_left_mono) auto
finally show ?thesis
by simp
qed
ultimately show False using A § by auto
qed
qed

text ‹No formalisation of Liouville's Approximation Theorem because this is already in the AFP
as Liouville\_Numbers. Apostol's Theorem 7.5 should be exactly the theorem
liouville\_irrational\_algebraic. There is a minor discrepancy in the definition
of "Liouville number" between Apostol and Eberl: he requires the denominator to be
positive, while Eberl require it to exceed 1.›

section ‹Kronecker's Approximation Theorem: the One-dimensional Case›

lemma frac_int_mult:
assumes "m > 0" and le: "1-frac r ≤ 1/m"
shows "1 - frac (of_int m * r) = m * (1 - frac r)"
proof -
have "frac (of_int m * r) = 1 - m * (1 - frac r)"
proof (subst frac_unique_iff, intro conjI)
show "of_int m * r - (1 - of_int m * (1 - frac r)) ∈ ℤ"
qed (use assms in ‹auto simp: divide_simps mult_ac frac_lt_1›)
then show ?thesis
by simp
qed

text ‹Concrete statement of Theorem 7.7, and the real proof›
theorem Kronecker_approx_1_explicit:
fixes θ :: real
assumes "θ ∉ ℚ" and α: "0 ≤ α" "α ≤ 1" and "ε > 0"
obtains k where "k>0" "¦frac(real k * θ) - α¦ < ε"
proof -
obtain N::nat where "1/N < ε" "N > 0"
by (metis ‹ε > 0› gr_zeroI inverse_eq_divide real_arch_inverse)
then obtain h k where "0 < k" and hk: "¦of_int k * θ - of_int h¦ < ε"
using Dirichlet_approx that by (metis less_trans)
have irrat: "of_int n * θ ∈ ℚ ⟹ n = 0" for n
by (metis Rats_divide Rats_of_int assms(1) nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left of_int_0_eq_iff)
then consider "of_int k * θ < of_int h" | "of_int k * θ > of_int h"
by (metis Rats_of_int ‹0 < k› less_irrefl linorder_neqE_linordered_idom)
then show thesis
proof cases
case 1
define ξ where "ξ ≡ 1 - frac (of_int k * θ)"
have pos: "ξ > 0"
define N where "N ≡ ⌊1/ξ⌋"
have "N > 0"
by (simp add: N_def ξ_def frac_lt_1)
have False if "1/ξ ∈ ℤ"
proof -
from that of_int_ceiling
obtain r where r: "of_int r = 1/ξ" by blast
then obtain s where s: "of_int k * θ = of_int s + 1 - 1/r"
from r pos s ‹k > 0› have "θ = (of_int s + 1 - 1/r) / k"
by (auto simp: field_simps)
with assms show False
by simp
qed
then have N0: "N < 1/ξ"
unfolding N_def by (metis Ints_of_int floor_correct less_le)
then have N2: "1/(N+1) < ξ"
unfolding N_def by (smt (verit) divide_less_0_iff divide_less_eq floor_correct mult.commute pos)
have "ξ * (N+1) > 1"
by (smt (verit) N2 ‹0 < N› of_int_1_less_iff pos_divide_less_eq)
then have ex: "∃m. int m ≤ N+1 ∧ 1-α < m * ξ"
by (smt (verit, best) ‹0 < N› ‹0 ≤ α› floor_of_int floor_of_nat mult.commute of_nat_nat)
define m where "m ≡ LEAST m. int m ≤ N+1 ∧ 1-α < m * ξ"
have m: "int m ≤ N+1 ∧ 1-α < m * ξ"
using LeastI_ex [OF ex] unfolding m_def by blast
have "m > 0"
using m gr0I ‹α ≤ 1› by force
have kθ: "ξ < ε"
using hk 1 by (smt (verit, best) floor_eq_iff frac_def ξ_def)
show thesis
proof (cases "m=1")
case True
then have "¦frac (real (nat k) * θ) - α¦ < ε"
using m ‹α ≤ 1› ‹0 < k› ξ_def kθ by force
with ‹0 < k› zero_less_nat_eq that show thesis by blast
next
case False
with ‹0 < m› have "m>1" by linarith
have "ξ < 1 / N"
by (metis N0 ‹0 < N› mult_of_int_commute of_int_pos pos pos_less_divide_eq)
also have "… ≤ 1 / (real m - 1)"
using ‹m > 1› m by (simp add: divide_simps)
finally have "ξ < 1 / (real m - 1)" .
then have m1_eq: "(int m - 1) * ξ = 1 - frac (of_int ((int m - 1) * k) * θ)"
using frac_int_mult [of "(int m - 1)" "k * θ"] ‹1 < m›
then
have m1_eq': "frac (of_int ((int m - 1) * k) * θ) = 1 - (int m - 1) * ξ"
by simp
moreover have "(m - Suc 0) * ξ ≤ 1-α"
using Least_le [where k="m-Suc 0"] m
by (smt (verit, best) Suc_n_not_le_n Suc_pred ‹0 < m› m_def of_nat_le_iff)
ultimately have leα: " α ≤ frac (of_int ((int m - 1) * k) * θ)"
by (simp add: Suc_leI ‹0 < m› of_nat_diff)
moreover have "m * ξ + frac (of_int ((int m - 1) * k) * θ) = ξ + 1"
by (subst m1_eq') (simp add: ξ_def algebra_simps)
ultimately have "¦frac ((int (m - 1) * k) * θ) - α¦ < ε"
by (smt (verit, best) One_nat_def Suc_leI ‹0 < m› int_ops(2) kθ m of_nat_diff)
with that show thesis
by (metis ‹0 < k› ‹1 < m› mult_pos_pos of_int_of_nat_eq of_nat_mult pos_int_cases zero_less_diff)
qed
next
case 2
define ξ where "ξ ≡ frac (of_int k * θ)"
have recip_frac: False if "1/ξ ∈ ℤ"
proof -
have "frac (of_int k * θ) ∈ ℚ"
using that unfolding ξ_def
by (metis Ints_cases Rats_1 Rats_divide Rats_of_int div_by_1 divide_divide_eq_right mult_cancel_right2)
then show False
using ‹0 < k› frac_in_Rats_iff irrat by blast
qed
have pos: "ξ > 0"
by (metis ξ_def Ints_0 division_ring_divide_zero frac_unique_iff less_le recip_frac)
define N where "N ≡ ⌊1 / ξ⌋"
have "N > 0"
unfolding N_def
by (smt (verit) ξ_def divide_less_eq_1_pos floor_less_one frac_lt_1 pos)
have N0: "N < 1 / ξ"
unfolding N_def by (metis Ints_of_int floor_eq_iff less_le recip_frac)
then have N2: "1/(N+1) < ξ"
unfolding N_def
by (smt (verit, best) divide_less_0_iff divide_less_eq floor_correct mult.commute pos)
have "ξ * (N+1) > 1"
by (smt (verit) N2 ‹0 < N› of_int_1_less_iff pos_divide_less_eq)
then have ex: "∃m. int m ≤ N+1 ∧ α < m * ξ"
by (smt (verit, best) mult.commute ‹α ≤ 1› ‹0 < N› of_int_of_nat_eq pos_int_cases)
define m where "m ≡ LEAST m. int m ≤ N+1 ∧ α < m * ξ"
have m: "int m ≤ N+1 ∧ α < m * ξ"
using LeastI_ex [OF ex] unfolding m_def by blast
have "m > 0"
using ‹0 ≤ α› m gr0I by force
have kθ: "ξ < ε"
using hk 2 unfolding ξ_def by (smt (verit, best) floor_eq_iff frac_def)
have mk_eq: "frac (of_int (m*k) * θ) = m * frac (of_int k * θ)"
if "m>0" "frac (of_int k * θ) < 1/m" for m k
proof (subst frac_unique_iff , intro conjI)
show "real_of_int (m * k) * θ - real_of_int m * frac (real_of_int k * θ) ∈ ℤ"
qed (use that in ‹auto simp: divide_simps mult_ac›)
show thesis
proof (cases "m=1")
case True
then have "¦frac (real (nat k) * θ) - α¦ < ε"
using m α ‹0 < k› ξ_def kθ by force
with ‹0 < k› zero_less_nat_eq that show ?thesis by blast
next
case False
with ‹0 < m› have "m>1" by linarith
with ‹0 < k› have mk_pos:"(m - Suc 0) * nat k > 0" by force
have "real_of_int (int m - 1) < 1 / frac (real_of_int k * θ)"
using N0 ξ_def m by force
then
have m1_eq: "(int m - 1) * ξ = frac (((int m - 1) * k) * θ)"
using m mk_eq [of "int m-1" k] pos ‹m>1› by (simp add: divide_simps mult_ac ξ_def)
moreover have "(m - Suc 0) * ξ ≤ α"
using Least_le [where k="m-Suc 0"] m
by (smt (verit, best) Suc_n_not_le_n Suc_pred ‹0 < m› m_def of_nat_le_iff)
ultimately have leα: "frac (of_int ((int m - 1) * k) * θ) ≤ α"
by (simp add: Suc_leI ‹0 < m› of_nat_diff)
moreover have "(m * ξ - frac (of_int ((int m - 1) * k) * θ)) < ε"
mult_cancel_right2 of_int_1 of_int_diff of_int_of_nat_eq)
ultimately have "¦frac (real( (m - 1) * nat k) * θ) - α¦ < ε"
using ‹0 < k› ‹0 < m› by simp (smt (verit, best) One_nat_def Suc_leI m of_nat_1 of_nat_diff)
with  ‹m > 0› that show thesis
using mk_pos One_nat_def by presburger
qed
qed
qed

text ‹Theorem 7.7 expressed more abstractly using @{term closure}›
corollary Kronecker_approx_1:
fixes θ :: real
assumes "θ ∉ ℚ"
shows "closure (range (λn. frac (real n * θ))) = {0..1}"  (is "?C = _")
proof -
have "∃k>0. ¦frac(real k * θ) - α¦ < ε" if "0 ≤ α" "α ≤ 1" "ε > 0" for α ε
by (meson Kronecker_approx_1_explicit assms that)
then have "x ∈ ?C" if "0 ≤ x" "x ≤ 1" for x :: real
using that by (auto simp add: closure_approachable dist_real_def)
moreover
have "(range (λn. frac (real n * θ))) ⊆ {0..1}"
by (smt (verit) atLeastAtMost_iff frac_unique_iff image_subset_iff)
then have "?C ⊆ {0..1}"
ultimately show ?thesis by auto
qed

text ‹The next theorem removes the restriction $0 \leq \alpha \leq 1$.›

text ‹Theorem 7.8›
corollary sequence_of_fractional_parts_is_dense:
fixes θ :: real
assumes "θ ∉ ℚ" "ε > 0"
obtains h k where "k > 0" "¦of_int k * θ - of_int h - α¦ < ε"
proof -
obtain k where "k>0" "¦frac(real k * θ) - frac α¦ < ε"
by (metis Kronecker_approx_1_explicit assms frac_ge_0 frac_lt_1 less_le_not_le)
then have "¦real_of_int k * θ - real_of_int (⌊k * θ⌋ - ⌊α⌋) - α¦ < ε"
by (auto simp: frac_def)
then show thesis
by (meson ‹0 < k› of_nat_0_less_iff that)
qed

section ‹Extension of Kronecker's Theorem to Simultaneous Approximation›

subsection ‹Towards Lemma 1›

lemma integral_exp:
assumes  "T ≥ 0" "a≠0"
shows "integral {0..T} (λt. exp(a * complex_of_real t)) = (exp(a * of_real T) - 1) / a"
proof -
have "⋀t. t ∈ {0..T} ⟹ ((λx. exp (a * x) / a) has_vector_derivative exp (a * t)) (at t within {0..T})"
using assms
by (intro derivative_eq_intros has_complex_derivative_imp_has_vector_derivative [unfolded o_def] | simp)+
then have "((λt. exp(a * of_real t)) has_integral exp(a * complex_of_real T)/a - exp(a * of_real 0)/a)  {0..T}"
by (meson fundamental_theorem_of_calculus ‹T ≥ 0›)
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma Kronecker_simult_aux1:
fixes η:: "nat ⇒ real" and c:: "nat ⇒ complex" and N::nat
assumes inj: "inj_on η {..N}" and "k ≤ N"
defines "f ≡ λt. ∑r≤N. c r * exp(𝗂 * of_real t * η r)"
shows "((λT. (1/T) * integral {0..T} (λt. f t * exp(-𝗂 * of_real t * η k))) ⤏ c k) at_top"
proof -
define F where "F ≡ λk t. f t * exp(-𝗂 * of_real t * η k)"
have f: "F k = (λt. ∑r≤N. c r * exp(𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real t))"
by (simp add: F_def f_def sum_distrib_left field_simps exp_diff exp_minus)
have *: "integral {0..T} (F k)
= c k * T + (∑r ∈ {..N}-{k}. c r * integral {0..T} (λt. exp(𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real t)))"
if "T > 0" for T
using ‹k ≤ N› that
by (simp add: f integral_sum integrable_continuous_interval continuous_intros Groups_Big.sum_diff scaleR_conv_of_real)

have **: "(1/T) * integral {0..T} (F k)
= c k + (∑r ∈ {..N}-{k}. c r * (exp(𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real T) - 1) / (𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real T))"
if "T > 0" for T
proof -
have I: "integral {0..T} (λt. exp (𝗂 * (complex_of_real t * η r) - 𝗂 * (complex_of_real t * η k)))
= (exp(𝗂 * (η r - η k) * T) - 1) / (𝗂 * (η r - η k))"
if "r ≤ N" "r ≠ k" for r
using that ‹k ≤ N› inj ‹T > 0› integral_exp [of T "𝗂 * (η r - η k)"]
show ?thesis
using that by (subst *) (auto simp add: algebra_simps sum_divide_distrib I)
qed
have "((λT. c r * (exp(𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real T) - 1) / (𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real T)) ⤏ 0) at_top"
for r
proof -
have "((λx. (cos ((η r - η k) * x) - 1) / x) ⤏ 0) at_top"
"((λx. sin ((η r - η k) * x) / x) ⤏ 0) at_top"
by real_asymp+
hence "((λT. (exp (𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real T) - 1) / of_real T) ⤏ 0) at_top"
by (simp add: tendsto_complex_iff Re_exp Im_exp)
from tendsto_mult[OF this tendsto_const[of "c r / (𝗂 * (η r - η k))"]] show ?thesis
qed
then have "((λT. c k + (∑r ∈ {..N}-{k}. c r * (exp(𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real T) - 1) /
(𝗂 * (η r - η k) * of_real T))) ⤏ c k + 0) at_top"
also have "?this ⟷ ?thesis"
proof (rule filterlim_cong)
show "∀⇩F x in at_top. c k + (∑r∈{..N} - {k}. c r * (exp (𝗂 * of_real (η r - η k) * of_real x) - 1) /
(𝗂 * of_real (η r - η k) * of_real x)) =
1 / of_real x * integral {0..x} (λt. f t * exp (- 𝗂 * of_real t * of_real (η k)))"
using eventually_gt_at_top[of 0]
proof eventually_elim
case (elim T)
show ?case
using **[of T] elim by (simp add: F_def)
qed
qed auto
finally show ?thesis .
qed

text ‹the version of Lemma 1 that we actually need›
lemma Kronecker_simult_aux1_strict:
fixes η:: "nat ⇒ real" and c:: "nat ⇒ complex" and N::nat
assumes η: "inj_on η {..<N}" "0 ∉ η  {..<N}" and "k < N"
defines "f ≡ λt. 1 + (∑r<N. c r * exp(𝗂 * of_real t * η r))"
shows "((λT. (1/T) * integral {0..T} (λt. f t * exp(-𝗂 * of_real t * η k))) ⤏ c k) at_top"
proof -
define c' where "c' ≡ case_nat 1 c"
define η' where "η' ≡ case_nat 0 η"
define f' where "f' ≡ λt. (∑r≤N. c' r * exp(𝗂 * of_real t * η' r))"
have "inj_on η' {..N}"
using η by (auto simp: η'_def inj_on_def split: nat.split_asm)
moreover have "Suc k ≤ N"
using ‹k < N› by auto
ultimately have "((λT. 1 / T * integral {0..T} (λt. (∑r≤N. c' r * exp (𝗂 * of_real t * η' r)) *
exp (- 𝗂 * t * η' (Suc k)))) ⤏ c' (Suc k))
at_top"
by (intro Kronecker_simult_aux1)
moreover have "(∑r≤N. c' r * exp (𝗂 * of_real t * η' r)) = 1 + (∑r<N. c r * exp (𝗂 * of_real t * η r))" for t
by (simp add: c'_def η'_def sum.atMost_shift)
ultimately show ?thesis
by (simp add: f_def c'_def η'_def)
qed

subsection ‹Towards Lemma 2›

lemma cos_monotone_aux: "⟦¦2 * pi * of_int i + x¦ ≤ y; y ≤ pi⟧ ⟹ cos y ≤ cos x"
by (metis add.commute abs_ge_zero cos_abs_real cos_monotone_0_pi_le sin_cos_eq_iff)

lemma Figure7_1:
assumes "0 ≤ ε" "ε ≤ ¦x¦" "¦x¦ ≤ pi"
shows "cmod (1 + exp (𝗂 * x)) ≤ cmod (1 + exp (𝗂 * ε))"
proof -
have norm_eq: "sqrt (2 * (1 + cos t)) = cmod (1 + cis t)" for t
by (simp add: norm_complex_def power2_eq_square algebra_simps)
have "cos ¦x¦ ≤ cos ε"
by (rule cos_monotone_0_pi_le) (use assms in auto)
hence "sqrt (2 * (1 + cos ¦x¦)) ≤ sqrt (2 * (1 + cos ε))"
by simp
also have "cos ¦x¦ = cos x"
by simp
finally show ?thesis
unfolding norm_eq by (simp add: cis_conv_exp)
qed

lemma Kronecker_simult_aux2:
fixes α:: "nat ⇒ real" and θ:: "nat ⇒ real" and n::nat
defines "F ≡ λt. 1 + (∑r<n. exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * (t * θ r - α r))))"
defines "L ≡ Sup (range (norm ∘ F))"
shows "(∀ε>0. ∃t h. ∀r<n. ¦t * θ r - α r - of_int (h r)¦ < ε) ⟷ L = Suc n" (is "?lhs = _")
proof
assume ?lhs
then have "⋀k. ∃t h. ∀r<n. ¦t * θ r - α r - of_int (h r)¦ < 1 / (2 * pi * Suc k)"
by simp
then obtain t h where th: "⋀k r. r<n ⟹ ¦t k * θ r - α r - of_int (h k r)¦ < 1 / (2 * pi * Suc k)"
by metis
have Fle: "⋀x. cmod (F x) ≤ real (Suc n)"
by (force simp: F_def intro: order_trans [OF norm_triangle_ineq] order_trans [OF norm_sum])
then have boundedF: "bounded (range F)"
by (metis bounded_iff rangeE)
have leL: "1 + n * cos(1 / Suc k) ≤ L" for k
proof -
have *: "cos (1 / Suc k) ≤ cos (2 * pi * (t k * θ r - α r))" if "r<n" for r
proof (rule cos_monotone_aux)
have "¦2 * pi * (- h k r) + 2 * pi * (t k * θ r - α r)¦ ≤ ¦t k * θ r - α r - h k r¦ * 2 * pi"
by (simp add: algebra_simps abs_mult_pos abs_mult_pos')
also have "… ≤ 1 / real (Suc k)"
using th [OF that, of k] by (simp add: divide_simps)
finally show "¦2 * pi * real_of_int (- h k r) + 2 * pi * (t k * θ r - α r)¦ ≤ 1 / real (Suc k)" .
have "1 / real (Suc k) ≤ 1"
by auto
then show "1 / real (Suc k) ≤ pi"
using pi_ge_two by linarith
qed
have "1 + n * cos(1 / Suc k) = 1 + (∑r<n. cos(1 / Suc k))"
by simp
also have "… ≤ 1 + (∑r<n. cos (2 * pi * (t k * θ r - α r)))"
using * by (intro add_mono sum_mono) auto
also have "… ≤ Re (F(t k))"
also have "… ≤ norm (F(t k))"
also have "… ≤ L"
by (simp add: L_def boundedF bounded_norm_le_SUP_norm)
finally show ?thesis .
qed
show "L = Suc n"
proof (rule antisym)
show "L ≤ Suc n"
using Fle by (auto simp add: L_def intro: cSup_least)
have "((λk. 1 + real n * cos (1 / real (Suc k))) ⤏ 1 + real n) at_top"
by real_asymp
with LIMSEQ_le_const2 leL show "Suc n ≤ L"
by fastforce
qed
next
assume L: "L = Suc n"
show ?lhs
proof (rule ccontr)
assume "¬ ?lhs"
then obtain e0 where "e0>0" and e0: "⋀t h. ∃k<n. ¦t * θ k - α k - of_int (h k)¦ ≥ e0"
by (force simp: not_less)
define ε where "ε ≡ min e0 (pi/4)"
have ε: "⋀t h. ∃k<n. ¦t * θ k - α k - of_int (h k)¦ ≥ ε"
unfolding ε_def using e0 min.coboundedI1 by blast
have ε_bounds: "ε > 0" "ε < pi" "ε ≤ pi/4"
using ‹e0 > 0› by (auto simp: ε_def min_def)
with sin_gt_zero have "sin ε > 0"
by blast
then have "¬ collinear{0, 1, exp (𝗂 * ε)}"
using collinear_iff_Reals cis.sel cis_conv_exp complex_is_Real_iff by force
then have "norm (1 + exp (𝗂 * ε)) < 2"
using norm_triangle_eq_imp_collinear
by (smt (verit) linorder_not_le norm_exp_i_times norm_one norm_triangle_lt)
then obtain δ where "δ > 0" and δ: "norm (1 + exp (𝗂 * ε)) = 2 - δ"
by (smt (verit, best))
have "norm (F t) ≤ n+1-δ" for t
proof -
define h where "h ≡ λr. round (t * θ r - α r)"
define X where "X ≡ λr. t * θ r - α r - h r"
have "exp (𝗂 * (of_int j * (of_real pi * 2))) = 1" for j
then have exp_X: "exp (𝗂 * (2 * of_real pi * of_real (X r)))
= exp (𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * (t * θ r - α r)))" for r
have norm_pr_12: "X r ∈ {-1/2..<1/2}" for r
by (smt (verit, best) abs_of_nonneg half_bounded_equal of_int_round_abs_le of_int_round_gt)
obtain k where "k<n" and 1: "¦X k¦ ≥ ε"
using X_def ε [of t h] by auto
have 2: "2*pi ≥ 1"
using pi_ge_two by auto
have "¦2 * pi * X k¦ ≥ ε"
using mult_mono [OF 2 1] pi_ge_zero by linarith
moreover
have "¦2 * pi * X k¦ ≤ pi"
using norm_pr_12 [of k] apply (simp add: abs_if field_simps)
by (smt (verit, best) divide_le_eq_1_pos divide_minus_left m2pi_less_pi nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left)
ultimately
have *: "norm (1 + exp (𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * X k))) ≤ norm (1 + exp (𝗂 * ε))"
using Figure7_1[of ε "2 * pi * X k"] ε_bounds by linarith
have "norm (F t) = norm (1 + (∑r<n. exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * (X r)))))"
by (auto simp: F_def exp_X)
also have "… ≤ norm (1 + exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * X k)) + (∑r ∈ {..<n}-{k}. exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * X r))))"
also have "… ≤ norm (1 + exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * X k))) + (∑r ∈ {..<n}-{k}. norm (exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * X r))))"
by (intro norm_triangle_mono sum_norm_le order_refl)
also have "… ≤ (2 - δ) + (n - 1)"
using ‹k < n› δ
by simp (metis "*" mult_2 of_real_add of_real_mult)
also have "… = n + 1 - δ"
using ‹k < n› by simp
finally show ?thesis .
qed
then have "L ≤ 1 + real n - δ"
by (auto simp: L_def intro: cSup_least)
with L ‹δ > 0› show False
by linarith
qed
qed

subsection ‹Towards lemma 3›

text ‹The text doesn't say so, but the generated polynomial needs to be "clean":
all coefficients nonzero, and with no exponent string mentioned more than once.
And no constant terms (with all exponents zero).›

text ‹Some tools for combining integer-indexed sequences or splitting them into parts›

lemma less_sum_nat_iff:
fixes b::nat and k::nat
shows "b < (∑i<k. a i) ⟷ (∃j<k. (∑i<j. a i) ≤ b ∧ b < (∑i<j. a i) + a j)"
proof (induction k arbitrary: b)
case (Suc k)
then show ?case
qed auto

lemma less_sum_nat_iff_uniq:
fixes b::nat and k::nat
shows "b < (∑i<k. a i) ⟷ (∃!j. j<k ∧ (∑i<j. a i) ≤ b ∧ b < (∑i<j. a i) + a j)"
unfolding less_sum_nat_iff by (meson leD less_sum_nat_iff nat_neq_iff)

definition part :: "(nat ⇒ nat) ⇒ nat ⇒ nat ⇒ nat"
where "part a k b ≡ (THE j. j<k ∧ (∑i<j. a i) ≤ b ∧ b < (∑i<j. a i) + a j)"

lemma part:
"b < (∑i<k. a i) ⟷ (let j = part a k b in j < k ∧ (∑i < j. a i) ≤ b ∧ b < (∑i < j. a i) + a j)"
(is "?lhs = ?rhs")
proof
assume ?lhs
then show ?rhs
unfolding less_sum_nat_iff_uniq part_def by (metis (no_types, lifting) theI')
qed (auto simp: less_sum_nat_iff Let_def)

lemma part_Suc: "part a (Suc k) b = (if sum a {..<k} ≤ b ∧ b < sum a {..<k} + a k then k else part a k b)"
using leD
by (fastforce simp: part_def less_Suc_eq less_sum_nat_iff conj_disj_distribR cong: conj_cong)

text ‹The polynomial expansions used in Lemma 3›

definition gpoly :: "[nat, nat⇒complex, nat, nat⇒nat, [nat,nat]⇒nat] ⇒ complex"
where "gpoly n x N a r ≡ (∑k<N. a k * (∏i<n. x i ^ r k i))"

lemma gpoly_cong:
assumes "⋀k. k < N ⟹ a' k = a k" "⋀k i. ⟦k < N; i<n⟧ ⟹ r' k i = r k i"
shows "gpoly n x N a r = gpoly n x N a' r'"
using assms by (auto simp: gpoly_def)

lemma gpoly_inc: "gpoly n x N a r = gpoly (Suc n) x N a (λk. (r k)(n:=0))"
by (simp add: gpoly_def algebra_simps sum_distrib_left)

lemma monom_times_gpoly: "gpoly n x N a r * x n ^ q = gpoly (Suc n) x N a (λk. (r k)(n:=q))"
by (simp add: gpoly_def algebra_simps sum_distrib_left)

lemma const_times_gpoly: "e * gpoly n x N a r = gpoly n x N ((*)e ∘ a) r"
by (simp add: gpoly_def sum_distrib_left mult.assoc)

lemma one_plus_gpoly: "1 + gpoly n x N a r = gpoly n x (Suc N) (a(N:=1)) (r(N:=(λ_. 0)))"

"gpoly n x N a r + gpoly n x N' a' r'
= gpoly n x (N+N') (λk. if k<N then a k else a' (k-N)) (λk. if k<N then r k else r' (k-N))"
proof -
have "{..<N+N'} = {..<N} ∪ {N..<N+N'}" "{..<N} ∩ {N..<N + N'} = {}"
by auto
then show ?thesis
by (simp add: gpoly_def sum.union_disjoint sum.atLeastLessThan_shift_0[of _ N] atLeast0LessThan)
qed

lemma gpoly_sum:
fixes n Nf af rf p
defines "N ≡ sum Nf {..<p}"
defines "a ≡ λk. let q = (part Nf p k) in af q (k - sum Nf {..<q})"
defines "r ≡ λk. let q = (part Nf p k) in rf q (k - sum Nf {..<q})"
shows "(∑q<p. gpoly n x (Nf q) (af q) (rf q)) = gpoly n x N a r"
unfolding N_def a_def r_def
proof (induction p)
case 0
then show ?case
next
case (Suc p)
then show ?case
by (auto simp: gpoly_add Let_def part_Suc intro: gpoly_cong)
qed

text ‹For excluding constant terms: with all exponents zero›
definition nontriv_exponents :: "[nat, nat, [nat,nat]⇒nat] ⇒ bool"
where "nontriv_exponents n N r ≡ ∀k<N. ∃i<n. r k i ≠ 0"

"⟦nontriv_exponents n M r; nontriv_exponents (Suc n) N r'⟧ ⟹
nontriv_exponents (Suc n) (M + N) (λk. if k<M then r k else r' (k-M))"
by (force simp add: nontriv_exponents_def less_Suc_eq)

lemma nontriv_exponents_sum:
assumes "⋀q. q < p ⟹ nontriv_exponents n (N q) (r q)"
shows "nontriv_exponents n (sum N {..<p}) (λk. let q = part N p k in r q (k - sum N {..<q}))"
using assms by (simp add: nontriv_exponents_def less_diff_conv2 part Let_def)

definition uniq_exponents :: "[nat, nat, [nat,nat]⇒nat] ⇒ bool"
where "uniq_exponents n N r ≡ ∀k<N. ∀k'<k. ∃i<n. r k i ≠ r k' i"

lemma uniq_exponents_inj: "uniq_exponents n N r ⟹ inj_on r {..<N}"
by (smt (verit, best) inj_on_def lessThan_iff linorder_cases uniq_exponents_def)

text ‹All coefficients must be nonzero›
definition nonzero_coeffs :: "[nat, nat⇒nat] ⇒ bool"
where "nonzero_coeffs N a ≡ ∀k<N. a k ≠ 0"

text ‹Any polynomial expansion can be cleaned up, removing zero coeffs, etc.›
lemma gpoly_uniq_exponents:
obtains N' a' r'
where "⋀x. gpoly n x N a r = gpoly n x N' a' r'"
"uniq_exponents n N' r'" "nonzero_coeffs N' a'" "N' ≤ N"
"nontriv_exponents n N r ⟹ nontriv_exponents n N' r'"
proof (cases "∀k<N. a k = 0")
case True
show thesis
proof
show "gpoly n x N a r = gpoly n x 0 a r" for x
by (auto simp: gpoly_def True)
qed (auto simp: uniq_exponents_def nonzero_coeffs_def nontriv_exponents_def)
next
case False
define cut where "cut f i ≡ if i<n then f i else (0::nat)" for f i
define R where "R ≡ cut  r  ({..<N} ∩ {k. a k > 0})"
define N' where "N' ≡ card R"
define r' where "r' ≡ from_nat_into R"
define a' where "a' ≡ λk'. ∑k<N. if r' k' = cut (r k) then a k else 0"
have "finite R"
using R_def by blast
then have bij: "bij_betw r' {..<N'} R"
using bij_betw_from_nat_into_finite N'_def r'_def by blast
have 1: "card {i. i < N' ∧ r' i = cut (r k)} = Suc 0"
if "k < N" "a k > 0" for k
proof -
have "card {i. i < N' ∧ r' i = cut (r k)} ≤ Suc 0"
using bij by (simp add: card_le_Suc0_iff_eq bij_betw_iff_bijections Ball_def) metis
moreover have "card {i. i < N' ∧ r' i = cut (r k)} > 0"
using bij that by (auto simp: card_gt_0_iff bij_betw_iff_bijections R_def)
ultimately show "card {i. i < N' ∧ r' i = cut (r k)} = Suc 0"
using that by auto
qed
show thesis
proof
have "∃i<n. r' k i ≠ r' k' i" if "k < N'" and "k' < k" for k k'
proof -
have "k' < N'"
using order.strict_trans that by blast
then have "r' k ≠ r' k'"
by (metis bij bij_betw_iff_bijections lessThan_iff nat_neq_iff that)
moreover obtain sk sk' where "r' k = cut sk" "r' k' = cut sk'"
by (metis R_def ‹k < N'› ‹k' < N'› bij bij_betwE image_iff lessThan_iff)
ultimately show ?thesis
using local.cut_def by force
qed
then show "uniq_exponents n N' r'"
by (auto simp: uniq_exponents_def R_def)
have "R ⊆ (cut ∘ r)  {..<N}"
by (auto simp: R_def)
then show "N' ≤ N"
unfolding N'_def by (metis card_lessThan finite_lessThan surj_card_le)
show "gpoly n x N a r = gpoly n x N' a' r'" for x
proof -
have "a k * (∏i<n. x i ^ r k i)
= (∑i<N'. (if r' i = cut (r k) then of_nat (a k) else of_nat 0) * (∏j<n. x j ^ r' i j))"
if "k<N" for k
using that
by (cases"a k = 0")
(simp_all add: if_distrib [of "λv. v * _"] 1 cut_def flip: sum.inter_filter cong: if_cong)
then show ?thesis
by (simp add: gpoly_def a'_def sum_distrib_right sum.swap [where A="{..<N'}"] if_distrib [of of_nat])
qed
show "nontriv_exponents n N' r'" if ne: "nontriv_exponents n N r"
proof -
have "∃i<n. 0 < r' k' i" if "k' < N'" for k'
proof -
have "r' k' ∈ R"
using bij bij_betwE that by blast
then obtain k where "k<N" and k: "r' k' = cut (r k)"
using R_def by blast
with ne obtain i where "i<n" "r k i > 0"
by (auto simp: nontriv_exponents_def)
then show ?thesis
using k local.cut_def by auto
qed
then show ?thesis
qed
have "0 < a' k'" if "k' < N'" for k'
proof -
have "r' k' ∈ R"
using bij bij_betwE that by blast
then obtain k where "k<N" "a k > 0" "r' k' = cut (r k)"
using R_def by blast
then have False if "a' k' = 0"
using that by (force simp add: a'_def Ball_def )
then show ?thesis
by blast
qed
then show "nonzero_coeffs N' a'"
by (auto simp: nonzero_coeffs_def)
qed
qed

lemma Kronecker_simult_aux3:
"∃N a r. (∀x. (1 + (∑i<n. x i))^p = 1 + gpoly n x N a r) ∧ Suc N ≤ (p+1)^n
∧ nontriv_exponents n N r"
proof (induction n arbitrary: p)
case 0
then show ?case
by (auto simp: gpoly_def nontriv_exponents_def nonzero_coeffs_def)
next
case (Suc n)
then obtain Nf af rf
where feq: "⋀q x. (1 + (∑i<n. x i)) ^ q = 1 + gpoly n x (Nf q) (af q) (rf q)"
and Nle: "⋀q. Suc (Nf q) ≤ (q+1)^n"
and nontriv: "⋀q. nontriv_exponents n (Nf q) (rf q)"
by metis
define N where "N ≡ Nf p + (∑q<p. Suc (Nf q))"
define a where "a ≡ λk. if k < Nf p then af p k
else let q = part (λt. Suc (Nf t)) p (k - Nf p)
in (p choose q) *
(if k - Nf p - (∑t<q. Suc (Nf t)) = Nf q then Suc 0
else af q (k - Nf p - (∑t<q. Suc(Nf t))))"
define r where "r ≡ λk. if k < Nf p then (rf p k)(n := 0)
else let q = part (λt. Suc (Nf t)) p (k - Nf p)
in (if k - Nf p - (∑t<q. Suc (Nf t)) = Nf q then λ_. 0
else rf q (k - Nf p - (∑t<q. Suc(Nf t))))  (n := p-q)"
have peq: "{..p} = insert p {..<p}"
by auto
have "nontriv_exponents n (Nf p) (λi. (rf p i)(n := 0))"
"⋀q. q<p ⟹ nontriv_exponents (Suc n) (Suc (Nf q)) (λk. (if k = Nf q then λ_. 0 else rf q k) (n := p - q))"
using nontriv by (fastforce simp: nontriv_exponents_def)+
then have "nontriv_exponents (Suc n) N r"
unfolding N_def r_def by (intro nontriv_exponents_add nontriv_exponents_sum)
moreover
{ fix x :: "nat ⇒ complex"
have "(1 + (∑i < Suc n. x i)) ^ p = (1 + (∑i<n. x i) + x n) ^ p"
also have "… = (∑q≤p. (p choose q) * (1 + (∑i<n. x i))^q * x n^(p-q))"
also have "… = (∑q≤p. (p choose q) * (1 + gpoly n x (Nf q) (af q) (rf q)) * x n^(p-q))"
also have "… = 1 + (gpoly n x (Nf p) (af p) (rf p) + (∑q<p. (p choose q) * (1 + gpoly n x (Nf q) (af q) (rf q)) * x n^(p-q)))"
by (simp add: algebra_simps sum.distrib peq)
also have "… = 1 + gpoly (Suc n) x N a r"
apply (subst one_plus_gpoly)
apply (simp add: const_times_gpoly monom_times_gpoly gpoly_sum)
done
finally have "(1 + sum x {..<Suc n}) ^ p = 1 + gpoly (Suc n) x N a r" .
}
moreover have "Suc N ≤ (p + 1) ^ Suc n"
proof -
have "Suc N = (∑q≤p. Suc (Nf q))"
also have "… ≤ (∑q≤p. (q+1)^n)"
by (meson Nle sum_mono)
also have "… ≤ (∑q≤p. (p+1)^n)"
by (force intro!: sum_mono power_mono)
also have "… ≤ (p + 1) ^ Suc n"
by simp
finally show "Suc N ≤ (p + 1) ^ Suc n" .
qed
ultimately show ?case
by blast
qed

lemma Kronecker_simult_aux3_uniq_exponents:
obtains N a r where "⋀x. (1 + (∑i<n. x i))^p = 1 + gpoly n x N a r" "Suc N ≤ (p+1)^n"
"nontriv_exponents n N r" "uniq_exponents n N r" "nonzero_coeffs N a"
proof -
obtain N0 a0 r0 where "⋀x. (1 + (∑r<n. x r)) ^ p = 1 + gpoly n x N0 a0 r0"
and "Suc N0 ≤ (p+1)^n" "nontriv_exponents n N0 r0"
using Kronecker_simult_aux3 by blast
with le_trans Suc_le_mono gpoly_uniq_exponents [of n N0 a0 r0] that show thesis
by (metis (no_types, lifting))
qed

subsection ‹And finally Kroncker's theorem itself›

text ‹Statement of Theorem 7.9›
theorem Kronecker_thm_1:
fixes α θ:: "nat ⇒ real" and n:: nat
assumes indp: "module.independent (λr. (*) (real_of_int r)) (θ  {..<n})"
and injθ: "inj_on θ {..<n}" and "ε > 0"
obtains t h where "⋀i. i < n ⟹ ¦t * θ i - of_int (h i) - α i¦ < ε"
proof (cases "n>0")
case False then show ?thesis
using that by blast
next
case True
interpret Modules.module "(λr. (*) (real_of_int r))"
by (simp add: Modules.module.intro distrib_left mult.commute)
define F where "F ≡ λt. 1 + (∑i<n. exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * (t * θ i - α i))))"
define L where "L ≡ Sup (range (norm ∘ F))"
have [continuous_intros]: "0 < T ⟹ continuous_on {0..T} F" for T
unfolding F_def by (intro continuous_intros)
have nft_Sucn: "norm (F t) ≤ Suc n" for t
unfolding F_def by (rule norm_triangle_le order_trans [OF norm_sum] | simp)+
then have L_le: "L ≤ Suc n"
have nft_L: "norm (F t) ≤ L" for t
by (metis L_def UNIV_I bdd_aboveI2 cSUP_upper nft_Sucn o_apply)
have "L = Suc n"
proof -
{ fix p::nat
assume "p>0"
obtain N a r where 3: "⋀x. (1 + (∑r<n. x r)) ^ p = 1 + gpoly n x N a r"
and SucN: "Suc N ≤ (p+1)^n"
and nontriv: "nontriv_exponents n N r" and uniq: "uniq_exponents n N r"
and apos: "nonzero_coeffs N a"
using Kronecker_simult_aux3_uniq_exponents by blast
have "N ≠ 0"
proof
assume "N = 0"
have "2^p = (1::complex)"
using 3 [of "(λ_. 0)(0:=1)"] True ‹p>0› ‹N = 0› by (simp add: gpoly_def)
then have "2 ^ p = Suc 0"
by (metis of_nat_1 One_nat_def of_nat_eq_iff of_nat_numeral of_nat_power)
with ‹0 < p› show False by force
qed
define x where "x ≡ λt r. exp(𝗂 * of_real (2 * pi * (t * θ r - α r)))"
define f where "f ≡ λt. (F t) ^ p"
have feq: "f t = 1 + gpoly n (x t) N a r" for t
unfolding f_def F_def x_def by (simp flip: 3)
define c where "c ≡ λk. a k / cis (∑i<n. (pi * (2 * (α i * real (r k i)))))"
define η where "η ≡ λk. 2 * pi * (∑i<n. r k i * θ i)"
define INTT where "INTT ≡ λk T. (1/T) * integral {0..T} (λt. f t * exp(-𝗂 * of_real t * η k))"
have "a k * (∏i<n. x t i ^ r k i) = c k * exp (𝗂 * t * η k)" if "k<N" for k t
apply (simp add: x_def η_def sum_distrib_left flip: exp_of_nat_mult exp_sum)
apply (simp add: algebra_simps sum_subtractf exp_diff c_def sum_distrib_left cis_conv_exp)
done
then have fdef: "f t = 1 + (∑k<N. c k * exp(𝗂 * of_real t * η k))" for t
have nzero: "θ i ≠ 0" if "i<n" for i
using indp that local.dependent_zero by force
have ind_disj: "⋀u. (∀x<n. u (θ x) = 0) ∨ (∑v ∈ θ{..<n}. of_int (u v) * v) ≠ 0"
using indp by (auto simp: dependent_finite)
have injη: "inj_on η {..<N}"
proof
fix k k'
assume k: "k ∈ {..<N}" "k' ∈ {..<N}" and "η k = η k'"
then have eq: "(∑i<n. real (r k i) * θ i) = (∑i<n. real (r k' i) * θ i)"
by (auto simp: η_def)
define f where "f ≡ λz. let i = inv_into {..<n} θ z in int (r k i) - int (r k' i)"
show "k = k'"
using ind_disj [of f] injθ uniq eq k
apply (simp add: f_def Let_def sum.reindex sum_subtractf algebra_simps uniq_exponents_def)
by (metis not_less_iff_gr_or_eq)
qed
moreover have "0 ∉ η  {..<N}"
unfolding η_def
proof clarsimp
fix k
assume *: "(∑i<n. real (r k i) * θ i) = 0" "k < N"
define f where "f ≡ λz. let i = inv_into {..<n} θ z in int (r k i)"
obtain i where "i<n" and "r k i > 0"
by (meson ‹k < N› nontriv nontriv_exponents_def zero_less_iff_neq_zero)
with * nzero show False
using ind_disj [of f] injθ by (simp add: f_def sum.reindex)
qed
ultimately have 15: "(INTT k ⤏ c k) at_top" if "k<N" for k
unfolding fdef INTT_def using Kronecker_simult_aux1_strict that by presburger
have norm_c: "norm (c k) ≤ L^p" if "k<N" for k
proof (intro tendsto_le [of _ "λ_. L^p"])
show "((norm ∘ INTT k) ⤏ cmod (c k)) at_top"
using that 15 by (simp add: o_def tendsto_norm)
have "norm (INTT k T) ≤ L^p" if  "T ≥ 0" for T::real
proof -
have "0 ≤ L ^ p"
by (meson nft_L norm_ge_zero order_trans zero_le_power)
have "norm (integral {0..T} (λt. f t * exp (- (𝗂 *  t * η k))))
≤ integral {0..T} (λt. L^p)" (is "?L ≤ ?R")  if "T>0"
proof -
have "?L ≤ integral {0..T} (λt. norm (f t * exp (- (𝗂 *  t * η k))))"
unfolding f_def by (intro continuous_on_imp_absolutely_integrable_on continuous_intros that)
also have "… ≤ ?R"
unfolding f_def
by (intro <`