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Some ATM Devices

This section briefly describes the ATM devices used by the Pegasus project to provide a multimedia platform. More details of the DAN devices are available in <.barham:jsac.>.



Figure 3: Architecture of the ATM display

The ATM camera [.pratt 1993.], directly produces digital video as a stream of ATM cells. The principle of the ATM camera is schematically depicted in Figure 2. Scan-lines of video are digitized and when eight lines have been buffered, they are encoded as tiles, rectangles of 8x8 pixels. A number of tiles are packed into the payload of an AAL5 frame together with a trailer that provides the x and y coordinates of the tiles with respect to the video frame, and a time stamp that identifies the frame that the tile belongs to.

Cameras can be equipped with one or more compression devices. The device to be used is identified when the virtual circuit is established. Currently, both raw video and motion JPEG are supported. Using AAL5 allows interaction with standard AAL5 implementations and offers protection against rendering or decompressing faulty tiles.

The version of the ATM camera now in production also includes audio capture capability.

The ATM display, shown in Figure 3, implements a single primitive, that of displaying arriving pixel tiles on incoming virtual circuits to windows on the screen. The virtual-circuit identifier (VCI) is used as an index into a table of window descriptors; each window descriptor has an x and y offset from the top-left-hand corner of the display, and clipping information. By manipulation of these contexts, a window manager can control which virtual channel, and thus which process, can access the different pixels of the screen. Incoming data can be coded as compressed or uncompressed tiles. Note that as tiles essentially represent bit-blit operations of fixed size, from the viewpoint of a display, there is a unification of video and graphics. The code in conventional window systems that does the multiplexing of windows to the display can largely disappear; the multiplexing is done via the display's window descriptors. The window manager, exerting its control over the creation and modification of these descriptors, can create windows on screen, move them, resize them, iconize them and raise or lower them. It can also use a window descriptor that allows it to write the whole screen for decorating windows with title bars and resize buttons.

While the hardware for the display is under development, software emulation using a DS5000-25 is being used.

Finally, there is an ATM DSP node which combines digital signal processing and audio input and output. This device contains DACs and ADCs and packs and unpacks audio samples into ATM cells. Each such cell also contains a time stamp.

Our experience so far indicates that ATM devices are simple to construct and that they allow a natural combination of video data and graphic data on a display. The use of tiles for video reduces latency in several places from a `frame time' (33 or 40 ms) to a `tile time' (30 to 40 µs). Since latencies tend to add up, this is an important reduction.

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Next: Control Protocol Up: Systems Architecture Previous: Systems Architecture

Sape J. Mullender, Ian M. Leslie and Derek McAuley