This course is a prerequisite for Artificial Intelligence II (Part II) and Specification and Verification I (Part II).

Aims

This course will teach logic, especially the predicate calculus. It
will present the basic principles and definitions, then describe a
variety of different formalisms and algorithms that can be used to
solve problems in logic. Putting logic into the context of Computer
Science, the course will show how the programming language Prolog
arises from the automatic proof method known as resolution. It will
introduce topics that are important in mechanical verification, such
as binary decision diagrams (BDDs) and modal logic.

Lectures

Introduction to logic.
Schematic statements. Interpretations and validity. Logical
consequence. Inference.

Propositional logic.
Basic syntax and semantics. Equivalences. Normal forms.
Tautology checking using CNF.

The sequent calculus.
A simple (Hilbert-style) proof system. Natural deduction systems.
Sequent calculus rules. Sample proofs.

Binary decision diagrams.
General concepts. Fast canonical form algorithm. Optimisations.
Applications.

First order logic.
Basic syntax. Quantifiers. Semantics (truth definition).

Formal reasoning in FOL.
Free versus bound variables. Substitution. Equivalences for
quantifiers. Sequent calculus rules. Examples.

Clausal proof methods.
Clause form. The Davis-Putnam procedure. The resolution rule.
Examples. Refinements.

Skolem functions and Herbrand's theorem.
Prenex normal form. Skolemisation. Herbrand models and their
properties.

Unification.
Composition of substitutions. Most general unifiers. A
unification algorithm. Applications and variations.

Prolog.
Binary resolution. Factorisation. Example of Prolog
execution. Proof by model elimination.

Modal logics.
Possible worlds semantics. Truth and validity. A Hilbert-style
proof system. Sequent calculus rules.

Tableaux methods.
Simplifying the sequent calculus. Examples. Adding unification.
Skolemisation. The world's smallest theorem prover?

Objectives

At the end of the course students should

be able to manipulate logical formulas accurately

be able to perform proofs using the presented formal calculi

be able to construct a small BDD

understand the relationships among the various calculi, e.g. Davis-Putnam, resolution and Prolog

be able to apply the unification algorithm and to describe its uses

Recommended reading

* Huth, M. & Ryan, M. (2004). Logic in computer science: modelling
and reasoning about systems. Cambridge University Press (2nd ed.).
Ben-Ari, M. (2001). Mathematical logic for computer science. Springer
(2nd ed.).

Gentle introduction:
Barwise, J. & Etchemendy, J. (1999). Language proof and logic.
CSLI Publications.