`INT_RING : term -> thm`

SYNOPSIS
Ring decision procedure instantiated to integers.

DESCRIPTION
The rule INT_RING should be applied to a formula that, after suitable normalization, can be considered a universally quantified Boolean combination of equations and inequations between terms of type :int. If that formula holds in all integral domains, INT_RING will prove it. Any ``alien'' atomic formulas that are not integer equations will not contribute to the proof but will not in themselves cause an error. The function is a particular instantiation of RING, which is a more generic procedure for ring and semiring structures.

FAILURE CONDITIONS
Fails if the formula is unprovable by the methods employed. This does not necessarily mean that it is not valid for :int, but rather that it is not valid on all integral domains (see below).

EXAMPLE
Here is a nice identity taken from one of Ramanujan's notebooks:
```  # INT_RING
`!a b c:int.
a + b + c = &0
==> &2 * (a * b + a * c + b * c) pow 2 =
a pow 4 + b pow 4 + c pow 4 /\
&2 * (a * b + a * c + b * c) pow 4 =
(a * (b - c)) pow 4 + (b * (a - c)) pow 4 + (c * (a - b)) pow 4`;;
...
val it : thm =
|- !a b c.
a + b + c = &0
==> &2 * (a * b + a * c + b * c) pow 2 = a pow 4 + b pow 4 + c pow 4 /\
&2 * (a * b + a * c + b * c) pow 4 =
(a * (b - c)) pow 4 + (b * (a - c)) pow 4 + (c * (a - b)) pow 4
```
The reasoning INT_RING is capable of includes, of course, the degenerate case of simple algebraic identity, e.g. Brahmagupta's identity:
```  # INT_RING `(a pow 2 + b pow 2) * (c pow 2 + d pow 2) =
(a * c - b * d) pow 2 + (a * d + b * c) pow 2`;;
```
or the more complicated 4-squares variant:
```  # INT_RING
`(x1 pow 2 + x2 pow 2 + x3 pow 2 + x4 pow 2) *
(y1 pow 2 + y2 pow 2 + y3 pow 2 + y4 pow 2) =
(x1 * y1 - x2 * y2 - x3 * y3 - x4 * y4) pow 2 +
(x1 * y2 + x2 * y1 + x3 * y4 - x4 * y3) pow 2 +
(x1 * y3 - x2 * y4 + x3 * y1 + x4 * y2) pow 2 +
(x1 * y4 + x2 * y3 - x3 * y2 + x4 * y1) pow 2`;;
...
```
Note that formulas depending on specific features of the integers are not always provable by this generic ring procedure. For example we cannot prove:
```  # INT_RING `x pow 2 = &2 ==> F`;;
1 basis elements and 0 critical pairs
Exception: Failure "find".
```
Although it is possible to deal with special cases like this, there can be no general algorithm for testing such properties over the integers: the set of true universally quantified equations over the integers with addition and multiplication is not recursively enumerable. (This follows from Matiyasevich's results on diophantine sets leading to the undecidability of Hilbert's 10th problem.)