For personal use, you can buy media from Staples or HCS global, but someone will usually have got about 50 CDRs and be selling them on at somewhere near cost. If you are writing CDs for Lab use, rrw has some in his office.
A CD-ROM contains a single spiral track of data, in which data bits
are formed by adjusting the reflectivity of sections of the track to
laser light. Logical `tracks' are layered onto this using the Red Book
protocol, which provides for up to 99 tracks of sequential 2,352-byte
sectors, and defines an EDC (error detection code) and ECC (error
correction code) which allow for the detection and correction of
The Red Book specifies only how audio (CD-DA) tracks are written. A separate document, the Yellow Book (CD-ROM) specifies how data tracks are to be written (strictly speaking, CD-ROM Mode 1 for data, and Mode 2 for compressed audio/video). Yellow book reduces the bytes per sector to 2048: the remainder is taken up with yet another level of ECC. CD-I and CD-ROM XA formats use Yellow book Mode 2 tracks.
Similarly, Green book specifies CD-I, and Orange book deals with r-w media like magento-optical disk (CD-MO) and write-once disk (CD-WO).
A CD-ROM alters reflectivity using an aluminium-covered disc into which pits are pressed. This provides high reflectivity changes, but requires expensive masters to be made. CD-Rs use thermally active dyes: when a CD-R is burnt, a writing laser is focussed on parts of the disk, causing them to change reflectivity (by various means).
This results in far lower reflectivity changes (so old CD-ROM drives will not read CD-Rs: some CD-ROM drives shipped with Dell machines c. 1992 seem to have this problem).
CD-RW uses a similar technique (except that the physical change in the dye is reversible), and provides even lower reflectivity change, so CD-RWs can only be read in CD-RW-capable CD-ROM drives.
Each Yellow Book mode 1 track contains nothing more than a linear
collection of data. For this to be useful, we must write our data
to disk in some sensible format.
Although you can write any format as a Yellow book mode 1 track (tar format, ext2fs image ...), the standard format is ISO9660: this is readable by practically every system.
You will typically build a filesystem image in a disk file and then write it to CD-R with a program like cdrecord.
ISO9660 comes in two interesting flavours: Level 1 is basically DOS filesystem mode: 8.3 case-insensitive filenames, and a limited nesting depth for directories. ISO9660 level 3 gives you filenames up to 32.3. All forms of ISO9660 give a version number to each file (denoted by eg. ';1' after the filename), but these are usually ignored by OS driver software.
ISO9660 doesn't support either UNIX or MS-specific file attributes or long or unicode filenames. The UNIX community has an extension, called High Sierra or Rock Ridge, which provides UNIX-like naming information (and deep directory relocation) on systems that support it. Microsoft has also specified an extension (called Joliet) which supports long names, UNICODE names, and MS-specific file attributes.
Both Rock Ridge and Joliet can coexist on a disk, so you can build a single disk which works correctly on UNIX, Windows, and other systems (which just fall back to the underlying ISO9660).
Macs have their own special problems: mail Richard.Watts@cl.cam.ac.uk for details.
Media and lifetime
CD-R media seem to be fairly critical: different CD-ROM drives
have different levels of tolerance of the low reflectivities found in
CD-Rs, and some will not read CD-Rs at all. The type of CD-R used
seems to make a considerable difference, so be sure to get the right
Robert King at the Computing Service has run some tests on various CD-R blanks, and found:
|CD type||Transfer rate (k/s)|
|Commercial 1 (CD)||613|
|Commercial 2 (CD)||613|
|Sony 1 (CD-R)||613|
|Sony 2 (CD-R)||601.3|
|Maxell 1 (CD-R)||146.9|
|Maxell 2 (CD-R)||217.2|
|Maxell 3 (CD-R)||227.7|
|Maxell 4 (CD-R)||183.2|
Since then, we've been using Maxell CDR-74XLs, which seem to be working fine.
You should also note that CD-Rs have an expected life of between 5 and 10 years: do not use them for long-term storage. Use pelican.cam or consult the COs instead.
Single vs. multi-session
CD-Rs are usually single-session, single-track: you will typically
write a single data track containing all your data. Any remaining
space on the CD-R is lost.
It is possible to write multi-session CD-Rs: this requires cooperation between the filesystem image (which must provide hooks for future sessions) and the program you use to actually write the CD. mkhybrid and cdrecord can (nearly) do this: mail Richard.Watts@cl.cam.ac.uk for details.
There is now a standard for bootable CD-ROMs, called El Torito.
Basically, you just make a 1.44Mbyte file containing the image of
a boot floppy, and give your cd recording program that file as an
argument. On boot, the system will boot from the floppy image.
Newer versions of cdrecord have support: mail
CD-Rs are 74 minutes long, or 764Mbytes raw (ie. in Red Book format).
Yellow book Mode I (ie. data format) brings this down to 666Mbyte, and
manufacturing margins, catalogue data and such take the prudent maximum
down to about 640Mbyte of Yellow book data. In practice, you should account
20Mbyte for each of ISO9660 directory information, Rock Ridge extensions,
and Joliet extensions.
Personally, I tend to avoid writing CD-Rs much above 560Mbyte of raw data (ie. files before transfer to the ISO image). YMMV.
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=myfilename bs=1024 count=size $ /sbin/mke2fs myfilenameWhere size is the size of your filesystem in blocks (should be < 640Mbyte for a standard 74 minute disc). Then mount it using the loopback device (you may need to modprobe loop to load the appropriate module, or recompile your kernel to get it):
$ mount -o loop=/dev/loop0 myfilename /mnt/myfiles -t ext2(you may need to use /dev/loop1..n if the loop device you specified is in use).
You can then copy your files to /mnt/myfiles and umount /mnt/myfiles when done (if you don't umount the filesystem before blowing the CD, it is likely to be useless). myfilename now contains the filesystem you want, and you can proceed to blowing it onto the CD-ROM.
mkisofs is a stable release, whereas mkhybrid is experimental (though it appears to be stable and reliable). mkhybrid can write Joliet extensions, and HFS filesystems, and has multi-session support lacking in mkisofs, and is the recommended program to use.
Their options are described in their manpages (add /local/scratch/rrw1000/man to your MANPATH and do man mkisofs or man mkhybrid), but you will likely put your files in a myfiles directory and use something like:
$ mkhybrid -RraljTv -o foo.iso myfilesThis will, after a little thought, create an output file foo.iso, which will be an ISO 9660 filesystem with Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions and a TRANS.TBL file in each directory, indicating where files have needed to be renamed to make them fit the ISO9660 conventions.
mkisofs and mkhybrid also allow various of the ISO9660 special fields to be filled in (things like the volume label, preparer label, and the like): see the manpages.
$ mount -o loop=/dev/loop0 myfilename /mnt/myfiles -t <type>Will allow you to check it before you burn it to CD. Remember to umount it before you start burning. There is a program out there to check iso9660 filesystems without loopback mounts - mail rrw if you want me to look out a copy for you.
Make sure the CD-writer isn't about to get any nasty shocks: it needs stability. Likewise, boot anyone else off snow - the cdrecord process needs to feed data to the CD writer at a constant rate, and though everything in the system has a fair amount of buffering, a buffer underrun will likely trash your CD.
You will want to run something like:
$ cdrecord dev=1,0 speed=2 -v myfileAs our CD writer is on SCSI ID 1, LUN 0, works best at speed 2 (though feel free to try 1 or 4), and you want the pretty 'Mbyte done' counter.
You can add the -dummy option to just pretend you're making a disk (do everything with the laser off), so you can check for things like buffer underruns. This shouldn't normally be necessary, though.
The way I recommend that you do this is to run an md5sum on the image and the data on CD: this ensures (with overwhelming probability) that the CD is an exact duplicate of your image.
Summing the image is easy:
$ md5sum myfileSumming the CD-ROM is more difficult, because you'll get the end of the last sector read out, followed by I/O errors, if you try md5sum /dev/cdrom. There is a cdcheck utility in /homes/rrw1000/public/cdcheck2 that takes the name of the CD-ROM device and the number of bytes in the image and does an md5sum for you:
$ /homes/rrw1000/public/cdcheck2/cdcheck myfile lengthlength will typically be somewhere in the 500000000-650000000 byte range.
The executable above is compiled for Lab linux systems: if you need it for another architecture, copy the contents of /homes/rrw1000/public/cdcheck2, and do gcc -o cdcheck -g -O2 *.c -lm to build it.
As it sums the file, cdcheck will give you a running bandwidth in k/s. On modern CD-ROM drives, this will drop as the disk is scanned from the inside to the outside, but any sudden `dips' are indicative of large numbers of retried reads, and hence a slightly dodgy disk: you may also find warnings about this in your kernel logs.
If the sums out of md5sum and cdcheck agree, your disk should be fine. If they don't, it's likely corrupted - contact rrw if you want to investigate further.
$ cdrecord dev=1,0 speed=2 -v track1.iso track2.tar track3.ext2... but note that most systems will only mount the first track on the CD without special software.
You can record Red book audio tracks by putting them in CD-DA format (16-bit 44.1Ksample/s stereo data with byte order MSB left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, ..., and must be an integer multiple of 2352 bytes long). You can also record .wav or .au files (in stereo 16bit 44.1Khz, naturally): see the cdrecord manpage for more, and prefixing them with '-audio'. Data tracks should then be prefixed with '-data':
$ cdrecord dev=1,0 speed=2 -v -data track1.iso -audio track2.au -data track3.isoIf you want to do this, please read the cdrecord manpage (in /local/scratch/rrw1000/cdrecord/cdrecord-1.6 on snow if not on the Lab's systems). Mail rrw if you have any problems.