• Possible involvement of oxidative stress in fenofibrate-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
    • Nishimura, Dewa, Okamura, Muguruma, Jin, Saegusa, Umemura and Mitsumori
    • Arch Toxicol
    • Abstract

    To clarify whether oxidative stress is involved in the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic foci induced by fenofibrate (FF), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist, male F344/N rats were fed a diet containing 6,000, 3,000, or 0 ppm of FF for 13 weeks after N-diethylnitrosamine initiation. Two-third partial hepatectomy was performed 1 week after the FF treatment. Histopathologically, the number of hepatocellular altered foci significantly increased in the FF-treated groups with a concomitant increase in the number of hepatocytes positive for anti-Ki-67 antibody, but the number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci decreased in these groups, as compared to those in the controls. Microarray analysis or quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chine reaction demonstrated the significant up-regulations of Aco and Cyp4a1 (genes related to lipid metabolism); Gpx2, Yc2, Cat, Cyp2b15, and Ugt1a6 (metabolic oxidative stress-related genes); Apex1, Mgmt, Xrcc5, Nbn, and Gadd45a (DNA repair-related genes); and Ccnd1 (cell cycle-related genes) in the FF-treated groups, and the significant down-regulations of Cyp1a2, Gsta2, Gstm2, and Gstm3 (phase I or II metabolism-related genes); Mlh1 and Top1 (DNA repair-related genes); and Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, Chek2, and Gadd45b (cell cycle/apoptosis-related genes) in these rats. FF-treatment increased the activity of enzymes such as carnitine acetyltransferase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, fatty acyl-CoA oxidizing system, and catalase in the liver, but not superoxide dismutase in the liver. In addition, 8-OHdG level in liver DNA, lipofuscin deposition in hepatocytes, and in vitro reactive oxygen species production in microsomes significantly increased due to FF treatment. These results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the development of FF-induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci in rats.

    • Role of CYP2E1 in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo.
    • Kang, Wanibuchi, Morimura, Gonzalez and Fukushima
    • Cancer Res
    • 67 : 23
    • Abstract

    CYP2E1 metabolizes many low-molecular weight toxins and carcinogens. Some in vitro experiments suggest that CYP2E1 may be involved in the metabolic activation of diethylnitrosamine. However, there has been no direct evidence demonstrating a role for CYP2E1 in diethylnitrosamine-mediated carcinogenesis in vivo. To clarify this, we carried out a diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis experiment using Cyp2e1-null mice. Male 14-day-old wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine (10 mg/kg of body weight) and killed at weeks 24 and 36 after diethylnitrosamine treatment for investigation of tumors and at 6, 24, and 48 h for examination of apoptosis and gene expression. Liver weights of Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at weeks 24 and 36 compared with wild-type mice (P < 0.01). Liver tumor incidences of Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly decreased at weeks 24 and 36 compared with wild-type mice (P < 0.01). Cyp2e1-null mice showed significant decrease in the multiplicities of hepatocellular adenoma at weeks 24 and 36 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), and of hepatocellular carcinoma at week 36 (P < 0.01) compared with wild-type mice. Apoptotic index and caspase-3 and/or Bax mRNA expression of Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at 6, 24, and 48 h after diethylnitrosamine treatment compared with wild-type mice (P < 0.05). We conclude that Cyp2e1-null mice show lower tumor incidence and multiplicity compared with wild-type mice in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. It is suggested that CYP2E1 completely participates in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and high frequency of tumors in wild-type mice could be associated with the increased apoptosis.

    • Loss of hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway accelerates early stages of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
    • Takami, Kaposi-Novak, Uchida, Gomez-Quiroz, Conner, Factor and Thorgeirsson
    • Cancer Res
    • 67 : 20
    • Abstract

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on carcinogenesis. Here, we show that the loss of c-Met signaling in hepatocytes enhanced rather than suppressed the early stages of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. c-Met conditional knockout mice (c-metfl/fl, AlbCre+/-; MetLivKO) treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine developed significantly more and bigger tumors and with a shorter latency compared with control (w/w, AlbCre+/-; Cre-Ctrl) mice. Accelerated tumor development was associated with increased rate of cell proliferation and prolonged activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. MetLivKO livers treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine also displayed elevated lipid peroxidation, decreased ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, and up-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 and heat shock protein 70, all consistent with increased oxidative stress. Likewise, gene expression profiling done at 3 and 5 months after N-nitrosodiethylamine treatment revealed up-regulation of genes associated with cell proliferation and stress responses in c-Met mutant livers. The negative effects of c-Met deficiency were reversed by chronic p.o. administration of antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. N-acetyl-L-cysteine blocked the EGFR activation and reduced the N-nitrosodiethylamine-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis to the levels of Cre-Ctrl mice. These results argue that intact HGF/c-Met signaling is essential for maintaining normal redox homeostasis in the liver and has tumor suppressor effect(s) during the early stages of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    • Alpha-lipoic acid promotes the growth of rat hepatic pre-neoplastic lesions in the choline-deficient model.
    • Perra, Pibiri, Sulas, Simbula, Ledda-Columbano and Columbano
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 29 : 1
    • Abstract

    alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) is an antioxidant used in a number of conditions related to liver diseases. Herein, we investigated the effect of alpha-LA on the development of rat pre-neoplastic lesions generated by a model of hepatocarcinogenesis, which has similarities in its histopathological sequence to human hepatocellular carcinoma development with cirrhosis. Initiation of hepatocytes was achieved by treatment with a single dose of diethylnitrosamine and promotion by feeding a choline-methionine-deficient diet (CMD), with or without alpha-LA. Pre-neoplastic lesions were identified by their positivity to the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) or to gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. alpha-LA given to rats fed a CMD for 6 weeks dramatically increased the number of GSTP-positive foci as compared with rats fed a CMD alone (96/cm(2) versus 7/cm(2)), the mean foci area (0.033 versus 0.008 mm(2)) and the percentage of GSTP-positive liver tissue (3.01 versus 0.07%). Essentially similar results were obtained after 10 weeks of treatment. Co-treatment with CMD + alpha-LA also resulted in the enhancement of fat accumulation, lipid peroxidation and hepatocyte death; increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, cytochrome 2E1 and cyclooxygenase-2, enhanced activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and signal transducer activator of transcription 3, and chronic hepatocyte proliferation was also observed. No such effects were observed when alpha-LA was added to a choline-supplemented diet. In conclusion, administration of alpha-LA in conditions associated with hepatic damage aggravates liver injury and stimulates the development of pre-neoplastic lesions; the results also suggest caution in its use in the presence of chronic liver injury.

    • Chemo-preventive effect of Star anise in N-nitrosodiethylamine initiated and phenobarbital promoted hepato-carcinogenesis.
    • Yadav and Bhatnagar
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 169 : 3
    • Abstract

    The generation of free radicals is a cause of many pathological conditions like diabetes mellitus, cancer, stroke, etc. Free radicals cause damage to cellular DNA and initiate carcinogenesis. Free radicals also bring about proliferation of cells via cell signaling. An inverse relationship between the consumption of vegetable diets and the risk of cancer has been established. In the present study, Star anise (Illicium verum), which is a commonly used condiment in Indian cuisine, was assessed for its anti-carcinogenic potential in N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) initiated and phenobarbital (PB) promoted hepato-carcinogenesis. Rats were randomly selected for eight experimental groups. The carcinogenesis was induced by injecting the rats, with a single dose of NDEA (200mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally as initiator, followed by promotion with PB (0.05%) in drinking water for 14 consecutive weeks. The treatment with NDEA increased liver weight, while Star anise (Star) treatment reduced the liver weight of rats. The treatment with Star throughout for 20 weeks or during the promotion stage (6-20 weeks) significantly reduced the nodule incidence and nodule multiplicity in the rats, while the treatment with Star at the initiation phase (first 4 weeks) only could not reduce these parameters. The treatment with Star for 20 consecutive weeks significantly reduced the nodule size and nodule volume. The treatment with Star throughout as well as at the promotion stage lowered the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in liver and erythrocytes, while the LPO was not lowered, when Star was administered during initiation stage only. The treatment with Star restored the liver and erythrocyte super-oxide dismutase (SOD) activities to normal in the carcinogenesis-induced rats. The liver catalase (CAT) activity increased in all the treated groups. The erythrocyte CAT activity increased in the rats treated with Star during initiation and promotion stage only. The liver glutathione (GSH) level increased significantly in the groups treated with Star. The erythrocyte GSH level was lowered in the rats treated with NDEA and PB, however, Star treatment helped in increasing the erythrocyte GSH level to some extent. The liver and erythrocyte glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity increased in all the groups treated with NDEA and PB. The treatment with Star decreased GST level significantly. These results indicate that the treatment with Star reduces the tumor burden, lowers oxidative stress and increases the level of phase II enzymes, which may contribute to its anti-carcinogenic potential.

    • Comparison of mode of action of four hepatocarcinogens: a model-based approach.
    • Groos, Bannasch, Schwarz and Kopp-Schneider
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 99 : 2
    • Abstract

    Within the scope of the Rat Liver Foci Bioassay the model carcinogens N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM), 2-acetylaminoflouren (2-AAF), phenobarbital (PB), and clofibrate (CF) were analyzed concerning their potency and dose-response relationship to induce foci of altered hepatocytes (FAHs), which are known to be precursor lesions of liver adenoma and carcinoma. The medium-term experiment follows an initiation-promotion protocol using diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as initiator. The present report deals with the application of two biologically based models for hepatocarcinogenesis, the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCEM), and a color-shift model with beta distributed growth rates (CSMbeta). Both models yield similar conclusions concerning the mode of action of the carcinogens. However, the fit of CSMbeta appears closer to the observations than the fit of TSCEM. The analysis shows that application of a single dose of DEN has a persistent effect on the rate of FAH induction, especially in female rats. Overall, striking differences in the effect of the carcinogens were observed between male and female animals. 2-AAF shows a strong promoting effect in males, whereas in females the initiating effect dominates. NNM has both initiating and promoting effect, but in females, the rate of FAH formation seems to reach saturation at high dose. In the doses applied in the present experiment, PB has the weakest carcinogenic effect. Although PB alone does not induce FAH during the observation period, it increases the rate of FAH formation when applied following initiation with DEN. CF reduces the number and area fraction of GSTP-stained FAH, probably because it suppresses the placental form of glutathione S-transferase-positive phenotype.

    • Diethylnitrosamine initiation does not alter clofibric acid-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.
    • Michel, Desdouets, Slaoui, Isaacs, Roberts and Boitier
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 99 : 1
    • Abstract

    Clofibric acid (CLO) is a nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogen in rodents that causes altered hepatocellular foci and/or neoplasms. Initiation by DNA-damaging agents such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) accelerates focus and tumor appearance and could therefore significantly contribute to shortening of the regulatory 2-year rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. However, it is crucial to evaluate the histological and molecular impact of initiation with DEN on hepatocarcinogenesis promoted by CLO. Male F344 rats were given a single nonnecrogenic injection of DEN (0 or 30 mg/kg) followed by Control diet or CLO (5000 ppm) in diet for up to 20 months. Histopathology and gene expression profiling were performed in liver tumors and surrounding nontumoral liver tissues. The molecular signature of DEN was characterized and its histopathological and immunohistopathological effects on focus and tumor types were also determined. Although foci and tumors appeared earlier in the DEN+CLO-treated group compared to the group treated with CLO alone, DEN had little impact on gene expression in nontumoral tissues since the gene expression profiles were highly similar between Control and DEN-treated rats, and DEN+CLO- and CLO-treated rats. Finally, tumors obtained from DEN+CLO and CLO-treated groups displayed highly correlated gene expression profiles (r>0.83, independently of the time-point). The pathways involved in tumor development revealed by Gene Ontology functional analysis are similar when driven either by spontaneous initiation or by a chemically induced initiation step. Our work described here may contribute to the design optimization of shorter preclinical tests for the evaluation of the nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenic potential of drugs under development.

    • Lutein presents suppressing but not blocking chemopreventive activity during diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and this involves inhibition of DNA damage.
    • Moreno, Toledo, de Conti, Heidor, Jordão, Vannucchi, Cardozo and Ong
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 168 : 3
    • Abstract

    Cancer chemopreventive agents are classified as blocking or suppressing agents if they inhibit initiation or promotion/progression phase of carcinogenesis, respectively. Two experiments were conducted in order to classify lutein as a blocking and/or suppressing agent during rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Inhibitory effects of lutein on hepatic preneoplastic lesions (PNL) and DNA strand breakage induced in Wistar rats by the resistant hepatocyte model of hepatocarcinogenesis (initiation with diethylnitrosamine and promotion with 2-acetylaminofluorene coupled with partial hepatectomy) were investigated when the carotenoid was administered specifically during initiation (experiment 1) or promotion (experiment 2) phase. Animals received by gavage during 2 (experiment 1) or six (experiment 2) consecutive weeks on alternate days 70 mg/kg body weight of lutein. Rats treated with only corn oil during these same periods and submitted to this model were used as controls. Treatment with lutein during initiation did not inhibit nor induced (P>0.05) hepatic preneoplastic lesions and DNA damage. On the other hand, treatment during promotion inhibited (P<0.05) the size of hepatic macroscopic nodules and DNA damage and increased (P<0.05) lutein hepatic levels that reached levels seen in human liver samples. Lutein presented inhibitory actions during promotion but not initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis, being classified as a suppressing agent. This reinforces lutein as a potential agent for liver cancer chemoprevention.

    • Metallothionein expression is suppressed in primary human hepatocellular carcinomas and is mediated through inactivation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling cascade.
    • Datta, Majumder, Kutay, Motiwala, Frankel, Costa, Cha, MacDougald, Jacob and Ghoshal
    • Cancer Res
    • 67 : 6
    • Abstract

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from chronic inflammation cause liver injury leading to transformation of regenerating hepatocytes. Metallothioneins (MT), induced at high levels by oxidative stress, are potent scavengers of ROS. Here, we report that the levels of MT-1 and MT-2A are drastically reduced in primary human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and in diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumors in mice, which is primarily due to transcriptional repression. Expression of the transcription factor, MTF-1, essential for MT expression, and its target gene Zn-T1 that encodes the zinc transporter-1 was not significantly altered in HCCs. Inhibitors of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream target AKT increased expression of MT genes in HCC cells but not in liver epithelial cells. Suppression of MT-1 and MT-2A by ectopic expression of the constitutively active PI3K or AKT and their up-regulation by dominant-negative PI3K or AKT mutant confirmed negative regulation of MT expression by PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Further, treatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a downstream effector of PI3K/AKT, inhibited MT expression specifically in HCC cells. Short interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), a target of GSK-3, impeded MT expression, which could not be reversed by PI3K inhibitors. DNA binding activity of C/EBPalpha and its phosphorylation at T222 and T226 by GSK-3 are required for MT expression. MTF-1 and C/EBPalpha act in concert to increase MT-2A expression, which probably explains the high level of MT expression in the liver. This study shows the role of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and C/EBPalpha in regulation of MT expression in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    • Hepatocytes isolated from preneoplastic rat livers are resistant to ethacrynic acid cytotoxicity.
    • Parody, Alvarez, Quiroga, Ronco, Francés, Carnovale and Carrillo
    • Arch Toxicol
    • 81 : 8
    • Abstract

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as several cytostatic drugs, through conjugation with glutathione (GSH). Pi class GST (GST P) liver expression is associated with preneoplastic and neoplastic development and contributes with the drug-resistance phenotype. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an inhibitor of rat and human GSTs. In addition, causes lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the role of the GST/GSH system in isolated hepatocytes from preneoplastic rat livers (IP) in the presence of EA and determine the cytotoxicity of the drug. Our results showed a resistance to the toxic effects of EA since viability and cellular integrity values were significantly higher than control. Initial levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in IP hepatocytes were significantly higher than control and the presence of EA did not change TBARS levels. A diminution in intracellular total GSH was observed by treating with EA isolated hepatocytes from both groups. However, the initial total GSH levels were higher in IP hepatocytes than in control. Immunoblotting analysis showed the presence of GST P in IP animals only. Although alpha and mu class isoenzymes levels were decreased in IP hepatocytes, total GST activity was 1.5-fold higher than in control. In addition, multidrug-resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) showed fivefold decreased levels in IP hepatocytes. In conclusion, increased total GSH, decreased Mrp2 levels and the presence of GST P could be critical factors involved in the resistance of IP hepatocytes to the toxicity of EA.

    • Cumulative genotoxic and apoptotic effects of xenobiotics in a mini organ culture model of human nasal mucosa as detected by the alkaline single cell microgel electrophoresis assay and the annexin V-affinity assay.
    • Buehrlen, Harréus, Gamarra, Hagen and Kleinsasser
    • Toxicol Lett
    • 169 : 2
    • Abstract

    Three-dimensional mini organ cultures of human inferior nasal turbinate epithelia have proved to be a useful tool in genotoxicology studies. They allow repetitive or chronic exposure of cells to xenobiotics in a well-preserved organ-specific mucosal architecture for an extended period of time. It is the aim of the present study to concurrently monitor cumulative genotoxic and apoptotic effects of sodium dichromate, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG). Mini organs were raised by separating fresh specimens of human inferior nasal turbinates (n=11) into 1 mm3 sized pieces and culturing them on multiwell plates with bronchial epithelial basal medium for 6 days. Aliquots of the mini organs were subsequently exposed to sodium dichromate (1.0 mM, 1h), NDEA (50 mM, 1h) or MNNG (0.07 mM, 1h) on days 7, 9 and 11 versus a single exposure on day 11 only. DNA fragmentation and apoptotic events were assessed on day 11 using the alkaline single cell microgel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) and the annexin V-affinity assay. Significant DNA fragmentation could be demonstrated after a single exposure of the mini organs to sodium dichromate. Following three subsequent incubations, there was a further increase in the genetic damage observed, accompanied by an increase in the rate of apoptotic cells. In contrast, after single and triple incubation with NDEA there was neither an increase in genetic damage nor in the fraction of apoptotic cells detectable. Repetitive exposure to MNNG resulted in an accumulation of DNA damage without an observable increase in apoptosis. The results verify the need to assess apoptosis in genotoxicology research and to investigate cumulative effects of xenobiotics. Three-dimensional mini organ cultures of human upper aerodigestive tract epithelia have shown to be well-suited for improving the ability to distinguish between cumulative genotoxic and apoptotic effects.

    • Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.
    • Pradeep, Mohan, Gobianand and Karthikeyan
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 167 : 1
    • Abstract

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats.

    • Orphan nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor-mediated alterations in DNA methylation during phenobarbital promotion of liver tumorigenesis.
    • Phillips, Yamamoto, Negishi, Maronpot and Goodman
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 96 : 1
    • Abstract

    Altered DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that plays a key role in the carcinogenesis process, and the nongenotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogen phenobarbital (PB) alters the methylation status of DNA in mouse liver. The constitutive active/androstane nuclear receptor (CAR) mediates half of the PB-induced hepatic gene expression changes and it is essential for liver tumor promotion in PB-treated mice. Here, a technique involving methylation-sensitive restriction digestion, arbitrarily primed PCR, and capillary electrophoresis was utilized to detect PB-induced regions of altered DNA methylation (RAMs) in CAR wildtype (WT) mice that are sensitive to promotion by PB and resistant CAR knockout (KO) mice. The CAR WT mice developed preneoplastic lesions after 23 weeks of PB treatment (precancerous) and liver tumors after 32 weeks, while the CAR KO mice did not develop tumors (Y. Yamamoto, et al., 2004, Cancer Res. 64, 7197-7200). Our goal was to discern those RAMs which are playing important roles in tumor formation by comparing the RAMs that form in sensitive and resistant groups of mice. Using this novel approach, 42 unique RAMs were identified in the precancerous as compared to the CAR KO, 23-week PB-treated tissue. Of these 42 RAMs, 14 carried forward to the tumor tissue, and additionally, 104 total unique RAMs were observed in the tumor tissue. These results indicate that there are unique RAMs occurring in the sensitive CAR WT mice and that a portion of these are seen in both the precancerous and tumor tissue. We hypothesize that these unique RAMs may be facilitating the tumorigenesis process, and these data support the view that DNA methylation plays a causative role in PB-induced tumorigenesis.

    • Fetal onset of aberrant gene expression relevant to pulmonary carcinogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma development induced by in utero arsenic exposure.
    • Shen, Liu, Xie, Diwan and Waalkes
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 95 : 2
    • Abstract

    Arsenic is a human pulmonary carcinogen. Our work indicates that in utero arsenic exposure in mice can induce or initiate lung cancer in female offspring. To define early molecular changes, pregnant C3H mice were given 85 ppm arsenic in drinking water from days 8 to 18 of gestation and expression of selected genes in the fetal lung or in lung tumors developing in adults was examined. Transplacental arsenic exposure increased estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) transcript and protein levels in the female fetal lung. An overexpression of various estrogen-regulated genes also occurred, including trefoil factor-3, anterior gradient-2, and the steroid metabolism genes 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 and aromatase. The insulin growth factor system, which can be influenced by ER and has been implicated in the pulmonary oncogenic process, was activated in fetal lung after gestational arsenic exposure. In utero arsenic exposure also induced overexpression of alpha-fetoprotein, epidermal growth factor receptor, L-myc, and metallothionein-1 in fetal lung, all of which are associated with lung cancer. Lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma from adult female mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed widespread, intense nuclear ER-alpha expression. In contrast, normal adult lung and diethylnitrosamine-induced lung adenocarcinoma showed little evidence of ER-alpha expression. Thus, transplacental arsenic exposure at a carcinogenic dose produced aberrant estrogen-linked pulmonary gene expression. ER-alpha activation was specifically associated with arsenic-induced lung adenocarcinoma and adenoma but not with nitrosamine-induced lung tumors. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced aberrant ER signaling could disrupt early life stage genetic programing in the lung leading eventually to lung tumor formation much later in adulthood.

    • Antiangiogenic effect of Lygodium flexuosum against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
    • Wills, Suresh, Arun and Asha
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 164 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    The antiangiogenic effect of Lygodium flexuosum extract was evaluated in Wistar rats intoxicated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in preventive and curative models. In preventive groups, NDEA was administered for 20 weeks. Daily doses of L. flexuosumn-hexane extract (200mg/kg) started 1 week before the onset of NDEA intoxication and continued for 20 weeks. In curative animals, NDEA was administered for 20 weeks followed by treatment with the n-hexane extract of L. flexuosum for 28 days. Rats intoxicated with NDEA had elevated levels of serum gamma-GT, AST, ALT, LDH levels and hepatic MDA and decreased levels of hepatic GSH. When treated with L. flexuosum extract had normal levels of gamma-GT, AST, ALT, LDH levels, hepatic MDA and GSH. NDEA administered rat liver showed an overexpressed levels of angiopoietins 1 (Ang-1) and 2 (Ang-2) and its receptor Tie-2 mRNA. L. flexuosum extract treatment significantly (p<or=0.05) reduced the levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 and Tie-2 in rat livers evidenced by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was overexpressed and localized around periportal area of liver sections intoxicated with NDEA and its overexpression was effectively reduced by the treatment with L. flexuosum extract. Histopathological observations also substantiated NDEA-induced hepatotoxicity and the effect was significantly (p<or=0.05) reduced by L. flexuosum extract treatment. Thus, L. flexuosum extract at a dose of 200mg/kg effectively reversed the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in both experimental models.

    • Altered gene expression of transcriptional regulatory factors in tumor marker-positive cells during chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
    • Osada, Naganawa, Misonou, Tsuchiya, Tamba, Okuno, Nishikawa, Satoh, Imagawa, Tsujimoto, Sugimoto and Nishihara
    • Toxicol Lett
    • 167 : 2
    • Abstract

    Glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) is markedly and specifically inducible in rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and is a reliable marker protein for pre-neoplasia. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms at the early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis and hepatotoxicity, we investigated the gene expression profile by DNA microarray analysis. We prepared RNA from GST-P-positive foci in three individual rats and compared with normal liver sections from three individual rats, and labeled RNA was individually hybridized onto Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Expression Array 230A. DNA microarray analysis showed distinctly different profiles of dysregulated gene expression and supported the previous finding that some enzymes involved in metabolism and detoxification are overexpressed and suppressed. Here we discovered that several DNA-binding transcription factors and cofactors, including sterol-regulatory-element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1)-interacting protein, and their target genes were dysregulated in GST-P-positive foci. Moreover, genes involved in chromatin components, histone modification enzymes, and centrosome duplication were highly expressed. These genes were not previously known to be up-regulated during chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis. DNA microarray analysis using RNA prepared from tumor marker-positive foci and control tissues provided a candidate gene link to the early stage of carcinogenesis and hepatotoxicity.

    • Molecular basis of anticlastogenic potential of vanadium in vivo during the early stages of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
    • Chakraborty, Pandey, Chatterjee, Ghosh, Rana and Chatterjee
    • Mutat Res
    • 609 : 2
    • Abstract

    Carcinogen-induced DNA base modification and subsequent DNA lesions are the critical events for the expression of premalignant phenotype of the cell. We have therefore investigated the chemopreventive efficacy of a vanadium salt against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced early DNA and chromosomal damages in rat liver. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single, necrogenic, intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200mg/kg body weight). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosines (8-OHdGs), strand-breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) were measured by HPLC, comet assay and spectrofluorimetry, respectively. There was a significant and steady elevation of modified bases 8-OHdGs along with substantial increments of the extent of single-strand-breaks (SSBs), DPCs and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) following DEN exposure. Supplementation of vanadium as ammonium metavanadate (NH(4)VO(3), +V oxidation state) at a dose of 0.5ppm in terms of the salt weight throughout the experiment abated the formations of 8-OHdGs (P<0.0001; 79.54%), tailed DNA (P<0.05; 31.55%) and length:width of DNA mass (P<0.02; 61.25%) in preneoplastic rat liver. Vanadium treatment also inhibited DPCs (P<0.0001; 58.47%) and CAs (P<0.001; 45.17%) studied at various time points. The results indicate that the anticlastogenic potential of vanadium in vivo might be due to the observed reductions in liver-specific 8-OHdGs, SSBs and/or DPCs by this trace metal. We conclude that, vanadium plays a significant role in limiting DEN-induced genotoxicity and clastogenicity during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    • Vanadium limits the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and inhibits early DNA damage during diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular preneoplasia in rats.
    • Chakraborty, Chatterjee, Dhachinamoorthi, Srivastawa, Panayappan and Chatterjee
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 47 : 8
    • Abstract

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that vanadium stabilizes xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant status and suppresses DNA-protein crosslinks during chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. In the present study, we have further investigated the in vivo antitumor potential of this micronutrient by determining the effect of 0.5 ppm vanadium in drinking water on biomarkers for the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis; the biomarkers included gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci and glycogen-storage foci, in situ expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and genotoxic DNA damage assessed by the alkaline Comet assay. Histomorphometry also was assessed during the study. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced by treating 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single, necrogenic, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 200 mg/kg body weight diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Compared to the carcinogen control, vanadium administration over the 32 weeks of the experiment reduced the relative liver weight by 30%, the incidence of nodules by 69.34%, the total number and multiplicity of nodules by 80.77%, and remodeled the hepatocellular premalignant architecture towards a normal phenotype. Moreover, long-term vanadium treatment reduced the development of GGT foci by 76.2% (P < 0.001), decreased periodic acid-Schiff's reactivity by 59.49% (P < 0.01), and decreased PCNA expression, with the concomitant reduction in PCNA immunolabeling index by 93.36% (P < 0.001). Finally, vanadium inhibited early DNA damage (DNA strand-breaks) in DEN-treated rat hepatocytes as expressed in the Comet assay by a 60.04% reduction in the length:width value of DNA mass (P < 0.01) and a 51.54% reduction in the tail length of the DNA comets (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that continuous supplementation with 0.5 ppm vanadium suppresses hepatocellular neoplastic transformation in rats.

    • Evaluation of nitroreductase and acetyltransferase participation in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity.
    • Aiub, Mazzei, Pinto and Felzenszwalb
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 161 : 2
    • Abstract

    N-Nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), are a versatile group of chemical carcinogens, being suspected to be involved in gastrointestinal tumors in humans. The intestinal microflora can modify a wide range of environmental chemicals either directly or in the course of enterohepatic circulation. Nitroreductases from bacteria seem to have a wide spectrum of substrates, as observed by the reduction of several nitroaromatic compounds, but their capacity to metabolize N-nitroso compounds has not been described. To elucidate the participation of nitroreductase or acetyltransferase enzymes in the mutagenic activity of NDEA, the bacterial (reverse) mutation test was carried out with the strains YG1021 (nitroreductase overexpression), YG1024 (acetyltransferase overexpression), TA98NR (nitroreductase deficient), and TA98DNP6 (acetyltrasferase deficient), and YG1041, which overexpresses both enzymes. The presence of high levels of acetyltransferase may generate toxic compounds that must be eliminated by cellular processes or can lead to cell death, and consequently decrease the mutagenic effect, as can be observed by the comparison of strain TA98DNP6 with the strains TA98 and YG1024. The slope curves for TA98 strain were 0.66 rev/microM (R(2) = 0.51) and 52.8 rev/microM (R(2) = 0.88), in the absence and presence of S9 mix, respectively. For YG1024 strain, the slope curve, in the presence of S9 mix was 6897 rev/microM (R(2) = 0.78). Our data suggest that N-nitroso compounds need to be initially metabolized by enzymes such as cytochromes P450 to induce mutagenicity. Nitroreductase stimulates toxicity, while acetyltransferase stimulates mutagenicity, and nitroreductase can neutralize the mechanism of mutagenicity generating innoccuos compounds, probably by acting on the product generated after NDEA activation.

    • Suppression of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis by silymarin in rats.
    • Ramakrishnan, Raghavendran, Vinodhkumar and Devaki
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 161 : 2
    • Abstract

    Antioxidants are one of the key players in tumorigenesis, several natural and synthetic antioxidants were shown to have anticancer effects. In the present investigation the efficacy of silymarin on the antioxidant status of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar albino male rats were assessed. The animals were divided into five groups. The animals in the groups 1 and 3 were normal control and silymarin control, respectively. Groups 2, 4 and 5 were administered with 0.01% NDEA in drinking water for 15 weeks to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Starting 1 week prior to NDEA administration group 4 animals were treated with silymarin in diet for 16 weeks, 10 weeks after NDEA administration group 5 animals were treated with silymarin and continued till the end of the experiment period (16 weeks). After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules, size of nodules, the levels of lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed in both haemolysate and liver tissue. In group 2 hepatocellular carcinoma induced animals there was an increase in the number of nodules, relative liver weight. The levels of lipid peroxides were elevated with subsequent decrease in the body weight, (glutathione) GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In contrast, silymarin + NDEA treated groups 4 and 5 animals showed a significant decrease in the number of nodules with concomitant decrease in the lipid peroxidation status. The levels of GSH and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in both haemolysate and liver were improved when compared with hepatocellular carcinoma induced group 2 animals. The electron microscopy studies were also carried out which supports the chemopreventive action of the silymarin against NDEA administration during liver cancer progression. These findings suggest that silymarin suppresses NDEA induced hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating the antioxidant defense status of the animals.

    • High sensitivity of fatty liver Shionogi (FLS) mice to diethylnitrosamine hepatocarcinogenesis: comparison to C3H and C57 mice.
    • Iwai, Murai, Makino, Min, Morimura, Mori, Hagihara, Seki and Fukushima
    • Cancer Lett
    • 246 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    The fatty liver Shionogi (FLS) mouse is a new inbred strain that spontaneously develops fatty liver with infiltration of mononuclear cells. Moreover, this mouse is known to frequently develop spontaneous hepatic cancers. Recently, human non-alcholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been focused of attention regarding hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, this mouse has potential as a model for human hepatic cancer due to steatosis. It is of interest therefore, whether it exhibits elevated susceptibility not only regarding spontaneous tumor development but also to chemical hepatocarcinogens. To examine this concern, we examined diethylnitrosamine (DEN) hepatocarcinogenesis in FLS mice with 30ppm in drinking water for 26 weeks in comparison to two other strains of mice, C3H and C57. The induction of spontaneous and DEN-induced hepatic tumors was clearly increased in the FLS case, along with levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, as compared to the other strains, with or without DEN treatment. These results indicate that the oxidative DNA stress is intimately involved in hepatocarcinogenesis in FLS mice and provide further support for use of this mouse as a useful model for investigating hepatocarcinogenesis due to human hepatic steatosis.

    • Transplantable tumor lines generated in clonal zebrafish.
    • Mizgireuv and Revskoy
    • Cancer Res
    • 66 : 6
    • Abstract

    Transplantable zebrafish tumors are a novel and very promising model in cancer research. However, further progress in this field has been contained by a lack of true inbred lines in zebrafish. To overcome this problem, we generated two lines of homozygous diploid clonal zebrafish lines (i.e., CB1 and CW1), which allowed us to carry out transplantation of any tissue, including tumors, from one fish to another within a line without rejection of the graft. The primary tumors in CB1 fish were induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). The histologic analysis of these tumors revealed different types of hepatocellular carcinomas, hepatoblastomas, hepatoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic carcinoma. Four spontaneous acinar cell carcinomas of pancreas were also found in 10- to 18-month-old CB1 fish. Small pieces of tissue or cell suspensions of either DEN-induced or spontaneous tumors were serially transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of syngeneic fish at different stages of development from 5-day-old larvae to adult fish. The development of grossly visible tumors occurred from 2 weeks to 3 months after tumor grafting and grew either as solitary smooth nodules or as an amorphous jelly-like mass infiltrating abdominal organs. The majority of tumors were also successfully transplanted to isogeneic (F1 generation from crossing CB1 x CW1) fish. At the present time, 19 transplantable zebrafish tumor lines have been generated and maintained for as long as 3 to 25 passages. This model provides a novel tool for studying experimental tumor biology and therapy and will become a cost effective system for high throughput screening of anticancer drugs.

    • Ectopic activity of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 in hepatocytes accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis by driving proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis.
    • Huang, Yu, Jin, Kobayashi, Bowles, Wang and McKeehan
    • Cancer Res
    • 66 : 3
    • Abstract

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling mediates cell-to-cell communication in development and organ homeostasis in adults. Of the four FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinases, only FGFR4 is expressed in mature hepatocytes. Although FGFR1 is expressed by hepatic cell progenitors and adult nonparenchymal cells, ectopic expression is commonly observed in hepatoma cells. Here, we determined whether ectopic FGFR1 is a cause or consequence of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting a constitutively active human FGFR1 to mouse hepatocytes. Livers of transgenic mice exhibited accelerated regeneration after partial hepatectomy but no signs of neoplastic or preneoplastic abnormalities for up to 18 months. However, in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice, the chronic FGFR1 activity promoted an incidence of 44% adenomas at 4 months and 38% hepatocellular carcinoma at 8 months. No adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in diethylnitrosamine-treated wild-type (WT) livers at 4 or 8 months, respectively. At 10 and 12 months, tumor-bearing livers in transgenic mice were twice the size of those in WT animals. Isolated hepatoma cells from the transgenic tumors exhibited a growth advantage in culture. Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in the transgenic livers exhibited a reduced rate of necrosis. This was accompanied by a mean microvessel density of 2.7 times that of WT tumors and a markedly higher level of vascular endothelial growth factor. In cooperation with an initiator, the persistent activity of ectopic FGFR1 in hepatocytes is a strong promoter of hepatocellular carcinoma by driving cell proliferation at early stages and promoting neoangiogenesis at late stages of progression.

    • Inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis by the deletion of the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB in mice administered the peroxisome proliferator Wy-14,643.
    • Glauert, Eyigor, Tharappel, Cooper, Lee and Spear
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 90 : 2
    • Abstract

    Wy-14,643 (WY) is a hypolipidemic drug that induces hepatic peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodents. We previously showed that peroxisome proliferators increase NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in rats, mice, and hepatoma cell lines, and that mice deficient in the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB had much lower cell proliferation in response to the peroxisome proliferator ciprofibrate. In this study we examined the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by WY in the p50 knockout (-/-) mice. The p50 -/- and wild type mice were first administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiating agent. Mice were then fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.05% WY for 38 weeks. Wild-type mice receiving DEN only developed a low incidence of tumors, and the majority of wild-type mice receiving both DEN and WY developed tumors. However, no tumors were seen in any of the p50 -/- mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured in hepatocytes by BrdU labeling and the TUNEL assay, respectively. Treatment with DEN + WY increased both cell proliferation and apoptosis in both the wild-type and p50 -/- mice; DEN treatment alone has no effect. In the DEN/WY-treated mice, cell proliferation and apoptosis were slightly lower in the p50 -/- mice than in the wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that NF-kappaB is involved in the promotion of hepatic tumors by the peroxisome proliferator WY; however, the difference in tumor incidence could not be attributed to alterations in either cell proliferation or apoptosis.

    • Tumor promoting potency of PCBs 28 and 101 in rat liver.
    • Kunz, Schwarz, Schilling, Päpke, Lehmler, Robertson, Schrenk and Schmitz
    • Toxicol Lett
    • 164 : 2
    • Abstract

    Only few data are available on the carcinogenic potency of individual PCB congeners. In this study, we tested the 'non-dioxinlike' congeners PCB 28 and 101 for their potency as liver tumor promoters in female rats which received diethyl-N-nitrosamine as an initiator. After 8 or 16 weeks of PCB treatment (50 and 150 micromol/kg body weight per week), each congener was recovered in the liver according to the dose levels applied, with PCB 28, at the same dose level, showing nine- to 16-fold higher hepatic levels than PCB 101 (approximately, 44 micromol/kg versus 5 micromol/kg liver at low dose, 145 micromol/kg versus 9 micromol/kg liver at high dose). PCB 28 was found to mildly induce hepatic EROD activity, while both congeners induced PROD activity. With each congener, no significant increase in the number of ATPase-deficient or GSTP-positive preneoplastic foci was obtained, while a significant increase in the relative hepatic volume of ATPase-deficient foci was found in the livers of DEN pre-treated animals having received 50 micromol/kg body weight of PCB 101 per week over 16 weeks. Our results revealed that neither the accumulative PCB 28 nor the more readily metabolisable PCB 101 was an efficacious tumor promoter in the livers of female rats.

    • Nine-week detection of six genotoxic lung carcinogens using the rasH2/BHT mouse model.
    • Umemura, Kodama, Nishikawa, Hioki, Nomura, Kanki, Kuroiwa, Ishii, Kurokawa and Hirose
    • Cancer Lett
    • 231 : 2
    • Abstract

    A 9-week in vivo rasH2/butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) model for the detection of genotoxic lung carcinogens was validated, using six potent positive test compounds, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN; 15 mg/kg, i.p.), diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 100 mg/kg, i.p.), ethylnitrosourea (ENU; 120 mg/kg, i.p.), 3-methylcholanthrene (MC; 100 mg/kg, i.p.), 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA; 5 mg/kg, i.g.) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P; 80 mg/kg, i.p.), each given to rasH2 mice of both genders by single administration for initiation followed by promoter BHT treatment. Statistically significant increase in the incidence and multiplicity of lung tumors was observed in rasH2 mice treated with BHT following exposure to all of the carcinogens tested. The data overall suggest the rasH2/BHT model to be a powerful screening tool for genotoxic lung carcinogens.

    • Concordance of thresholds for carcinogenicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine.
    • Waddell, Fukushima and Williams
    • Arch Toxicol
    • 80 : 6
    • Abstract

    Three publications on the carcinogenicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the livers of F-344 or Wistar rats were examined for concordance of the data. Two reports recorded the appearance of tumors after treatment with NDEA, although one used a different dosing schedule that included phenobarbital promotion. Two studied glutathione S-transferase-placental positive (GST-p+) foci in liver at several doses. One also analyzed DNA for adducts from NDEA. This analysis revealed that when the dose was calculated in molecules/kg/day, the thresholds for the incidence of liver tumors were different by about 1.5 orders of magnitude. But when the dose was calculated as the total cumulative dose, the thresholds for tumor appearance (about 10(20.3) molecules/kg) were in agreement within the error of calculation. Combining the data for GST-p+ foci revealed remarkable agreement between the two reports and a threshold for the appearance of these foci at about 10(19.5) molecules/kg of total cumulative dose of NDEA. DNA adducts fit an exponential curve better than a linear. GST-p+ foci and adducts from NDEA were observed at doses below the threshold dose for the appearance of tumors. These results suggest that: cumulative dose is a better metric than daily dose and that adducts and GST-p+ foci appear at doses below those at which tumors appear. These results further support the observations of the authors that thresholds for carcinogenicity of this genotoxic carcinogen exist and that adducts and altered foci appear at lower doses than the threshold for carcinogenicity.

    • CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha knock-in mice exhibit early liver glycogen storage and reduced susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma.
    • Tan, Hooi, Laban, Wong, Ponniah, Wee and Wang
    • Cancer Res
    • 65 : 22
    • Abstract

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) is vital for establishing normal hepatic energy homeostasis and moderating hepatocellular growth. CEBPA loss-of-function mutations identified in acute myeloid leukemia patients support a tumor suppressor role for C/EBPalpha. Recent work showed reductions of C/EBPalpha levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma with the reductions correlating to tumor size and progression. We investigated the potential of reactivating c/ebpalpha expression during hepatic carcinogenesis to prevent tumor cell growth. We have developed a c/ebpalpha knock-in mouse in which a single-copy c/ebpalpha is regulated by one allele of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene promoter. The knock-in mice are physically indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) controls. However, knock-in animals were found to deposit fetal hepatic glycogen earlier than WT animals. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed early c/ebpalpha expression and early glycogen synthase gene activation in knock-in fetuses. We then used diethylnitrosamine to induce hepatocellular carcinoma in our animals. Diethylnitrosamine produced half the number of hepatocellular nodules in knock-in mice as in WT mice. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced C/EBPalpha content in WT nodules whereas knock-in nodules stained strongly for C/EBPalpha. The p21 protein was examined because it mediates a C/EBPalpha growth arrest pathway. Nuclear p21 was absent in WT nodules whereas cytoplasmic p21 was abundant; knock-in nodules were positive for nuclear p21. Interestingly, only C/EBPalpha-positive nodules were positive for nuclear p21, suggesting that C/EBPalpha may be required to direct p21 to the cell nucleus to inhibit growth. Our data establish that controlled C/EBPalpha production can inhibit liver tumor growth in vivo.

    • Alpha-benzene hexachloride exerts hormesis in preneoplastic lesion formation of rat hepatocarcinogenesis with the possible role for hepatic detoxifying enzymes.
    • Puatanachokchai, Morimura, Wanibuchi, Oka, Kinoshita, Mitsuru, Yamaguchi, Funae and Fukushima
    • Cancer Lett
    • 240 : 1
    • Abstract

    Recently there has been a shift in the prevailing paradigm regarding the dose dependence of carcinogen action with increasing acceptance of hormesis phenomenon, although underlying mechanisms remain to be established. To ascertain whether alpha-benzene hexachloride (alpha-BHC) might act by hormesis, rats were initiated with diethylnitrosamine and then alpha-BHC ranging from 0.01 to 500 ppm was administered in the diet for 10 weeks. The highest concentration of alpha-BHC significantly increased the number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, preneoplastic lesions in the liver, but its low dose, 0.05 ppm, caused significant reduction, showing a J-shape dose-response curve. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive index for GST-P positive foci in the low dose-treated group was significantly reduced. The dose response curves of CYP450 content, NADPH-P450 reductase activity and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation revealed the same pattern as GST-P positive foci data. The response curves of CYP2B1 and 3A2 in their activities, protein and mRNA expression showed a threshold but CYP2C11 activity exhibited an inverted J-shape. These results might suggest the possibility of hormesis of alpha-BHC at early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. The possible mechanism involves induction of detoxifying enzymes at low dose, influencing free radical production and oxidative stress, and consequently pathological change in the liver.

    • Effect of Solanum trilobatum on the antioxidant status during diethyl nitrosamine induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in rat.
    • Shahjahan, Vani and Shyamaladevi
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 156 : 2-3
    • Abstract

    AIM: The methanolic extract of Solanum trilobatum (ST) is cytotoxic and exerts an inhibitory effect on tumor growth and in the present study, its role on the antioxidant status of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital (PB) promoted hepatocarcinogenesis was assessed. METHODS: The protective role of ST on DEN induced and PB promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats was assessed from total nodular incidence, nodule multiplicity and volume of persistent nodules after an experimental period of 3 and 6 months following co-administration. The levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed in the haemolysate and liver of experimental animals to evaluate the antioxidant status. RESULTS: In DEN+PB+ST animals, the nodular incidence, multiplicity and volume reduced significantly compared to DEN+PB treated animals. In DEN+PB animals, the levels of TBARS increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH and the activities of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase showed significant alterations compared to control both in the haemolysate and liver. However, in DEN+PB+ST animals, the levels of TBARS decreased significantly and the levels of GSH increased with favorable alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in both the haemolysate and liver. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that ST exerts its chemopreventive effects by modulating the antioxidant status during DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    • Protective role of Vitamin E pre-treatment on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced oxidative stress in rat liver.
    • Bansal, Bansal, Soni and Bhatnagar
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 156 : 2-3
    • Abstract

    Nitrosamine compounds are known hepatic carcinogens. In the metabolism of nitrosamines, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), there is evidence of the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress, which may be one of the factors in the etiology of cancer. The formation of ROS may alter the antioxidant system, while the presence of Vitamin E may counteract NDEA induced oxidative stress. This study was planned to determine whether pre-treatment with Vitamin E (40 mg/kg body weight, i.p., twice a week for 4 weeks) to NDEA induced rats provides protection against oxidative stress in liver caused by the carcinogen. A single necrogenic dose of NDEA (200mg/kg body weight) was administered i.p. to the male albino rats with or without Vitamin E pre-treatment and the animals were sacrificed on Days 7, 14 or 21 after the administration of NDEA. The result showed enhanced levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and conjugated dienes of NDEA treated rats as the indices of oxidative stress, however, Vitamin E pre-treated rats administered NDEA showed decreased LPO and conjugated dienes (Day 21). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver was not altered significantly in NDEA treated rats with or without Vitamin E pre-treatment. Catalase (CAT) activity was inhibited with NDEA treatment, however, Vitamin E pre-treatment showed recovery in hepatic CAT activity (Days 14 and 21). Total and Se-glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in liver increased in NDEA treated rats irrespective of Vitamin E pre-treatment. Glutathione reductase (GSH-R) activity as well as total glutathione (GSH) content in liver decreased in NDEA treated animals, both of which were recovered in Vitamin E pre-treated rats administered NDEA. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were increased significantly following NDEA treatment to rats with or without Vitamin E pre-treatment. The activities of AST and ALT enzymes were significantly reduced on Days 14 and 21 and ALP activity was reduced on Day 21 in NDEA+Vitamin E treated animals when compared to NDEA treated alone. LDH enzyme activity was normalized on Day 14 in Vitamin E pre-treated animals administered NDEA. However, the AST, ALT and ALP enzyme activities remained high in all treatment groups as compared to control group. Normal control and Vitamin E treated alone rats revealed normal histology of liver. On the other hand, NDEA treated animals showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, which comprised of necrosis and vacuolization of the cells. However, the rats treated with Vitamin E+NDEA showed that the liver cells were normal, with very little necrosis (Day 21). This study concludes that the pre-treatment with Vitamin E prior to the administration of NDEA, reduced the degree of oxidative stress, although this vitamin produced only slight changes in the hepatic injury, in a time-dependent manner.

    • Inhibitory effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in a mouse hepatocarcinogenesis model.
    • da Silva, Paula da Silva, Akisue, Luis Avanzo, Kazumi Nagamine, Fukumasu, Matsuzaki, César Raspantini, Haraguchi, Lima Górniak and Dagli
    • Cancer Lett
    • 226 : 2
    • Abstract

    Studies have been demonstrating Pfaffia paniculata root (Brazilian ginseng) anticarcinogenic activities. We evaluated its chemopreventive effects on preneoplastic hepatic lesions. BALB/c aged-15 days received 10mug/g of diethylnitrosamine carcinogen, i.p. They were fed with the powdered root added to the diet: 0.5, 2 or 10% during 27 weeks. After being sacrificed, the macroscopic lesions in the livers were examined. Preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions were measured, quantified and classified morphologically. The treatment reduced the incidence, mean area and number of lesions, indicating an inhibitory effect of these roots on hepatocarcinogenesis promotion or progression steps.

    • Investigation of the formation of N-nitrosodiethanolamine in B6C3F1 mice following topical administration of triethanolamine.
    • Saghir, Brzak, Markham, Bartels and Stott
    • Regul Toxicol Pharmacol
    • 43 : 1
    • Abstract

    To determine potential nitrosation of triethanolamine (TEA) to N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) at different physiological conditions of the GI tract, in vitro NDELA formation was examined in aqueous reaction mixtures at several pHs (2-10) adjusted with acetic, sulphuric or hydrochloric acids or in cultures of mouse cecal microflora incubated. In vivo NDELA formation was also determined in blood, ingesta, and urine of female B6C3F1 mice after repeated dermal, most relevant human route, or single oral exposure to 1000 mg/kg TEA in the presence of high oral dosages of NaNO(2). Appropriate diethanolamine (DEA) controls were included to account for this impurity in the TEA used. Samples were analyzed for NDELA using GC/MS. The highest degree of nitrosation of TEA to NDELA ( approximately 3%) was observed in the in vitro cultures at pH 4 and acetic acid with lower amounts obtained using sulphuric acid ( approximately 1.3%) and hydrochloric acid ( approximately 1.2%). At pH 7, <1% of the TEA was nitrosated to NDELA and at pH 2 (HCl) or pH 10 (NaOH) no NDELA was found above the limit of detection. In incubated cultures containing cecal microflora and nutrient broth, only 0.68% of TEA was nitrosated to NDELA. No NDELA was formed in rats repeatedly dermally dosed with TEA at the limits of detection in blood (0.001 microg/ml, ppm), ingesta (0.006 microg/ml, ppm), and urine (0.47 microg/ml, ppm). Levels of NDELA measured in blood and ingesta after a single oral dose of TEA and NaNO(2) were less than those in DEA controls. These findings in toto confirm the lack of any significant formation of NDELA from TEA in vivo.

    • Low dose DDT inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine in male rats: possible mechanisms.
    • Kushida, Sukata, Uwagawa, Ozaki, Kinoshita, Wanibuchi, Morimura, Okuno and Fukushima
    • Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
    • 208 : 3
    • Abstract

    Previously we reported a tendency for reduction of the development of glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, recognized as preneoplastic changes in rat liver, by a low dose of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), which belongs to the same group of hepatic cytochrome P-450 inducers as phenobarbital and is itself a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen. In order to clarify the biological significance of this phenomenon, we investigated the reproducibility and changes in other parameters using an initiation-promotion model in which male F344 rats were treated with DDT at doses of 0, 0.005, 0.5, 500 ppm in the diet for 11 or 43 weeks after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN). When 500 ppm DDT was applied, the formation of GST-P positive foci and tumor were markedly elevated. In contrast, induction of GST-P positive foci and liver tumors tended to be inhibited at a dose of 0.005 ppm, correlating with protein levels of cytochrome P450 2B1 and 3A2 (CYP2B1 and 3A2) and generation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. mRNA levels for 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), an 8-OHdG repair enzyme, connexin 32 (Cx32), a major component of Gap junctions, and hepatic nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF-1alpha), a Cx32 regulator, were inversely correlated with GST-P positive foci and tumor formation. These results indicate that low dose DDT may indeed exhibit inhibitory effects on chemically initiated-rat hepatocarcinogenicity, in contrast to the promotion observed with high doses, and that this is related to changes in metabolizing enzymes, cell communication, and DNA damage and its repair.

    • Altered retinoid metabolism in female Long-Evans and Han/Wistar rats following long-term 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treatment.
    • Fletcher, Giese, Schmidt, Stern, Lind, Viluksela, Tuomisto, Tuomisto, Nau and Håkansson
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 86 : 2
    • Abstract

    This study investigated the effects of long-term low-dose 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on retinoid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D homeostasis in Long-Evans and Han/Wistar rats using a tumor promotion exposure protocol. Female rats (ten/group) were partially hepatectomized, initiated with nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and given TCDD once per week by sc injection for 20 weeks at calculated daily doses of 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/kg bw/day. Groups of nonhepatectomized/uninitiated rats (five/group) were identically maintained. After 20 weeks, the rats were killed, and apolar retinoid levels were determined in the liver and kidneys. No consistent differences were seen between partially hepatectomized/initiated and nonhepatectomized/uninitiated animals with respect to apolar retinoid levels or hepatic TCDD concentration. Further analyses of polar and apolar retinoid levels in liver, plasma, and kidney, as well as free thyroxine (FT4) and vitamin D (25-OH-D(3)) concentrations were carried out in partially hepatectomized/inititated animals. In Long-Evans rats, TCDD exposure dose-dependently decreased hepatic retinyl ester concentrations at doses of 1-100 ng/kg bw/day. Likewise, hepatic all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA) concentration was decreased 39 and 54% at 10 and 100 ng/kg bw/day respectively, whereas 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-retinoic acid (9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA), a recently discovered retinoic acid metabolite, was decreased approximately 60% in the liver at 1 ng/kg bw/day. TCDD dose-dependently increased plasma retinol and kidney retinol concentrations, whereas all-trans-RA concentration was also increased in the plasma and kidney at 10 and 100 ng/kg bw/day. Plasma 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA was decreased to below detection limits from doses of 1 ng/kg bw/day TCDD. A qualitatively similar pattern of retinoid disruption was observed in the Han/Wistar rat strain following TCDD exposure. FT4 was decreased to a similar extent in both strains, whereas 25-OH-D(3) was decreased only at 100 ng/kg bw/day in Long-Evans rats. Together these results show that TCDD disrupts both retinoid storage and metabolism of retinoic acid and retinoic acid metabolites in liver, kidney, and plasma from doses as low as 1 ng/kg bw/day. Furthermore, 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA was identified as a novel and sensitive indicator of TCDD exposure, in a resistant and sensitive rat strain, thereby extending the database of low-dose TCDD effects.

    • Characterization of an acute molecular marker of nongenotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by gene expression profiling in a long term clofibric acid study.
    • Michel, Roberts, Desdouets, Isaacs and Boitier
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 18 : 4
    • Abstract

    Evaluation of the nongenotoxic potential early during the development of a drug presents a major challenge. Recently, two genes were identified as potential molecular markers of rodent hepatic carcinogenesis: transforming growth factor-beta stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22) and NAD(P)H cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYP-R) (1). They were identified after comparing the gene expression profiles obtained from the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with different genotoxic and nongenotoxic compounds in a 5 day repeat dose in vivo study. To assess the potential of these two genes as acute markers of carcinogenesis, we investigated their modulation during a long-term nongenotoxic study in the rat using a classic initiation-promotion regime. Clofibric acid (CLO), which belongs to the broad class of chemicals known as peroxisome proliferators, was used as a nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogen. Male F344 rats were given a single nonnecrogenic injection of diethylnitrosamine (0 or 30 mg/kg) and fed a diet containing none or 5000 ppm CLO for up to 20 months. Necropsies of five rats per groups were performed at 18, 46, 102, 264, 377, 447 (control, DEN, and DEN + CLO rats), 524, and 608 days (for the CLO and control rats). Gross macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and gene expression profiling (on Affymetrix microarrays) were performed in peritumoral and tumoral liver tissues. Bioanalysis of the liver gene expression data revealed that TSC-22 was strongly down-regulated early in the study. Its underexpression was maintained throughout the study but disappeared upon CLO withdrawal. These modulations were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. However, CYP-R gene expression was not significantly altered in our study. Taken together, our results showed that TSC-22, but not CYP-R, has the potential to be an acute early molecular marker for nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents.

    • Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development.
    • Sultana, Ahmed, Jahangir and Sharma
    • Cancer Lett
    • 221 : 1
    • Abstract

    The chemopreventive activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds (celery seeds) has been investigated against Solt Farber protocol of hepatocarcinogenesis, oxidative stress and induction of positive foci of gamma-GT in the liver of Wistar rats. The prophylactic treatment of celery seeds extract protected dose dependently against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis and other related events such as induction of gamma-GT positive foci (P<0.001). 2-AAF administration in diet with PH in rats resulted in increased hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and a consequent increase in the rate of DNA synthesis when compared to saline treated control group while pretreatment of rats with celery seeds extract resulted in inhibition of aforementioned parameters dose dependently. The augmentation of quinone reductase (QR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities; and depletion of the tissue GSH content after 2-AAF (i.p. injection) for five consecutive days was prevented with the administration of celery seed extract. On the basis of the above results it can be said that A. graveolens is a potent plant against experimentally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    • Mass spectrometric methodology for the determination of glyoxaldeoxyguanosine and O6-hydroxyethyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts produced by nitrosamine bident carcinogens.
    • Dennehy and Loeppky
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 18 : 3
    • Abstract

    N-Nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) is a bident carcinogen that undergoes both P-450 mediated alpha-hydroxylation and beta-oxidation, leading ultimately to the formation of two prominent DNA adducts, glyoxaldeoxyguanosine (gdG) and O6-2-hydroxyethyldeoxyguanosine (OHEdG), in rat liver. HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry was used for both detection and quantification of gdG and OHEdG. The method, which is fast, sensitive, and unambiguous, is a significant improvement over the previous 32P-postlabeling methodology. A rapid procedure for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA under acidic conditions preserved the integrity of the pH sensitive gdG adducts. Glyoxal and 3-nitroso-2-oxazolidinone generated gdG and OHEdG adducts, respectively, in calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) in a concentration (range of 10(4)) dependent manner permitting optimization. Isotopomeric internal standards were prepared from the modified guanine derivatives by enzymatic trans-glycosylation. Quantitative HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis employing selective reaction monitoring (SRM) for the loss of the deoxyribose fragment was utilized. Both adducts could be detected in the liver DNA of rats that were administered NDELA in a dose range of 0.4-0.8 mmol/kg. At the highest dose, gdG adducts (4.4-11 adducts/10(6) nuc.) were more abundant than OHEdG adducts (0.35-0.87 adducts/10(6) nuc.). Conversely, OHEdG adducts were produced in higher yields in ct-DNA than were gdG adducts at the same reagent concentrations.

    • AFP gene expression after acute diethylnitrosamine intoxication is not Afr2 regulated.
    • Jin, Anderson, Gilbert and Feuerman
    • Cancer Lett
    • 220 : 2
    • Abstract

    The level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene expression during liver regeneration in mice is regulated by the Afr2 gene. C3H/HeJ mice express 10-fold higher levels of AFP than C57BL/6J mice. We show that AFP gene expression is not Afr2 regulated after intoxication with the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Peak levels of AFP gene expression of the 2 strains were identical, although reached at different times following treatment. Analysis of the expression of AFP derived transgenes not subject to Afr2 regulation and genetic analyses showed that the difference in timing of peak AFP gene expression after DEN intoxication was independent of Afr2 regulation.

    • Apoptosis in stages of mouse hepatocarcinogenesis: failure to counterbalance cell proliferation and to account for strain differences in tumor susceptibility.
    • Bursch, Chabicovsky, Wastl, Grasl-Kraupp, Bukowska, Taper and Schulte-Hermann
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 85 : 1
    • Abstract

    C3H/He and B6C3F1 show much higher liver cancer susceptibility than C57BL/6J mice. We studied the hypothesis that this difference might result from failure of apoptosis. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced by a single dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), followed by phenobarbital (PB) for up to 90 weeks. We observed (1) earlier appearance of putative preneoplastic foci (PPF), hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), and carcinoma (HCC) in C3H/He than in C57Bl/6J mice and (2) an increase of hepatocellular DNA synthesis in C3H/He and C57Bl/6J mice, compared to normal liver, via PPF and HCA to HCC. PB enhanced DNA synthesis and growth of PPF, in the C3H/He strain only, and of HCA and HCC of both strains. Apoptoses were rare in unaltered livers as well as in preneoplastic lesions, but tended to increase in HCA and HCC of both strains. PB lowered apoptotic activity in PPF of C3H/He mice, but enhanced it in HCA and HCC of C57Bl/6J mice at late stages. In conclusion, the strain difference in growth rates of PPF and tumors is largely determined by higher rates of cell proliferation in C3H/He mice, with and without promotion by PB. Moreover, in C57Bl/6J mice the promoting effect of PB was restricted to HCA and HCC and was not seen in PPF. Apoptosis was generally low and was not a major cause of the strain difference in tumor susceptibility. In contrast with rat liver, inhibition of apoptosis appears to be a minor determinant of tumor promotion in mice.

    • Evaluation of mutant frequencies of chemically induced tumors and normal tissues in lambda/cII transgenic mice.
    • Mirsalis, Shimon, Johnson, Fairchild, Kanazawa, Nguyen, de Boer, Glickman and Winegar
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 45 : 1
    • Abstract

    Genomic instability has been implicated as an important component in tumor progression. Evaluation of mutant frequencies (MFs) in tumors of transgenic mice containing nontranscribed marker genes should be useful for quantitating mutation rates in tumors as the physiologically inactive transgene provides neither a positive nor a negative selective pressure on the tumor. We have conducted long-term carcinogenicity studies in lambda/cII transgenic B6C3F1 mice using a variety of genotoxic and nongenotoxic test agents and have evaluated the mutant frequencies in both tumors and normal tissues from these animals. Mice were administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as three intraperitoneal injections of 15 mg/kg; phenobarbital (PB) or oxazepam (OXP) provided ad libitum at 0.1% or 0.25% in the diet, respectively; DEN initiation plus PB in the diet; or urethane (UTH) provided ad libitum at 0.2% in the drinking water. Normal tissues and tumors were isolated at various times over a 2-year period and half of each tissue/tumor was evaluated histopathologically and the other half was evaluated for MF in the cII transgene. Approximately 20 mutants from each of 166 individual tissues (tumor and nontumor) were sequenced to determine whether increases in MF represented unique mutations or were due to clonal expansion. UTH produced significant increases in MF in normal liver and lung. DEN either with or without PB promotion produced significant increases in MF in liver and correction of MF for clonality produced little change in the overall MF in these groups. PB produced a twofold increase in liver MF over controls after 27 weeks of treatment, but a similar increase was not observed with longer dosing times; at later time points, the MF in the PB groups was lower than that of the control group, suggesting that PB is not producing direct DNA damage in the liver. OXP failed to produce an increase in MF over controls, even after 78 weeks of treatment. Selected cases of genomic instability were observed in tumors from all treatments except OXP, with individual liver tumors showing very high MF values even after clonal correction. One rare and interesting finding was noted in a single mouse treated with UTH, where a mammary metastasis had an MF approximately 10-fold greater than the parent tumor, with 75% of the mutations independent, providing strong evidence of genomic instability. There was no clear correlation between tumor phenotype and MF except that pulmonary adenomas generally had higher MFs than normal lung in both genotoxic and nongenotoxic treatment groups. Likewise, there was no correlation between tumor size and MF after correction for clonality. The results presented here demonstrate that individual tumors can show significant genomic instability, with very significant increases in MF that are not attributed to clonal expansion of a single mutant cell.

    • Oxidative stress in carcinogenesis. Correlation between lipid peroxidation and induction of preneoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis.
    • Sánchez-Pérez, Carrasco-Legleu, García-Cuellar, Pérez-Carreón, Hernández-García, Salcido-Neyoy, Alemán-Lazarini and Villa-Treviño
    • Cancer Lett
    • 217 : 1
    • Abstract

    Oxidative stress during carcinogen metabolism seems to participate in liver tumor production in the rat. N-diethylnitrosamine is an important carcinogen used in liver cancer animal models. This indirect alkylating agent produces DNA-ethyl adducts and oxidative stress. In contrast, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a direct mutagen, which generates DNA-ethyl adducts, does not produce liver tumors in rat unless it is given under oxidative stress conditions such as partial hepatectomy or phenobarbital treatment. To gain insight into the relation between oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenicity, the induction of preneoplastic liver lesions was compared among three different initiation protocols related to the initiation-promotion-resistant hepatocyte model. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation levels, determined as thiobarituric acid reactive substances were studied early during the initiation stage. Rats initiated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, 25 days after treatment developed fewer and smaller gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase positive preneoplastic lesions than rats initiated with N-diethylnitrosamine. A pre-treatment with the antioxidant quercetin 1 h before N-diethylnitrosamine initiation, significantly prevented development of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive lesions. Increased lipid peroxidation levels were induced with N-diethylnitrosamine from 3 to 24 h after initiation, while N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea did not induce increments, and importantly, pre-treatment with quercetin decreased lipid peroxidation induced by N-diethylnitrosamine. These results show correlation between lipid peroxidation and hepatocarcinogenicity and support the important role of oxidative stress on liver carcinogenesis.

    • Different inhibitory effects in the early and late phase of treatment with KAT-681, a liver-selective thyromimetic, on rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy after diethylnitrosamine initiation.
    • Hayashi, Tamura, Kuroda, Ohnota, Shibata, Akahane, Kashida and Mitsumori
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 84 : 1
    • Abstract

    We recently reported that short-term treatment with KAT-681 (KAT), a liver-selective thyromimetic, inhibits the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat livers and may be a candidate chemopreventive agent for hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, time-course observations of hepatocellular proliferative lesions were carried out during short-term and long-term treatment with KAT to investigate its anti-hepatocarcinogenic effects. The hepatocellular proliferative lesions in male F344 rats were induced by the initiation treatment of diethylnitrosamine (DEN), followed by treatment with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and partial hepatectomy (PH). The rats were administered KAT orally at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks (experiment 1) or 0.1 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a serial reduction in the number of altered hepatocellular foci (AHF) with positive expression of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) was observed until day 14 of the treatment period. The proliferative index (PI) of hepatocytes in the AHF significantly increased in the KAT group throughout the treatment period, with a peak on day 2. KAT treatment showed no obvious effects on GST-P-positive hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) at any time point. In contrast, long-term KAT treatment in experiment 2 revealed a reduction in the mean size of HCAs in addition to reductions in the number and mean size of AHF. The PIs within the lesions in KAT-treated rats were significantly lower than those in controls. The present study indicates that KAT has different inhibitory effects on hepatocarcinogenesis in the early and late phases of KAT treatment; there is a reduction in AHF with enhanced cell proliferation in the early phase and the inhibition of development of AHF and HCAs with suppression of cell proliferation in the late phase. These results may suggest further potential of KAT as a promising chemopreventive agent for hepatocarcinogenesis.

    • Further development of 32P-postlabeling for the detection of alkylphosphotriesters: evidence for the long-term nonrandom persistence of ethyl-phosphotriester adducts in vivo.
    • Le Pla, Guichard, Bowman, Gaskell, Farmer and Jones
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 17 : 11
    • Abstract

    DNA phosphate oxygens are sites for alkylation leading to phosphotriester adducts (PTEs). PTEs are reported to be both abundant and persistent and so may serve as long-term markers of genotoxicity. Previously, we reported a 32P-postlabeling assay for the specific detection of PTEs plus identification of nucleosides located 5' to PTEs. Using this, we demonstrated the nonrandom nature of ethyl-PTEs (Et-PTEs) in vivo, these results being suggestive of either the nonrandom formation of Et-PTEs in vivo or sequence specific Et-PTE repair. Presently, we report the further development and validation of the 32P-postlabeling assay, to permit the more straightforward determination of nucleosides 5' to PTEs and, using this, have investigated the long-term persistence of PTEs in vivo. Analysis of liver DNA of mice treated in vivo with N-nitrosodiethylamine reveals an initial decline in the level of Et-PTEs (t1/2<24 h) as well as their nonrandom persistence for the duration of the time course, with approximately 37 and approximately 15% of the initial Et-PTEs remaining 4 and 56 days after treatment, respectively. From this, we conclude that Et-PTEs are suitable as long-term markers of genotoxic exposure and that putative PTE repair is not responsible for their nonrandom manifestation. However, the possibility of active repair contributing to the initial decline of Et-PTEs is considered.

    • Long-term radioiodine retention and regression of liver cancer after sodium iodide symporter gene transfer in wistar rats.
    • Faivre, Clerc, Gérolami, Hervé, Longuet, Liu, Roux, Moal, Perricaudet and Bréchot
    • Cancer Res
    • 64 : 21
    • Abstract

    Radioiodine therapy of nonthyroid cancers after sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene delivery has been proposed as a potential application of gene therapy. However, it seems to be precluded by the rapid efflux of taken up iodine from most transduced xenografted tumors. We present an in vivo kinetic study of NIS-related hepatic iodine uptake in an aggressive model of hepatocarcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in immunocompetent Wistar rats. We followed the whole-body iodine distribution by repeated imaging of live animals. We constructed a rat NIS (rNIS) adenoviral vector, Ad-CMV-rNIS, using the cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a promoter. Injected in the portal vein in 5 healthy and 25 hepatocarcinoma-bearing rats and liver tumors in 9 hepatocarcinoma-bearing rats, Ad-CMV-rNIS drove expression of a functional NIS protein by hepatocytes and allowed marked (from 20 to 30% of the injected dose) and sustained (>11 days) iodine uptake. This contrasts with the massive iodine efflux found in vitro in human hepatic tumor cell lines. In vivo specific inhibition of NIS by sodium perchlorate led to a rapid iodine efflux from the liver, indicating that the sustained uptake was not attributable to an active retention mechanism but to permanent recycling of the effluent radioiodine via the high hepatic blood flow. Radioiodine therapy after Ad-CMV-rNIS administration achieved a strong inhibition of tumor growth, the complete regression of small nodules, and prolonged survival of hepatocarcinoma-bearing rats. This demonstrates for the first time the efficacy of NIS-based radiotherapy in a relevant preclinical model of nonthyroid human carcinogenesis.

    • Superoxide generation from Kupffer cells contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis: studies on NADPH oxidase knockout mice.
    • Teufelhofer, Parzefall, Kainzbauer, Ferk, Freiler, Knasmüller, Elbling, Thurman and Schulte-Hermann
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 26 : 2
    • Abstract

    We hypothesized that superoxide from Kupffer cells (KC) contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis. p47phox(-/-) mice, deficient in phagocyte NADPH oxidase and superoxide generation, received a single dose of the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The following hepatic effects were observed at time points between 30 min and 35 days. Liver damage after DEN was manifested by loss of body and liver mass and of liver DNA and by an increase in apoptosis, necrosis and signs of inflammation. These effects were massive in wild-type (wt) male mice, but only very mild in p47phox(-/-) mice. Regenerative DNA synthesis subsequent to liver damage was high in wt male mice, but weak in p47phox(-/-) mice. In females the apparent protection by p47phox(-/-) was less pronounced than in males. Therefore, further experiments were performed with males. In KC isolated from wt mice superoxide production was enhanced by DEN pretreatment in vivo. Also, in vitro addition of DEN to KC cultures induced superoxide release, similarly to lipopolysaccharide, a standard KC activator. Thus, DEN directly activates wt KC to produce superoxide. KC from p47phox(-/-) mice did not release superoxide. TNFalpha production by isolated KC was transiently depressed 0.5 h after DEN treatment in vivo, but recovered rapidly. In blood serum TNFalpha levels of wt mice were elevated for the initial 6 h. TNFalpha in KC cultures and in serum of p47phox(-/-) mice was reduced. DEN in vivo induced DNA damage ('comets') in hepatocytes. This damage was extensive in wt mice but much less in p47phox(-/-) mice. These studies suggest two conclusions: (i) superoxide generation by phagocytes during liver damage and inflammation aggravates genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in hepatocytes and may thus contribute to tumor initiation and promotion; (ii) DEN has a direct stimulatory effect on KC to release superoxide and TNFalpha.

    • The orphan nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor is essential for liver tumor promotion by phenobarbital in mice.
    • Yamamoto, Moore, Goldsworthy, Negishi and Maronpot
    • Cancer Res
    • 64 : 20
    • Abstract

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to progress through a step often called tumor promotion. Phenobarbital (PB) is the prototype of nongenotoxic cacinogens that promote HCC in rodents. The molecular target of PB to elicit the promotion has been the subject of intense investigations over the last 30 years since it was discovered. The nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) is activated by PB as well as by various other xenobiotics such as therapeutic drugs and environmental pollutants. CAR activation results in the transcriptional induction of numerous hepatic genes including those that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as a set of cytochrome P450s. In addition to PB, many CAR activators are nongenotoxic carcinogens, but the role of CAR in liver tumor promotion remains unexplored. Using Car(-/-) mice, we have here examined tumor promotion by chronic treatment with PB in drinking water after tumor initiation with a single dose of the genotoxic carcinogen diethylnitrosamine. None of the Car(-/-) mice developed either eosinophilic foci or advanced liver tumors, whereas all Car(+/+) mice developed HCC and/or adenoma by 39 weeks. The results indicate that CAR is the molecular target of promotion by PB and that activation of this receptor is an essential requirement for liver tumor development.

    • The gap junction protein connexin32 is a mouse lung tumor suppressor.
    • King and Lampe
    • Cancer Res
    • 64 : 20
    • Abstract

    Although loss of connexin expression and/or gap junction intercellular communication correlates with decreased growth control and increased neoplastic potential, there is limited evidence directly linking gap junction intercellular communication function with tumor suppression in situ. Here, we show for the first time that a gap junction protein, connexin32 (Cx32), acts as a lung tumor suppressor in a mouse model. Cx32-deficient nontumorous lung tissue exhibited an increased proliferative index (P < 0.001), and, after exposure to the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine, Cx32-deficient mice exhibited a highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in bronchioloalveolar lung tumor incidence (28 of 45, 62%) and a 45% increase in average multiplicity compared with wild-type mice (7 of 29, 24%). Tumors from Cx32-deficient mice also showed increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (P < 0.001) compared with wild-type tumors, implicating this signaling pathway in Cx32/gap junction intercellular communication-associated lung tumorigenesis.

    • Participation of BER and NER pathways in the repair of DNA lesions induced at low N-nitrosodiethylamine concentrations.
    • Aiub, Mazzei, Pinto and Felzenszwalb
    • Toxicol Lett
    • 154 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    In the present work, we evaluated (p < 0.05) the participation of base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanisms in repairing DNA lesions induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) at 1.5 ng/mL-36.5 microg/mL, through cell survival, in different single and double Escherichia coli DNA repair mutants (uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, fpg, nth, xthA, fpg/nth, uvrA/fpg, fpg/xthA, mutY, and fpg/mutY), using pre-incubation periods of 90 min. Mutant strains BH20 (fpg) and AB1886 (uvrA) showed microsomal enzyme (S9 mix) independent NDEA cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was also detected at lowest NDEA concentrations, in the presence of S9 mix, with strains BH980 (mutY) and BH990 (fpg/mutY). NDEA cytotoxicity, without S9 mix, was detected for mutant strains AB1884 (uvrC) and AB1885 (uvrB). Through SOS chromotest with 90 min of pre-incubation for uvrA and nth strains, only NER was shown to be required for repairing NDEA-induced lesions with or without metabolic activation. PQ37 and PQ66 strains, both uvrA mutants, showed different levels of NDEA sensitivity. The findings suggest that, under the used conditions, and at low concentrations, NDEA-induced lesions require both repair pathways.

    • TCDD activates Mdm2 and attenuates the p53 response to DNA damaging agents.
    • Pääjärvi, Viluksela, Pohjanvirta, Stenius and Högberg
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 26 : 1
    • Abstract

    In this study we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the p53 response to DNA damaging agents. Pre-treatment of rats with TCDD attenuated the p53 liver response to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and reduced levels of p53 and Ser15 phosphorylated p53. In addition, there were more slowly migrating p53 species, forming a ladder, which suggests an increased ubiquination of p53 in TCDD-pre-treated rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated X-dUTP nick-end labelling analysis indicated decreased apoptosis rates in the livers of these rats. Studies on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knockout mice and their wild-type littermates confirmed this effect in AhR +/+ but not in AhR -/- mice, indicating that this effect may be AhR-mediated. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed no increased mRNA levels in TCDD-treated rats, but immunohistological studies indicated that TCDD modulated Mdm2 protein levels, and in particular, increased nuclear levels in rat hepatocytes in situ. In vitro studies employing HepG2 cells confirmed the in vivo data. Thus, TCDD increased basal levels of Mdm2 protein, but not mRNA, and attenuated the p53 response to a variety of genotoxic and cytotoxic agents. The increase in Mdm2 protein levels was accompanied by rapid and highly sensitive phosphorylation of Mdm2 at Ser166, which has been associated to active Mdm2. In summary, TCDD is a potent inhibitor of p53 that may influence the liver's ability to handle genotoxic agents in a safe way, and may play a role in TCDD-induced carcinogenesis.

    • Induction of preneoplastic rat liver lesions with an attenuated p53 response by low doses of diethylnitrosamine.
    • Silins, Stenius and Högberg
    • Arch Toxicol
    • 78 : 9
    • Abstract

    Previous reports have documented an attenuated p53 response to DNA-damage in preneoplastic enzyme-altered foci (EAF). Data suggest that this alteration is an adaptation to genotoxic stress induced by carcinogens. Here, we have studied whether the altered p53 response in EAF can be related to acutely apoptotic or cytotoxic doses of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Eight groups of rats received cumulative doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol DEN/kg, administered weekly for either 10 or 20 weeks. A ninth group received 3.0 mmol/kg for 10 weeks, which gave a supralinear EAF response. Twenty-four hours before sacrifice, all rats were given a challenge dose of DEN in order to induce a p53 response in hepatocytes. The numbers of p53-positive hepatocytes in EAF and in surrounding tissue were analyzed. Unexpectedly, all cumulative doses gave rise to p53-negative EAF and 20-week treatment gave larger EAF with fewer p53-positive hepatocytes than 10-week treatment. It was also observed that at the lowest doses, most EAF developed in midzonal areas. Similar results were obtained with aflatoxin B1. Single high doses of DEN induced p53 accumulation and apoptosis within 24 h, whereas lower doses did not. It is concluded that EAF with an attenuated p53 response can be induced by low doses of genotoxic compounds, not giving rise to acute apoptosis or necrosis. Instead, it is suggested that time is an important determinant for its development at low doses and that a delayed type of apoptosis might be important.

    • Enhancement of hepatocarcinogenesis by kojic acid in rat two-stage models after initiation with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine or N-diethylnitrosamine.
    • Takizawa, Imai, Onose, Ueda, Tamura, Mitsumori, Izumi and Hirose
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 81 : 1
    • Abstract

    Kojic acid (KA) has been used as a food additive for preventing enzymatic browning of crustaceans and as a cosmetic agent for skin whitening. In the present experiments, effects of KA on the induction of hepatic pre-neoplastic lesions in N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiated (experiment 1) and non-initiated (experiment 2) models, and its promoting influence in a medium-term liver bioassay (experiment 3) were investigated at dietary doses of up to 2% in male F344 rats. In experiment 1, 2% KA feeding induced significant increases in numbers (22.3 +/- 13.0 vs 8.5 +/- 3.4 in the 0%) and areas (0.37 +/- 0.29 vs 0.05 +/- 0.03 in the 0%) of glutathione-S-transferase P form (GST-P)-positive foci and toxic changes such as vacuolation of hepatocytes and microgranulomas. The development of GST-P-positive foci was pronounced in the animals with hepatocellular toxic changes. In experiment 2, numbers (0.65 +/- 0.57 vs 0.17 +/- 0.28 in the 0%) and areas (0.005 +/- 0.005 vs 0.0007 +/- 0.0012 in the 0%) of GST-P-positive foci and hepatocellular proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression (3.8 +/- 2.3 vs 2.6 +/- 0.7 in the 0%) were significantly increased by the 2% treatment. The PCNA-positive hepatocytes were abundantly localized around the vacuolated and granulomatous legions in both experiments 1 and 2. In experiment 3, significant increases in numbers (16.9 +/- 3.2 vs 8.4 +/- 2.7 in the 0%) and areas (1.62 +/- 0.39 vs 0.77 +/- 0.34 in the 0%) of GST-P-positive foci were again observed with 2% KA. These results demonstrate tumor-promoting and possible hepatocarcinogenic activity of KA at 2%, but the carcinogenic potential is likely to be weak. This study also indicated that enhanced replication of hepatocytes related to toxic changes might be involved as an underlying mechanism.

    • Heterozygous p53-deficient (+/-) mice develop fewer p53-negative preneoplastic focal liver lesions in response to treatment with diethylnitrosamine than do wild-type (+/+) mice.
    • Finnberg, Stenius and Högberg
    • Cancer Lett
    • 207 : 2
    • Abstract

    In the present study p53+/- and p53+/+C57BL/6 female mice were administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN) once each week for 15-20 weeks. After sacrifice we analyzed the number and size of preneoplastic liver lesions, and found that the same numbers of lesions of similar sizes developed in the two genotypes of mice. We also distinguished between two phenotypes: 'p53-positive' and 'p53-negative' lesions (i.e. lesions with or without a p53 response to DNA damage, as assessed by immunohistochemical staining for p53 24 h after administration of a challenging dose of DEN). In wild-type mice we found the same proportion of p53-positive and p53-negative lesions as in rats, i.e. about 75% of the lesions were p53-negative. However, the number and the percentage of p53-negative lesions were lower in +/- mice (17%, P < 0.05). These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis revealing a clear p53 response in lesions only in the case of +/- mice. These findings support our previous conclusion that an attenuated p53 response in preneoplastic lesions compared to normal tissue may give these lesions a growth advantage under conditions of subchronic genotoxic stress. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the presence of only one functional p53 allele in p53+/- mice is sufficient to counteract the growth advantage that such an attenuated p53 response appears to confer.

    • Inhibitory effects of KAT-681, a liver-selective thyromimetic, on development of hepatocellular proliferative lesions in rats induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy after diethylnitrosamine initiation.
    • Hayashi, Ohnota, Tamura, Kuroda, Shibata, Akahane, Moriwaki, Machida and Mitsumori
    • Arch Toxicol
    • 78 : 8
    • Abstract

    To examine the potential inhibitory effects of a novel liver-selective thyromimetic, KAT-681 (KAT), on the development of hepatocellular proliferative lesions, male F344 rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine (DEN), followed by gavage administration of 7.5 mg/kg per day of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) twice daily from weeks 2 to 4 with partial hepatectomy (PH) at week 3. From 5 weeks after the completion of 2-AAF administration, the rats were orally dosed with 0.04, 0.1, or 0.25 mg/kg per day KAT for 3 weeks, and subjected to morphometric analysis of the induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive lesions and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs). Administration of KAT significantly and dose-dependently reduced the total area of GST-P-positive lesions (by 34-48%) and also their numbers (by 20-44%), their mean size not being significantly changed. No effects on the number of HCAs were apparent, although a reduction in their mean size was detected at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg per day KAT (by 34%). On biochemical analysis, serum activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, an enzyme related to hepatocarcinogenesis, was markedly reduced in rats given 0.25 mg/kg per day KAT (by 64%). The results of the present study thus suggest that KAT inhibits the development of altered hepatocellular foci and might be a promising chemopreventive agent for hepatocarcinogenesis.

    • Revised rat multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay for whole-body detection of chemopreventive agents: modifying potential of S-methylcysteine.
    • Doi, Wanibuchi, Salim, Shen, Wei, Mitsuhashi, Kudoh, Hirata and Fukushima
    • Cancer Lett
    • 206 : 1
    • Abstract

    The DMBDD rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model based on two-stage carcinogenesis theory was revised to make more suitable assay system for detecting chemopreventive effects of chemical substances by increasing the doses of two carcinogens, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). The revised bioassay resulted in increasing preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the colon, urinary bladder and liver. S-Methylcysteine (SMC), a water-soluble organosulfur compound, was used as a test chemical in the new initiation regimen. Though SMC did not express clear-cut inhibitory effects in tumor levels, it showed modifying effects on the development of lung hyperplastic and colon preneoplastic lesions. In conclusion, the present model featuring high yields of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions with low mortality in a short period (30 weeks), might be suitable for testing the efficacy of possible chemopreventive chemicals at the whole-body level.

    • Initiating activity of 4-chlorobiphenyl metabolites in the resistant hepatocyte model.
    • Espandiari, Glauert, Lehmler, Lee, Srinivasan and Robertson
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 79 : 1
    • Abstract

    We recently reported that several mono- to tetrachlorinated biphenyls have initiating activity in the livers of Fischer 344 rats. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic activation of one of those compounds, 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 3). Monohydroxy (400 micromol/kg), dihydroxy (200 micromol/kg), and quinone (100 micromol/kg) metabolites of PCB 3 were evaluated for their initiating activity. Fischer 344 male rats were fasted for 4 days; 24 h after feeding again, they were injected (ip) with metabolites, vehicle, or diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 or 40 mg/kg). All animals were treated with selection agents as follows: three daily p.o. doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF, 30 mg/kg), followed by a single p.o. dose of carbon tetrachloride (2 ml/kg) and three additional daily treatments of 2-AAF. Rats were killed 2 weeks after the last 2-AAF intubation. Livers were evaluated for changes in morphology, and the number and volume of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci were measured. Of the metabolites tested, only one monohydroxy and one quinoid metabolite showed initiating activity. The metabolic activation of PCB 3, therefore, proceeds via parahydroxylation and oxidation to the ortho 3,4-quinone, the ultimate carcinogen. This is the first report to demonstrate that specific PCB metabolites possess initiating activity in the rodent liver in vivo. The results support the conclusion that 4-OH PCB 3 and 3,4-BQ PCB 3 act as proximate and ultimate carcinogenic metabolites resulting from the bioactivation of PCB 3 in rat liver.

    • An acyclic retinoid, NIK-333, inhibits N-diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis through suppression of TGF-alpha expression and cell proliferation.
    • Kagawa, Sano, Ishibashi, Hashimoto, Okuno, Moriwaki, Suzuki, Kohno and Tanaka
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 25 : 6
    • Abstract

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of NIK-333, a synthetic acyclic retinoid, on N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Animals were given DEN dissolved in drinking water at a concentration of 40 p.p.m. for 5 weeks and then provided with drinking water free of DEN for 15 weeks to induce hepatocellular neoplasms. NIK-333 was administered orally (once a day) to rats at doses of 10, 40 and 80 mg/kg body wt for 14 weeks, starting 1 week after the completion of administration of DEN. At 20 weeks after the start of DEN administration, histopathological evaluation was carried out on all animals. The effects of NIK-333 on the cell proliferation activity of non-tumorous areas and liver tumor cells and the immunohistochemical expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) were also evaluated. NIK-333 at 40 and 80 mg/kg body wt significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis (P < 0.05). In addition, NIK-333 at the same doses decreased DEN-induced overexpression of TGF-alpha in hepatocellular neoplasms (adenomas and carcinomas) and their surrounding tissue. Furthermore, NIK-333 significantly inhibited cell proliferation activity in the lesions and in non-tumorous areas (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that NIK-333 inhibits DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through suppression of TGF-alpha expression and cell proliferation.

    • Delayed liver regeneration and increased susceptibility to chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant of connexin32 only in the liver.
    • Dagli, Yamasaki, Krutovskikh and Omori
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 25 : 4
    • Abstract

    A growing body of evidence from in vitro studies indicates that gap junction proteins connexins may have a tumor-suppressor function. Our previous double transfection experiments on HeLa cells have shown that a dominant-negative mutant V139 M of connexin32 (Cx32) can abolish gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). To examine whether the same dominant-negative mutant of Cx32 inhibits GJIC between hepatocytes in vivo and thus modulates cell proliferation and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis, we created transgenic mice with the mutant Cx32 gene driven by a liver-specific albumin promoter. These mice developed normally both before and after birth, and GJIC in their liver was diminished, as expected. No increase in incidence of spontaneous tumors of any site was observed in the transgenic mice. Rather unexpectedly, cell proliferation during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy was retarded by 24 h in the transgenic mice compared with the wild-type mice. In contrast, the transgenic male mice were more susceptible to diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, developing more liver tumors with shorter latency. These results show that GJIC can coordinate cell growth both positively and negatively in vivo, supporting the idea that GJIC is essential for maintenance of homeostasis.

    • Specific differences in gene expression profile revealed by cDNA microarray analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunohistochemically positive rat liver foci and surrounding tissue.
    • Suzuki, Asamoto, Tsujimura and Shirai
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 25 : 3
    • Abstract

    Glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P), one of the glutathione S-transferases family of detoxification enzymes, is a very useful marker of rat liver pre-neoplastic lesions. We here investigated the gene expression profile in GST-P positive foci as compared with surrounding GST-P negative areas in the same liver of rats treated with diethylnitrosamine and then 2-acetylaminofluorene combined with partial hepatectomy. GST-P positive foci were harvested by laser microdissection and total RNAs were extracted to allow gene expression profiles to be assessed by cDNA microarray assays. Transaldolase, rat aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase were found as up-regulated genes and regucalcin as a down-regulated gene, in line with findings for hepatocellular carcinomas. The results indicate that the approach adopted is useful for understanding mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and identification of new markers for rat liver pre-neoplastic foci.

    • Reduced hepatocyte proliferation is the basis of retarded liver tumor progression and liver regeneration in mice lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III.
    • Yang, Tang, Rogler and Stanley
    • Cancer Res
    • 63 : 22
    • Abstract

    Mice lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GlcNAc-TIII) exhibit slightly but significantly retarded liver tumor progression after a single injection of 10 micro g/g diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and continued administration of phenobarbital (PB) in drinking water. A key question is whether the absence of GlcNAc-TIII inhibits cell proliferation or induces apoptosis. Because PB aids tumor progression, we tested whether it diminished the difference in tumor progression between Mgat3(+/+) and Mgat3(Delta/Delta) mice. Here, we show that in the absence of PB, control males developed about twice as many liver tumor nodules as males lacking GlcNAc-TIII. Both the size of liver tumors and liver weights were significantly greater in DEN-treated wild-type or heterozygous mice. Apoptosis assays performed monthly after DEN treatment showed no differences between mutant and wild-type. However, there was a marked retardation in