Three simple models of synchronous hardware are given; using linear discrete, branching discrete and branching real time. A simple notion of abstraction is introduced, motivated by the need to ultimately view such models as scientific theories that make empirical predictions. It makes the significance of design rules explicit.Two abstractions from the branching discrete to the linear discrete model are given. They shed some light on the roles of consistency, deadlock and determinacy. The stronger of the two depends on a notion of dynamic type for processes which ensures deadlock freedom.
A reasonably strong abstraction from the branching real to the branching discrete model is given. This depends on a finer notion of type which is a reasonably physically plausible formalisation of the timing properties of certain real components.