(* Title: HOL/Algebra/Exponent.thy Author: Florian Kammueller Author: L C Paulson exponent p s yields the greatest power of p that divides s. *) theory Exponent imports Main "~~/src/HOL/Number_Theory/Primes" begin section ‹Sylow's Theorem› text ‹The Combinatorial Argument Underlying the First Sylow Theorem› text‹needed in this form to prove Sylow's theorem› corollary (in algebraic_semidom) div_combine: "⟦prime_elem p; ¬ p ^ Suc r dvd n; p ^ (a + r) dvd n * k⟧ ⟹ p ^ a dvd k" by (metis add_Suc_right mult.commute prime_elem_power_dvd_cases) lemma exponent_p_a_m_k_equation: fixes p :: nat assumes "0 < m" "0 < k" "p ≠ 0" "k < p^a" shows "multiplicity p (p^a * m - k) = multiplicity p (p^a - k)" proof (rule multiplicity_cong [OF iffI]) fix r assume *: "p ^ r dvd p ^ a * m - k" show "p ^ r dvd p ^ a - k" proof - have "k ≤ p ^ a * m" using assms by (meson nat_dvd_not_less dvd_triv_left leI mult_pos_pos order.strict_trans) then have "r ≤ a" by (meson "*" ‹0 < k› ‹k < p^a› dvd_diffD1 dvd_triv_left leI less_imp_le_nat nat_dvd_not_less power_le_dvd) then have "p^r dvd p^a * m" by (simp add: le_imp_power_dvd) thus ?thesis by (meson ‹k ≤ p ^ a * m› ‹r ≤ a› * dvd_diffD1 dvd_diff_nat le_imp_power_dvd) qed next fix r assume *: "p ^ r dvd p ^ a - k" with assms have "r ≤ a" by (metis diff_diff_cancel less_imp_le_nat nat_dvd_not_less nat_le_linear power_le_dvd zero_less_diff) show "p ^ r dvd p ^ a * m - k" proof - have "p^r dvd p^a*m" by (simp add: ‹r ≤ a› le_imp_power_dvd) then show ?thesis by (meson assms * dvd_diffD1 dvd_diff_nat le_imp_power_dvd less_imp_le_nat ‹r ≤ a›) qed qed lemma p_not_div_choose_lemma: fixes p :: nat assumes eeq: "⋀i. Suc i < K ⟹ multiplicity p (Suc i) = multiplicity p (Suc (j + i))" and "k < K" and p: "prime p" shows "multiplicity p (j + k choose k) = 0" using ‹k < K› proof (induction k) case 0 then show ?case by simp next case (Suc k) then have *: "(Suc (j+k) choose Suc k) > 0" by simp then have "multiplicity p ((Suc (j+k) choose Suc k) * Suc k) = multiplicity p (Suc k)" by (subst Suc_times_binomial_eq [symmetric], subst prime_elem_multiplicity_mult_distrib) (insert p Suc.prems, simp_all add: eeq [symmetric] Suc.IH) with p * show ?case by (subst (asm) prime_elem_multiplicity_mult_distrib) simp_all qed text‹The lemma above, with two changes of variables› lemma p_not_div_choose: assumes "k < K" and "k ≤ n" and eeq: "⋀j. ⟦0<j; j<K⟧ ⟹ multiplicity p (n - k + (K - j)) = multiplicity p (K - j)" "prime p" shows "multiplicity p (n choose k) = 0" apply (rule p_not_div_choose_lemma [of K p "n-k" k, simplified assms nat_minus_add_max max_absorb1]) apply (metis add_Suc_right eeq diff_diff_cancel order_less_imp_le zero_less_Suc zero_less_diff) apply (rule TrueI)+ done proposition const_p_fac: assumes "m>0" and prime: "prime p" shows "multiplicity p (p^a * m choose p^a) = multiplicity p m" proof- from assms have p: "0 < p ^ a" "0 < p^a * m" "p^a ≤ p^a * m" by (auto simp: prime_gt_0_nat) have *: "multiplicity p ((p^a * m - 1) choose (p^a - 1)) = 0" apply (rule p_not_div_choose [where K = "p^a"]) using p exponent_p_a_m_k_equation by (auto simp: diff_le_mono prime) have "multiplicity p ((p ^ a * m choose p ^ a) * p ^ a) = a + multiplicity p m" proof - have "(p ^ a * m choose p ^ a) * p ^ a = p ^ a * m * (p ^ a * m - 1 choose (p ^ a - 1))" (is "_ = ?rhs") using prime by (subst times_binomial_minus1_eq [symmetric]) (auto simp: prime_gt_0_nat) also from p have "p ^ a - Suc 0 ≤ p ^ a * m - Suc 0" by linarith with prime * p have "multiplicity p ?rhs = multiplicity p (p ^ a * m)" by (subst prime_elem_multiplicity_mult_distrib) auto also have "… = a + multiplicity p m" using prime p by (subst prime_elem_multiplicity_mult_distrib) simp_all finally show ?thesis . qed then show ?thesis using prime p by (subst (asm) prime_elem_multiplicity_mult_distrib) simp_all qed end