# Theory Nested_Datatype

```section ‹Nested datatypes›

theory Nested_Datatype
imports Main
begin

subsection ‹Terms and substitution›

datatype ('a, 'b) "term" =
Var 'a
| App 'b "('a, 'b) term list"

primrec subst_term :: "('a ⇒ ('a, 'b) term) ⇒ ('a, 'b) term ⇒ ('a, 'b) term"
and subst_term_list :: "('a ⇒ ('a, 'b) term) ⇒ ('a, 'b) term list ⇒ ('a, 'b) term list"
where
"subst_term f (Var a) = f a"
| "subst_term f (App b ts) = App b (subst_term_list f ts)"
| "subst_term_list f [] = []"
| "subst_term_list f (t # ts) = subst_term f t # subst_term_list f ts"

lemmas subst_simps = subst_term.simps subst_term_list.simps

text ‹┉ A simple lemma about composition of substitutions.›

lemma
"subst_term (subst_term f1 ∘ f2) t =
subst_term f1 (subst_term f2 t)"
and
"subst_term_list (subst_term f1 ∘ f2) ts =
subst_term_list f1 (subst_term_list f2 ts)"
by (induct t and ts rule: subst_term.induct subst_term_list.induct) simp_all

lemma "subst_term (subst_term f1 ∘ f2) t = subst_term f1 (subst_term f2 t)"
proof -
let "?P t" = ?thesis
let ?Q = "λts. subst_term_list (subst_term f1 ∘ f2) ts =
subst_term_list f1 (subst_term_list f2 ts)"
show ?thesis
proof (induct t rule: subst_term.induct)
show "?P (Var a)" for a by simp
show "?P (App b ts)" if "?Q ts" for b ts
using that by (simp only: subst_simps)
show "?Q []" by simp
show "?Q (t # ts)" if "?P t" "?Q ts" for t ts
using that by (simp only: subst_simps)
qed
qed

subsection ‹Alternative induction›

lemma "subst_term (subst_term f1 ∘ f2) t = subst_term f1 (subst_term f2 t)"
proof (induct t rule: term.induct)
case (Var a)
show ?case by (simp add: o_def)
next
case (App b ts)
then show ?case by (induct ts) simp_all
qed

end
```