Computer Laboratory

Technical reports

Using trust and risk for access control in Global Computing

Nathan E. Dimmock

August 2005, 145 pages

This technical report is based on a dissertation submitted April 2005 by the author for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to the University of Cambridge, Jesus College.

Abstract

Global Computing is a vision of a massively networked infrastructure supporting a large population of diverse but cooperating entities. Similar to ubiquitous computing, entities of global computing will operate in environments that are dynamic and unpredictable, requiring them to be capable of dealing with unexpected interactions and previously unknown principals using an unreliable infrastructure.

These properties will pose new security challenges that are not adequately addressed by existing security models and mechanisms. Traditionally privileges are statically encoded as security policy, and while rôle-based access control introduces a layer of abstraction between privilege and identity, rôles, privileges and context must still be known in advance of any interaction taking place.

Human society has developed the mechanism of trust to overcome initial suspicion and gradually evolve privileges. Trust successfully enables collaboration amongst human agents — a computational model of trust ought to be able to enable the same in computational agents. Existing research in this area has concentrated on developing trust management systems that permit the encoding of, and reasoning about, trust beliefs, but the relationship between these and privilege is still hard coded. These systems also omit any explicit reasoning about risk, and its relationship to privilege, nor do they permit the automated evolution of trust over time.

This thesis examines the relationship between trust, risk and privilege in an access control system. An outcome-based approach is taken to risk modelling, using explicit costs and benefits to model the relationship between risk and privilege. This is used to develop a novel model of access control — trust-based access control (TBAC) — firstly for the limited domain of collaboration between Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), and later for more general global computing applications using the SECURE computational trust framework.

This general access control model is also used to extend an existing rôle-based access control system to explicitly reason about trust and risk. A further refinement is the incorporation of the economic theory of decision-making under uncertainty by expressing costs and benefits as utility, or preference-scaling, functions. It is then shown how Bayesian trust models can be used in the SECURE framework, and how these models enable a better abstraction to be obtained in the access control policy. It is also shown how the access control model can be used to take such decisions as whether the cost of seeking more information about a principal is justified by the risk associated with granting the privilege, and to determine whether a principal should respond to such requests upon receipt. The use of game theory to help in the construction of policies is also briefly considered.

Global computing has many applications, all of which require access control to prevent abuse by malicious principals. This thesis develops three in detail: an information sharing service for PDAs, an identity-based spam detector and a peer-to-peer collaborative spam detection network. Given the emerging nature of computational trust systems, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the TBAC model, it was first necessary to develop an evaluation methodology. This takes the approach of a threat-based analysis, considering possible attacks at the component and system level, to ensure that components are correctly integrated, and system-level assumptions made by individual components are valid. Applying the methodology to the implementation of the TBAC model demonstrates its effectiveness in the scenarios chosen, with good promise for further, untested, scenarios.

Full text

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BibTeX record

@TechReport{UCAM-CL-TR-643,
  author =	 {Dimmock, Nathan E.},
  title = 	 {{Using trust and risk for access control in Global
         	   Computing}},
  year = 	 2005,
  month = 	 aug,
  url = 	 {http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/techreports/UCAM-CL-TR-643.pdf},
  institution =  {University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory},
  number = 	 {UCAM-CL-TR-643}
}