Theory Completion

theory Completion
imports Plain_HOLCF
(*  Title:      HOL/HOLCF/Completion.thy
Author: Brian Huffman

header {* Defining algebraic domains by ideal completion *}

theory Completion
imports Plain_HOLCF

subsection {* Ideals over a preorder *}

locale preorder =
fixes r :: "'a::type => 'a => bool" (infix "\<preceq>" 50)
assumes r_refl: "x \<preceq> x"
assumes r_trans: "[|x \<preceq> y; y \<preceq> z|] ==> x \<preceq> z"

ideal :: "'a set => bool" where
"ideal A = ((∃x. x ∈ A) ∧ (∀x∈A. ∀y∈A. ∃z∈A. x \<preceq> z ∧ y \<preceq> z) ∧
(∀x y. x \<preceq> y --> y ∈ A --> x ∈ A))"

lemma idealI:
assumes "∃x. x ∈ A"
assumes "!!x y. [|x ∈ A; y ∈ A|] ==> ∃z∈A. x \<preceq> z ∧ y \<preceq> z"
assumes "!!x y. [|x \<preceq> y; y ∈ A|] ==> x ∈ A"
shows "ideal A"
unfolding ideal_def using assms by fast

lemma idealD1:
"ideal A ==> ∃x. x ∈ A"
unfolding ideal_def by fast

lemma idealD2:
"[|ideal A; x ∈ A; y ∈ A|] ==> ∃z∈A. x \<preceq> z ∧ y \<preceq> z"
unfolding ideal_def by fast

lemma idealD3:
"[|ideal A; x \<preceq> y; y ∈ A|] ==> x ∈ A"
unfolding ideal_def by fast

lemma ideal_principal: "ideal {x. x \<preceq> z}"
apply (rule idealI)
apply (rule_tac x=z in exI)
apply (fast intro: r_refl)
apply (rule_tac x=z in bexI, fast)
apply (fast intro: r_refl)
apply (fast intro: r_trans)

lemma ex_ideal: "∃A. A ∈ {A. ideal A}"
by (fast intro: ideal_principal)

text {* The set of ideals is a cpo *}

lemma ideal_UN:
fixes A :: "nat => 'a set"
assumes ideal_A: "!!i. ideal (A i)"
assumes chain_A: "!!i j. i ≤ j ==> A i ⊆ A j"
shows "ideal (\<Union>i. A i)"
apply (rule idealI)
apply (cut_tac idealD1 [OF ideal_A], fast)
apply (clarify, rename_tac i j)
apply (drule subsetD [OF chain_A [OF le_maxI1]])
apply (drule subsetD [OF chain_A [OF le_maxI2]])
apply (drule (1) idealD2 [OF ideal_A])
apply blast
apply clarify
apply (drule (1) idealD3 [OF ideal_A])
apply fast

lemma typedef_ideal_po:
fixes Abs :: "'a set => 'b::below"
assumes type: "type_definition Rep Abs {S. ideal S}"
assumes below: "!!x y. x \<sqsubseteq> y <-> Rep x ⊆ Rep y"
shows "OFCLASS('b, po_class)"
apply (intro_classes, unfold below)
apply (rule subset_refl)
apply (erule (1) subset_trans)
apply (rule type_definition.Rep_inject [OF type, THEN iffD1])
apply (erule (1) subset_antisym)

fixes Abs :: "'a set => 'b::po"
assumes type: "type_definition Rep Abs {S. ideal S}"
assumes below: "!!x y. x \<sqsubseteq> y <-> Rep x ⊆ Rep y"
assumes S: "chain S"
shows typedef_ideal_lub: "range S <<| Abs (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))"
and typedef_ideal_rep_lub: "Rep (\<Squnion>i. S i) = (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))"
proof -
have 1: "ideal (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))"
apply (rule ideal_UN)
apply (rule type_definition.Rep [OF type, unfolded mem_Collect_eq])
apply (subst below [symmetric])
apply (erule chain_mono [OF S])
hence 2: "Rep (Abs (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))) = (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))"
by (simp add: type_definition.Abs_inverse [OF type])
show 3: "range S <<| Abs (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))"
apply (rule is_lubI)
apply (rule is_ubI)
apply (simp add: below 2, fast)
apply (simp add: below 2 is_ub_def, fast)
hence 4: "(\<Squnion>i. S i) = Abs (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))"
by (rule lub_eqI)
show 5: "Rep (\<Squnion>i. S i) = (\<Union>i. Rep (S i))"
by (simp add: 4 2)

lemma typedef_ideal_cpo:
fixes Abs :: "'a set => 'b::po"
assumes type: "type_definition Rep Abs {S. ideal S}"
assumes below: "!!x y. x \<sqsubseteq> y <-> Rep x ⊆ Rep y"
shows "OFCLASS('b, cpo_class)"
by (default, rule exI, erule typedef_ideal_lub [OF type below])


interpretation below: preorder "below :: 'a::po => 'a => bool"
apply unfold_locales
apply (rule below_refl)
apply (erule (1) below_trans)

subsection {* Lemmas about least upper bounds *}

lemma is_ub_thelub_ex: "[|∃u. S <<| u; x ∈ S|] ==> x \<sqsubseteq> lub S"
apply (erule exE, drule is_lub_lub)
apply (drule is_lubD1)
apply (erule (1) is_ubD)

lemma is_lub_thelub_ex: "[|∃u. S <<| u; S <| x|] ==> lub S \<sqsubseteq> x"
by (erule exE, drule is_lub_lub, erule is_lubD2)

subsection {* Locale for ideal completion *}

locale ideal_completion = preorder +
fixes principal :: "'a::type => 'b::cpo"
fixes rep :: "'b::cpo => 'a::type set"
assumes ideal_rep: "!!x. ideal (rep x)"
assumes rep_lub: "!!Y. chain Y ==> rep (\<Squnion>i. Y i) = (\<Union>i. rep (Y i))"
assumes rep_principal: "!!a. rep (principal a) = {b. b \<preceq> a}"
assumes belowI: "!!x y. rep x ⊆ rep y ==> x \<sqsubseteq> y"
assumes countable: "∃f::'a => nat. inj f"

lemma rep_mono: "x \<sqsubseteq> y ==> rep x ⊆ rep y"
apply (frule bin_chain)
apply (drule rep_lub)
apply (simp only: lub_eqI [OF is_lub_bin_chain])
apply (rule subsetI, rule UN_I [where a=0], simp_all)

lemma below_def: "x \<sqsubseteq> y <-> rep x ⊆ rep y"
by (rule iffI [OF rep_mono belowI])

lemma principal_below_iff_mem_rep: "principal a \<sqsubseteq> x <-> a ∈ rep x"
unfolding below_def rep_principal
by (auto intro: r_refl elim: idealD3 [OF ideal_rep])

lemma principal_below_iff [simp]: "principal a \<sqsubseteq> principal b <-> a \<preceq> b"
by (simp add: principal_below_iff_mem_rep rep_principal)

lemma principal_eq_iff: "principal a = principal b <-> a \<preceq> b ∧ b \<preceq> a"
unfolding po_eq_conv [where 'a='b] principal_below_iff ..

lemma eq_iff: "x = y <-> rep x = rep y"
unfolding po_eq_conv below_def by auto

lemma principal_mono: "a \<preceq> b ==> principal a \<sqsubseteq> principal b"
by (simp only: principal_below_iff)

lemma ch2ch_principal [simp]:
"∀i. Y i \<preceq> Y (Suc i) ==> chain (λi. principal (Y i))"
by (simp add: chainI principal_mono)

subsubsection {* Principal ideals approximate all elements *}

lemma compact_principal [simp]: "compact (principal a)"
by (rule compactI2, simp add: principal_below_iff_mem_rep rep_lub)

text {* Construct a chain whose lub is the same as a given ideal *}

lemma obtain_principal_chain:
obtains Y where "∀i. Y i \<preceq> Y (Suc i)" and "x = (\<Squnion>i. principal (Y i))"
proof -
obtain count :: "'a => nat" where inj: "inj count"
using countable ..
def enum "λi. THE a. count a = i"
have enum_count [simp]: "!!x. enum (count x) = x"
unfolding enum_def by (simp add: inj_eq [OF inj])
def a "LEAST i. enum i ∈ rep x"
def b "λi. LEAST j. enum j ∈ rep x ∧ ¬ enum j \<preceq> enum i"
def c "λi j. LEAST k. enum k ∈ rep x ∧ enum i \<preceq> enum k ∧ enum j \<preceq> enum k"
def P "λi. ∃j. enum j ∈ rep x ∧ ¬ enum j \<preceq> enum i"
def X "nat_rec a (λn i. if P i then c i (b i) else i)"
have X_0: "X 0 = a" unfolding X_def by simp
have X_Suc: "!!n. X (Suc n) = (if P (X n) then c (X n) (b (X n)) else X n)"
unfolding X_def by simp
have a_mem: "enum a ∈ rep x"
unfolding a_def
apply (rule LeastI_ex)
apply (cut_tac ideal_rep [of x])
apply (drule idealD1)
apply (clarify, rename_tac a)
apply (rule_tac x="count a" in exI, simp)
have b: "!!i. P i ==> enum i ∈ rep x
==> enum (b i) ∈ rep x ∧ ¬ enum (b i) \<preceq> enum i"

unfolding P_def b_def by (erule LeastI2_ex, simp)
have c: "!!i j. enum i ∈ rep x ==> enum j ∈ rep x
==> enum (c i j) ∈ rep x ∧ enum i \<preceq> enum (c i j) ∧ enum j \<preceq> enum (c i j)"

unfolding c_def
apply (drule (1) idealD2 [OF ideal_rep], clarify)
apply (rule_tac a="count z" in LeastI2, simp, simp)
have X_mem: "!!n. enum (X n) ∈ rep x"
apply (induct_tac n)
apply (simp add: X_0 a_mem)
apply (clarsimp simp add: X_Suc, rename_tac n)
apply (simp add: b c)
have X_chain: "!!n. enum (X n) \<preceq> enum (X (Suc n))"
apply (clarsimp simp add: X_Suc r_refl)
apply (simp add: b c X_mem)
have less_b: "!!n i. n < b i ==> enum n ∈ rep x ==> enum n \<preceq> enum i"
unfolding b_def by (drule not_less_Least, simp)
have X_covers: "!!n. ∀k≤n. enum k ∈ rep x --> enum k \<preceq> enum (X n)"
apply (induct_tac n)
apply (clarsimp simp add: X_0 a_def)
apply (drule_tac k=0 in Least_le, simp add: r_refl)
apply (clarsimp, rename_tac n k)
apply (erule le_SucE)
apply (rule r_trans [OF _ X_chain], simp)
apply (case_tac "P (X n)", simp add: X_Suc)
apply (rule_tac x="b (X n)" and y="Suc n" in linorder_cases)
apply (simp only: less_Suc_eq_le)
apply (drule spec, drule (1) mp, simp add: b X_mem)
apply (simp add: c X_mem)
apply (drule (1) less_b)
apply (erule r_trans)
apply (simp add: b c X_mem)
apply (simp add: X_Suc)
apply (simp add: P_def)
have 1: "∀i. enum (X i) \<preceq> enum (X (Suc i))"
by (simp add: X_chain)
have 2: "x = (\<Squnion>n. principal (enum (X n)))"
apply (simp add: eq_iff rep_lub 1 rep_principal)
apply (auto, rename_tac a)
apply (subgoal_tac "∃i. a = enum i", erule exE)
apply (rule_tac x=i in exI, simp add: X_covers)
apply (rule_tac x="count a" in exI, simp)
apply (erule idealD3 [OF ideal_rep])
apply (rule X_mem)
from 1 2 show ?thesis ..

lemma principal_induct:
assumes adm: "adm P"
assumes P: "!!a. P (principal a)"
shows "P x"
apply (rule obtain_principal_chain [of x])
apply (simp add: admD [OF adm] P)

lemma compact_imp_principal: "compact x ==> ∃a. x = principal a"
apply (rule obtain_principal_chain [of x])
apply (drule adm_compact_neq [OF _ cont_id])
apply (subgoal_tac "chain (λi. principal (Y i))")
apply (drule (2) admD2, fast, simp)

subsection {* Defining functions in terms of basis elements *}

extension :: "('a::type => 'c::cpo) => 'b -> 'c" where
"extension = (λf. (Λ x. lub (f ` rep x)))"

lemma extension_lemma:
fixes f :: "'a::type => 'c::cpo"
assumes f_mono: "!!a b. a \<preceq> b ==> f a \<sqsubseteq> f b"
shows "∃u. f ` rep x <<| u"
proof -
obtain Y where Y: "∀i. Y i \<preceq> Y (Suc i)"
and x: "x = (\<Squnion>i. principal (Y i))"
by (rule obtain_principal_chain [of x])
have chain: "chain (λi. f (Y i))"
by (rule chainI, simp add: f_mono Y)
have rep_x: "rep x = (\<Union>n. {a. a \<preceq> Y n})"
by (simp add: x rep_lub Y rep_principal)
have "f ` rep x <<| (\<Squnion>n. f (Y n))"
apply (rule is_lubI)
apply (rule ub_imageI, rename_tac a)
apply (clarsimp simp add: rep_x)
apply (drule f_mono)
apply (erule below_lub [OF chain])
apply (rule lub_below [OF chain])
apply (drule_tac x="Y n" in ub_imageD)
apply (simp add: rep_x, fast intro: r_refl)
apply assumption
thus ?thesis ..

lemma extension_beta:
fixes f :: "'a::type => 'c::cpo"
assumes f_mono: "!!a b. a \<preceq> b ==> f a \<sqsubseteq> f b"
shows "extension f·x = lub (f ` rep x)"
unfolding extension_def
proof (rule beta_cfun)
have lub: "!!x. ∃u. f ` rep x <<| u"
using f_mono by (rule extension_lemma)
show cont: "cont (λx. lub (f ` rep x))"
apply (rule contI2)
apply (rule monofunI)
apply (rule is_lub_thelub_ex [OF lub ub_imageI])
apply (rule is_ub_thelub_ex [OF lub imageI])
apply (erule (1) subsetD [OF rep_mono])
apply (rule is_lub_thelub_ex [OF lub ub_imageI])
apply (simp add: rep_lub, clarify)
apply (erule rev_below_trans [OF is_ub_thelub])
apply (erule is_ub_thelub_ex [OF lub imageI])

lemma extension_principal:
fixes f :: "'a::type => 'c::cpo"
assumes f_mono: "!!a b. a \<preceq> b ==> f a \<sqsubseteq> f b"
shows "extension f·(principal a) = f a"
apply (subst extension_beta, erule f_mono)
apply (subst rep_principal)
apply (rule lub_eqI)
apply (rule is_lub_maximal)
apply (rule ub_imageI)
apply (simp add: f_mono)
apply (rule imageI)
apply (simp add: r_refl)

lemma extension_mono:
assumes f_mono: "!!a b. a \<preceq> b ==> f a \<sqsubseteq> f b"
assumes g_mono: "!!a b. a \<preceq> b ==> g a \<sqsubseteq> g b"
assumes below: "!!a. f a \<sqsubseteq> g a"
shows "extension f \<sqsubseteq> extension g"
apply (rule cfun_belowI)
apply (simp only: extension_beta f_mono g_mono)
apply (rule is_lub_thelub_ex)
apply (rule extension_lemma, erule f_mono)
apply (rule ub_imageI, rename_tac a)
apply (rule below_trans [OF below])
apply (rule is_ub_thelub_ex)
apply (rule extension_lemma, erule g_mono)
apply (erule imageI)

lemma cont_extension:
assumes f_mono: "!!a b x. a \<preceq> b ==> f x a \<sqsubseteq> f x b"
assumes f_cont: "!!a. cont (λx. f x a)"
shows "cont (λx. extension (λa. f x a))"
apply (rule contI2)
apply (rule monofunI)
apply (rule extension_mono, erule f_mono, erule f_mono)
apply (erule cont2monofunE [OF f_cont])
apply (rule cfun_belowI)
apply (rule principal_induct, simp)
apply (simp only: contlub_cfun_fun)
apply (simp only: extension_principal f_mono)
apply (simp add: cont2contlubE [OF f_cont])


lemma (in preorder) typedef_ideal_completion:
fixes Abs :: "'a set => 'b::cpo"
assumes type: "type_definition Rep Abs {S. ideal S}"
assumes below: "!!x y. x \<sqsubseteq> y <-> Rep x ⊆ Rep y"
assumes principal: "!!a. principal a = Abs {b. b \<preceq> a}"
assumes countable: "∃f::'a => nat. inj f"
shows "ideal_completion r principal Rep"
interpret type_definition Rep Abs "{S. ideal S}" by fact
fix a b :: 'a and x y :: 'b and Y :: "nat => 'b"
show "ideal (Rep x)"
using Rep [of x] by simp
show "chain Y ==> Rep (\<Squnion>i. Y i) = (\<Union>i. Rep (Y i))"
using type below by (rule typedef_ideal_rep_lub)
show "Rep (principal a) = {b. b \<preceq> a}"
by (simp add: principal Abs_inverse ideal_principal)
show "Rep x ⊆ Rep y ==> x \<sqsubseteq> y"
by (simp only: below)
show "∃f::'a => nat. inj f"
by (rule countable)