• Comparison of induced and cancer-associated mutational spectra using multivariate data analysis.
    • Lewis, Manshian, Routledge, Scott and Burns
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 2008 Apr
    • 29 : 4
    • Abstract

    One of the most useful tools for investigating the aetiopathology of cancer is the mutation spectrum, which comprises the type and distribution of mutations within a gene sequence. Many studies have generated mutagen-induced spectra using in vitro or in vivo model systems in an attempt to find correlations with those observed in cancer-associated genes such as the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. Consequently, meaningful similarities in the types of mutation found in induced and human spectra have been demonstrated. However, it is more difficult to draw such conclusions about the distribution or sequence context of mutations when they arise in different target sequences. We have developed an analytical approach for base substitution spectra that capture information for both sequence context and mutation type simultaneously. The resulting mutation signature is a fixed set of data points that allows comparison of multiple mutation spectra regardless of sequence. We have applied this method to a mixed set of mutation spectra observed in exons 5, 7 and 8 of TP53 from cancers of brain, breast, skin, colon, oesophagus, liver, head and neck, stomach and lung (smokers and non-smokers) and spectra induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, ultraviolet (UV) B, UVC, simulated sunlight and hydroxyl radicals in the cII, supF and yeast p53 model systems. We demonstrate that this approach allows human cancer and mutagen-induced signatures to be grouped together according to similarity. Specifically, the analysis reveals key differences between smoking- and non-smoking-related lung cancer for TP53 mutations and the mutability of CpG sites between exons in skin cancer.

    • Impact and uncertainty of a traffic management intervention: population exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
    • Vardoulakis, Chalabi, Fletcher, Grundy and Leonardi
    • Sci Total Environ
    • 2008 May
    • 394 : 2-3
    • Abstract

    In urban areas, road traffic is a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), thus any changes in traffic patterns are expected to affect PAH concentrations in ambient air. Exposure to PAH and other traffic-related air pollutants has often been quantified in a deterministic manner that disregards the various sources of uncertainty in the modelling systems used. In this study, we developed a generic method for handling uncertainty in population exposure models. The method was applied to quantify the uncertainty in population exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) before and after the implementation of a traffic management intervention. This intervention would affect the movement of vehicles in the studied area and consequently alter traffic emissions, pollutant concentrations and population exposure. Several models, including an emission calculator, a dispersion model and a Geographic Information System were used to quantify the impact of the traffic management intervention. We established four exposure zones defined by distance of residence postcode centroids from major road or intersection. A stochastic method was used to quantify the uncertainty in the population exposure model. The method characterises uncertainty using probability measures and propagates it applying Monte Carlo analysis. The overall model predicted that the traffic management scheme would lead to a minor reduction in mean population exposure to BaP in the studied area. However, the uncertainty associated with the exposure estimates was much larger than this reduction. The proposed method is generic and provides realistic estimates of population exposure to traffic-related pollutants, as well as characterises the uncertainty in these estimates. This method can be used within a decision support tool to evaluate the impact of alternative traffic management policies.

    • Interleukin-8 induction by the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene is aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent and leads to lung inflammation.
    • Podechard, Lecureur, Le Ferrec, Guenon, Sparfel, Gilot, Gordon, Lagente and Fardel
    • Toxicol Lett
    • 2008 Mar
    • 177 : 2
    • Abstract

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is an environmental contaminant known to favor airway inflammation likely through up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The present study was designed to characterize its effects toward interleukin-8 (IL-8), a well-established pulmonary inflammatory cytokine. In primary human macrophages, BP was shown to induce IL-8 expression at both mRNA and secretion levels in a dose-dependent manner. Such an up-regulation was likely linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activation since BP-mediated IL-8 induction was reduced after AhR expression knock-down through RNA interference. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed BP-triggered binding of AhR to a consensus xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) found in the human IL-8 promoter. Finally, BP administration to mice led to over-expression of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), the murine functional homologue of IL-8, in lung. It also triggered the recruitment of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, which was however fully abolished in the presence of a chemical antagonist of the KC/IL-8 receptors CXCR1/CXCR2, thus supporting the functional and crucial involvement of KC in BP-induced lung inflammation. Overall, these data highlight an AhR-dependent regulation of IL-8 in response to BP that likely contributes to the airway inflammatory effects of this environmental chemical.

    • Surface marker-defined head kidney granulocytes and B lymphocytes of rainbow trout express benzo[a]pyrene-inducible cytochrome P4501A protein.
    • Nakayama, Riesen, Köllner, Eppler and Segner
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 2008 May
    • 103 : 1
    • Abstract

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are immunotoxic to fish. Metabolism of PAHs in immune cells has been implicated in PAH immunotoxicity in mammals, but for fish the presence of metabolic enzymes in immune cells is less clear. The objective of this study was to examine localization and induction of the BaP-metabolizing biotransformation enzyme, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), in head kidney immune cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the first step, we measured induction of CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A protein in head kidney of rainbow trout treated with a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 25 mg BaP/kg body weight. From days 3 to 10 postinjection, the BaP treatment led to a significant elevation of EROD and CYP1A protein in head kidney and liver, with CYP1A expression levels in the head kidney being much lower than in the liver. Next, we examined the cellular localization of CYP1A protein in the head kidney cell types: vascular endothelial, endocrine and lymphoid cells. CYP1A immunoreactivity was detectable only in BaP-treated trout, where it was localized in endothelial and lymphoid cells. Finally, we aimed to clarify which of the hematopoietic cell types possess CYP1A protein. Using double immunostaining for CYP1A and surface markers of rainbow trout immune cells, we identified B lymphocytes and granulocytes expressing inducible CYP1A protein and being the likely sites of BaP metabolism in the head kidney.

    • A new lactoferrin- and iron-dependent lysosomal death pathway is induced by benzo[a]pyrene in hepatic epithelial cells.
    • Gorria, Tekpli, Rissel, Sergent, Huc, Landvik, Fardel, Dimanche-Boitrel, Holme and Lagadic-Gossmann
    • Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
    • 2008 Apr
    • 228 : 2
    • Abstract

    While lysosomal disruption seems to be a late step of necrosis, a moderate lysosomal destabilization has been suggested to participate early in the apoptotic cascade. The origin of lysosomal dysfunction and its precise role in apoptosis or apoptosis-like process still needs to be clarified, especially upon carcinogen exposure. In this study, we focused on the implication of lysosomes in cell death induced by the prototype carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 50 nM) in rat hepatic epithelial F258 cells. We first demonstrated that B[a]P affected lysosomal morphology (increase in size) and pH (alkalinization), and that these changes were involved in caspase-3 activation and cell death. Subsequently, we showed that lysosomal modifications were partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction, and that lysosomes together with mitochondria participate in B[a]P-induced oxidative stress. Using two iron chelators (desferrioxamine and deferiprone) and siRNA targeting the lysosomal iron-binding protease lactoferrin, we further demonstrated that both lysosomal iron content and lactoferrin were required for caspase-3 activation and apoptosis-like cell death.

    • Fjord-region benzo[g]chrysene-11,12-dihydrodiol and benzo[c]phenanthrene-3,4-dihydrodiol as substrates for rat liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (AKR1C9): structural basis for stereochemical preference.
    • Shultz, Palackal, Mangal, Harvey, Blair and Penning
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 2008 Mar
    • 21 : 3
    • Abstract

    This study demonstrates that benzo[g]chrysene-11,12-dihydrodiol (B[g]C-11,12-dihydrodiol) derived from the fjord-region parent hydrocarbon B[g]C is oxidized by rat AKR1C9 with a k c a t/ K m 100 times greater than that observed with the commonly studied bay-region benzo[ a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol). Conversely, despite its strikingly similar structure to B[ g]C-11,12-dihydrodiol, benzo[ c]phenanthrene-3,4-dihydrodiol (B[ c]Ph-3,4-dihydrodiol) is consumed by AKR1C9 at sluggish rates comparable to those observed with B[ a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol. CD spectroscopy revealed that only the (+)-B[ g]C-11,12-dihydrodiol stereoisomer was oxidized, while AKR1C9 oxidized both stereoisomers of B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol and B[ c]Ph-3,4-dihydrodiol. The (+)- S, S- and (-)- R, R-stereoisomers of B[g]C-11,12-dihydrodiol were purified by chiral RP-HPLC. The 11 S,12 S-stereoisomer was oxidized at the same rate as the racemate. The 11 R,12 R-stereoisomer did not act as an inhibitor to AKR1C9, indicating that the (-)- R, R-stereoisomer was excluded from the active site. To understand the basis of stereochemical preference, we screened alanine-scanning mutants of active site residues of AKR1C9. These studies revealed that in comparison to the wild type, F129A, W227A, and Y310A enabled the oxidation of both the B[g]C-11 S,12 S-dihydrodiol and the B[g]C-11 R,12 R-dihydrodiol. Molecular modeling revealed that unlike B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol and B[ c]Ph-3,4-dihydrodiol, B[g]C-11,12-dihydrodiol enantiomers are significantly bent out of plane. As a consequence, the (-)- R, R-stereoisomer was prevented from binding to the active site because of unfavorable interactions with F129, W227, or Y310. Additionally, LC/MS validated that the product of the reaction of B[g]C-11,12-dihydrodiol oxidation catalyzed by AKR1C9 was B[g]C-11,12-dione, which was trapped in vitro with the nucleophile 2-mercaptoethanol. The similarity between rates of trans-dihydrodiol oxidation by the rat and human liver specific AKRs (AKR1C9 and AKR1C4) implicate these enzymes in hepatocarcinogenesis in rats observed with the fjord-region PAH.

    • Use of mechanistic data in IARC evaluations.
    • Cogliano, Baan, Straif, Grosse, Secretan and El Ghissassi
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 2008 Mar
    • 49 : 2
    • Abstract

    Consideration of mechanistic data has the potential to improve the analysis of both epidemiologic studies and cancer bioassays. IARC has a classification system in which mechanistic data can play a pivotal role. Since 1991, IARC has allowed an agent to be classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) when there is less than sufficient evidence in humans but there is sufficient evidence in experimental animals and "strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity." Mechanistic evidence can also substitute for conventional cancer bioassays when there is less than sufficient evidence in experimental animals, just as mechanistic evidence can substitute for conventional epidemiologic studies when there is less than sufficient evidence in humans. The IARC Monographs have used mechanistic data to raise or lower a classification that would be otherwise based on epidemiologic studies and cancer bioassays only. Recently, the IARC Monographs have evaluated several agents where mechanistic data were pivotal to the overall evaluation: benzo[a]pyrene, carbon black and other poorly soluble particles, ingested nitrates and nitrites, and microcystin-LR. In evaluating mechanistic data, it is important to consider alternative mechanistic hypotheses, because an agent may induce tumors through multiple mechanisms.

    • Metabolic activation of benzo[a]pyrene in vitro by hepatic cytochrome P450 contrasts with detoxification in vivo: experiments with hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice.
    • Arlt, Stiborová, Henderson, Thiemann, Frei, Aimová, Singh, Gamboa da Costa, Schmitz, Farmer, Wolf and Phillips
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 2008 Mar
    • 29 : 3
    • Abstract

    Many studies using mammalian cellular and subcellular systems have demonstrated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In order to evaluate the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of BaP and its pharmacokinetics, we used the hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, the unique electron donor to CYPs, is deleted specifically in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125 mg/kg body wt BaP daily for up to 5 days. Clearance of BaP from blood was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. DNA adduct levels were measured by (32)P-post-labelling analysis with structural confirmation of the formation of 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Hepatic microsomes isolated from BaP-treated and untreated mice were also incubated with BaP and DNA in vitro. BaP-DNA adduct formation was up to 7-fold lower with the microsomes from HRN mice than with that from WT mice. Most of the hepatic microsomal activation of BaP in vitro was attributable to CYP1A. Pharmacokinetic analysis of BaP in blood revealed no significant differences between HRN and WT mice. BaP-DNA adduct levels were higher in the livers (up to 13-fold) and elevated in several extra-hepatic tissues of HRN mice (by 1.7- to 2.6-fold) relative to WT mice. These data reveal an apparent paradox, whereby hepatic CYP enzymes appear to be more important for detoxification of BaP in vivo, despite being involved in its metabolic activation in vitro.

    • Chemopreventive agents modulate the protein expression profile of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone plus benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung tumors in A/J mice.
    • Kassie, Anderson, Higgins, Pan, Matise, Negia, Upadhyaya, Wang and Hecht
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 2008 Mar
    • 29 : 3
    • Abstract

    We used isobaric tag labeling coupled with mass spectrometry to compare the relative abundance of proteins in lung tumors from A/J mice treated with a mixture of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and benzo[a]pyrene versus normal mouse lung tissues. Levels of 59 proteins changed-30 increased and 29 decreased-in tumor tissues versus normal tissues. Among proteins that showed increased levels in tumor tissues versus normal tissues were glycolytic enzymes, ribosomal proteins, fatty acid synthase, cathepsins D and H and carbonic anhydrase 2. On the other hand, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes 2B10 and 2F2, glutathione S-transferases mu-1, procollagen VI, Clara cell 10 kDA (CC10) protein, histones, receptor advanced glycation end product, and lung carbonyl reductase were lower in tumor tissues versus normal lung tissues. Upon dietary administration of a combination of N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-L-cysteine plus myo-inositol or indole-3-carbinol to carcinogen-treated mice, the relative abundance of 60S ribosomal protein L4 and carbonic anhydrase in tumor tissues decreased whereas that of histones, glutathione S-transferases mu, receptor advanced glycation end product, transglutaminase, and procollagen VI increased. Western assays with lung tissue homogenates not only verified the proteomics results for selected proteins but also showed differential expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha, a transcription factor for most of the proteins that showed changes in relative abundance. This is the first report on the application of quantitative proteomics to study the relative abundance of proteins in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis. These proteins may have utility for development of candidate lung cancer biomarkers and as targets of chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents.

    • Characterization of the antiallergic drugs 3-[2-(2-phenylethyl) benzoimidazole-4-yl]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid and ethyl 3-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-phenylethyl)benzoimidazol-4-yl]propanoate as full aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.
    • Morales, Krzeminski, Amin and Perdew
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 2008 Feb
    • 21 : 2
    • Abstract

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates most of the toxic effects of numerous chlorinated (e.g., TCDD) and nonchlorinated polycyclic aromatic compounds (e.g., benzo[ a]pyrene). Studies in AhR null mice suggested that this receptor may also play a role in the modulation of immune responses. Recently, two drugs, namely, M50354 and M50367 (ethyl ester derivative of M50354), were described as AhR ligands with high efficacy toward reducing atopic allergic symptoms in an AhR-dependent manner by skewing T helper cell differentiation toward a T H1 phenotype [Negishi et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 175 (11), 7348-7356]. Surprisingly, these drugs were shown to have minimal activity toward inducing classical dioxin responsive element-driven AhR-mediated CYP1A1 transcription. We synthesized and reevaluated the ability of these drugs to regulate AhR activity. In contrast to previously published data, both M50354 and M50367 were found to be potent inducers of several AhR target genes, namely, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A2. M50367 was a more effective agonist than M50354, perhaps accounting for its higher bioavailability in vivo. However, M50354 was capable of displacing an AhR-specific radioligand more effectively than M50367. This is consistent with M50354 being the active metabolite of M50367. In conclusion, two selective inhibitors of TH2 differentiation are full AhR agonists.

    • Enhanced micronucleus formation and modulation of BCL-2:BAX in MCF-7 cells after exposure to binary mixtures.
    • Hewitt, Forero, Luncsford and Martin
    • Environ Health Perspect
    • 2007 Dec
    • 115 Suppl 1
    • Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Within mixtures, interactions between different xenobiotics may occur to give rise to additive, synergistic, inhibitory and/or stimulatory effects in target cells. The role that xenobiotics individually or in mixtures, and at environmental concentrations, play in the etiology of common human diseases often remains obscure. METHODS: In the presence or absence of lindane, chromosomal aberrations were detected in MCF-7 cells after 24-hr treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Micronuclei were scored in 1,000 binucleate cells/treatment. We investigated intracellular responses using quantitative gene expression analyses of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [CDKN1A (P21(WAF1/CIP1))], B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), BCL-2-associated X (BAX), and isoforms of cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Immunocytochemical analyses of p53, p21(Waf1/Cip1), Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in MCF-7 cells were also carried out. RESULTS: After exposure to binary mixtures of B[a]P plus lindane or PhIP plus lindane, a 10-fold increase in micronucleus formation resulted; these test agents individually induced 2- to 5-fold increases. Lindane increased the ratio of Bcl-2:Bax, as did 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Although treatment with B[a]P alone was found to elevate expression of P21(WAF1/CIP1)and CYP isoenzymes, it reduced the ratio of BCL-2:BAX mRNA transcripts. Treatment with a binary mixture of 10(-8) M B[a]P plus 10(-12) M lindane or 10(-10) M E(2) reversed B[a]P-induced reductions in the ratio of Bcl-2- to Bax-positive cells. In contrast, treatments with PhIP (known to possess hormonelike properties) plus lindane or E(2) resulted in profound reductions in Bcl-2:Bax ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that low-dose treatments (i.e., close to environmental levels) may increase DNA damage while influencing survival in exposed cells and that these effects may depend on the endocrine activity of test agents.

    • Tandem repeat mutation, global DNA methylation, and regulation of DNA methyltransferases in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast cells chronically exposed to chemicals with different modes of action.
    • Yauk, Polyzos, Rowan-Carroll, Kortubash, Williams and Kovalchuk
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 2008 Jan
    • 49 : 1
    • Abstract

    Mutations at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA sequences provide a useful tool for screening germline mutation. However, the mechanisms resulting in induced mutations are unknown and provide an impediment to the utility of the method. Induced ESTR mutations arise through a nontargeted mechanism resulting in destabilization of the repeat locus. We hypothesized that alterations in DNA methylation, or in DNA methyltransferase expression, may be associated with this indirect mechanism of mutation. DNA mutation frequency was measured in C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells following chronic exposure to six chemicals exhibiting different modes of genotoxic action: N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (ENU); benzo(a)pyrene (BaP); etoposide (ETOP); okadaic acid (OA); cisplatin (CisPt); and 5-azacytidine (5azadC). Induced mutation ranged from 2-fold (ENU, BaP, ETOP), to 1.3-1.4 fold (OA, 5azadC), to nonresponsive (CisPt). Global DNA methylation, measured using the cytosine extension assay, revealed hypomethylation following exposure to ENU and 5azadC, hypermethylation following BaP and OA exposure, and no change following treatment with ETOP or CisPt. DNA methyltransferase transcription (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b) was significantly affected by all treatments except ETOP, with the vast majority of changes being downregulation. There was no direct correlation between ESTR mutation, global methylation, or DNA methyltransferase transcription. However, 4/5 ESTR mutagens caused changes in global methylation, while the noninducer (CisPt) did not cause changes in methylation. We hypothesize that chemicals that modify chromatin conformation through changes in methylation may compromise the ability of mismatch repair enzymes (or other enzymes) to access and repair secondary structures that may form across ESTR loci resulting in mutation.

    • Unexpected DNA damage caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under standard laboratory conditions.
    • Platt, Aderhold, Kulpe and Fickler
    • Mutat Res
    • 2008 Feb
    • 650 : 2
    • Abstract

    The genotoxicity of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was determined with the alkaline version of the comet assay employing V79 lung fibroblasts of the Chinese hamster as target cells. These cells lack the enzymes necessary to convert PAHs to DNA-binding metabolites. Surprisingly, 11 PAHs, i.e., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benz[a]anthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 3-methylcholanthrene, fluoranthene, anthanthrene, 11H-benzo[b]fluorene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and benzo[e]pyrene caused DNA strand breaks even without external metabolic activation, while naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene and naphthacene were inactive. When the comet assay was performed in the dark or when yellow fluorescent lamps were used for illumination the DNA-damaging effect of the 11 PAHs disappeared. White fluorescent lamps exhibit emission maxima at 334.1, 365.0, 404.7, and 435.8 nm representing spectral lines of mercury. In the case of yellow fluorescent lamps these emissions were absent. Obviously, under standard laboratory illumination many PAHs are photo-activated, resulting in DNA-damaging species. This feature of PAHs should be taken into account when these compounds are employed for the initiation of skin cancer. The genotoxicity of BaP that is metabolically activated in V79 cells stably expressing human cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP1A1) as well as human epoxide hydrolase (V79-hCYP1A1-mEH) could not be detected with the comet assay performed under yellow light. Likewise the DNA-damaging effect of r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (anti-BaPDE) observed with the comet assay was only weak. However, upon inhibition of nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is responsible for the removal of stable DNA adducts caused by anti-BaPDE, the tail moment rose 3.4-fold in the case of BaP and 12.9-fold in the case of anti-BaPDE. These results indicate that the genotoxicity of BaP and probably of other compounds producing stable DNA adducts are reliably detected with the comet assay only when NER is inhibited.

    • Solar-simulated light-exposed benzo[a]pyrene induces phosphorylation of histone H2AX.
    • Toyooka, Ohnuki and Ibuki
    • Mutat Res
    • 2008 Feb
    • 650 : 2
    • Abstract

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), wide-spread mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants, are consistently exposed to sunlight in the environment. The exposure causes structural change, resulting in the generation of a variety of photomodified products having different bioactivities compared with the parent compounds. In this study, we found that benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposed to solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which was recently identified as an early event after the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Although BaP itself did not produce gamma-H2AX, SSL-exposed BaP significantly generated gamma-H2AX depending on the period of exposure. Furthermore, we revealed that reactive oxygen species produced by the SSL-exposed BaP mainly contributed to the generation of gamma-H2AX. The appearance of gamma-H2AX means the induction of the most serious form of DNA damage, DSBs, suggesting the potential risk of carcinogenesis.

    • Nonadditive effects of PAHs on Early Vertebrate Development: mechanisms and implications for risk assessment.
    • Billiard, Meyer, Wassenberg, Hodson and Di Giulio
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 2008 Sep
    • 105 : 1
    • Abstract

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Traditionally, much of the research has focused on the carcinogenic potential of specific PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, but recent studies using sensitive fish models have shown that exposure to PAHs alters normal fish development. Some PAHs can induce a teratogenic phenotype similar to that caused by planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, such as dioxin. Consequently, mechanism of action is often equated between the two classes of compounds. Unlike dioxins, however, the developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures is not necessarily additive. This is likely related to their multiple mechanisms of toxicity and their rapid biotransformation by CYP1 enzymes to metabolites with a wide array of structures and potential toxicities. This has important implications for risk assessment and management as the current approach for complex mixtures of PAHs usually assumes concentration addition. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of teratogenicity caused by single PAH compounds and by mixtures and the importance of these latest findings for adequately assessing risk of PAHs to humans and wildlife. Throughout, we place particular emphasis on research on the early life stages of fish, which has proven to be a sensitive and rapid developmental model to elucidate effects of hydrocarbon mixtures.

    • Analysis of Ah receptor-ARNT and Ah receptor-ARNT2 complexes in vitro and in cell culture.
    • Dougherty and Pollenz
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 2008 May
    • 103 : 1
    • Abstract

    ARNT and ARNT2 proteins are expressed in mammalian and aquatic species and exhibit a high level of amino acid identity in the basic-helix loop-helix PER/ARNT/SIM domains involved in protein interactions and DNA binding. Since the analysis of ARNT2 function at the protein level has been limited, ARNT2 function in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated signaling was evaluated and compared to ARNT. In vitro, ARNT and ARNT2 dimerized equally with the AHR in the presence of 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ARNT2 outcompeted ARNT for binding to the AHR when expressed in excess. In contrast, activation of the AHR with 3-methylcholanthrene or benzo[a]pyrene resulted in predominant formation of AHR*ARNT complexes. ARNT2 expressed in Hepa-1 cell culture lines with reduced ARNT protein resulted in minimal induction of endogenous CYP1A1 protein compared to cells expressing ARNT, and mutation of the putative proline residue at amino acid 352 to histidine failed to produce an ARNT2 that could function in AHR-mediated signaling. However, the expression of ARNT2 in wild-type Hepa-1 cells reduced TCDD-mediated induction of endogenous CYP1A1 protein by 30%, even though AHR*ARNT2 complexes could not be detected in nuclear extracts. Western blot analysis of numerous mouse tissues and various cell culture lines showed that both endogenous ARNT and ARNT2 could be detected in cells derived from kidney, central nervous system, and retinal epithelium. Thus, ARNT2 has the ability to dimerize with the liganded AHR in vitro and is influenced by the activating ligand yet appears to be limited in its ability to influence AHR-mediated signaling in cell culture.

    • Mdm2 as a sensitive and mechanistically informative marker for genotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene.
    • Malmlöf, Pääjärvi, Högberg and Stenius
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 2008 Apr
    • 102 : 2
    • Abstract

    Mdm2 is an oncoprotein interacting with p53 and maintaining low p53 levels in unstressed cells. Here we investigated the effect of genotoxic compounds on Mdm2 phosphorylation levels. Employing the Mdm2 2A10 antibody and phosphatase treatment we found that Mdm2 accumulated in HepG2 cells when exposed to low concentrations of genotoxic compounds such as mitomycin C, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and benzo[a]pyrene (BP). The low-dose responses were not accompanied by p53 accumulation and the effect of low concentrations of BP on Mdm2 was not affected by small interfering RNA for p53. In human lymphoblasts 10nM BP induced an Mdm2 response. Low concentrations of BP also induced binding of Mdm2 to chromatin in HepG2 cells, but no p53 binding or H2AX phosphorylation. The more mutagenic dibenzo[a,l]pyrene as well as higher BP concentrations instead induced gammaH2AX and p53 Ser15 association with chromatin. Acrolein potentiated the effect of BP on p53 stabilization and chromatin binding. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) Mdm2 is a sensitive biomarker for certain types of genotoxicity, and (2) that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induced Mdm2 binding to chromatin reflects repairable damage, whereas chromatin binding of p53 Ser15 and gammaH2AX indicates more persistent DNA damage. The analysis of Mdm2 and related endpoints might be useful for evaluating mutagenic potentials of DNA damages. It is suggested that patterns documented here can be used for separating BP doses that induce readily repaired DNA adducts from doses that overwhelm this capacity.

    • Inhibition of benzopyrene diol epoxide-induced apoptosis by cadmium(II) is AP-1-independent: role of extracelluler signal related kinase.
    • Mukherjee, Gupta and Kumar
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 2008 Mar
    • 172 : 1
    • Abstract

    Cadmium, a major metal constituent of tobacco smoke, elicits synergistic enhancement of cell transformation when combined with benzo[a]pyrene (BP) or other PAHs. The mechanism underlying this synergism is not clearly understood. We observed that (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), an ultimate carcinogen of BP, induces apoptosis in promotion sensitive mouse epidermal JB6 Cl41 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. BPDE also activates AP-1 several folds in AP-1 reporter JB6 cells. Cadmium at non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits both AP-1 activation and apoptosis in response to BPDE. Since AP-1 is known to be involved in stress-induced apoptosis we investigated whether inhibition of AP-1 by cadmium has any role in the inhibition of BPDE-induced apoptosis. MAP kinases (particularly ERKs, p38 and JNKs) are known to have important role in DNA damage-induced AP-1 activation. We observed that ERK and JNK, but not p38 MAP kinase, are involved in BPDE-induced AP-1 activation. Effect of cadmium on MAP kinases and the effect of inhibition of above three MAP kinases on BPDE-induced AP-1 activation and apoptosis indicate that AP-1 is probably not involved in BPDE-induced apoptosis. Cadmium up-regulates BPDE-activated ERKs and ERK inhibition by U0126 relieves cadmium-mediated inhibition of BPDE-induced apoptosis. We suggest that cadmium inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis not involving AP-1 but probably through a different mechanism by up-regulating ERK which is known to promote cell survival.

    • Influence of TCDD and natural Ah receptor agonists on benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation in the Caco-2 human colon cell line.
    • de Waard, de Kok, Maas, Peijnenburg, Hoogenboom, Aarts and van Schooten
    • Mutagenesis
    • 2008 Jan
    • 23 : 1
    • Abstract

    Several compounds originating from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This receptor plays an important role in the toxicity of the known tumour promoter and potent AhR-agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, vegetables and fruits are generally considered as healthy. Therefore, besides the AhR activation, the natural AhR agonists (NAhRAs) are assumed to show other health-concerning effects. AhR activation induces several cytochrome P450 phase I enzymes involved, e.g. in the bioactivation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and may as such stimulate DNA adduct formation of those compounds. Therefore, the influence of TCDD, indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ, an NAhRA originating from cruciferous vegetables) and an NAhRA-containing extract of grapefruit juice (GJE) on BaP-DNA adduct formation in the human Caco-2 cell line was studied. Also, we investigated if different effects of TCDD, ICZ and GJE on adduct formation could be related to the modulation of transcription of biotransformation- and DNA-repair enzymes. Co-exposure to high AhR-activating concentrations of both TCDD and ICZ significantly reduced the amount of BaP-DNA adducts at 0.1 microM BaP, while at higher concentrations of BaP no influence was observed. In contrast, exposure to 0.1 microM BaP combined with GJE showed a significant increase in BaP-DNA adducts, and a significant decrease at 0.3 and 1 microM BaP. These differences could not be related to transcription of the phase I and II enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, GSTP1 and UGT1A6 or to transcription of the nucleotide excision repair enzymes ERCC1, XPA, XPC, XPF and XPG. We conclude that ICZ showed a similar effect on BaP-DNA adduct formation than TCDD, while GJE influenced the adduct formation in a different way. The difference in the influence on adduct formation may be due to effects at the level of enzyme activity, rather than gene expression.

    • Influence of GSTM1 null and low repair XPC PAT+ on anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in mononuclear white blood cells of subjects low exposed to PAHs through smoking and diet.
    • Pavanello, Pulliero and Clonfero
    • Mutat Res
    • 2008 Feb
    • 638 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    The influence of low-activity NER genotypes (XPC PAT-/+, XPA-A23G, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD Lys751Gln) and GSTM1 (active or null) was evaluated on anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-(B[a]PDE)-DNA adduct formed in the lymphocyte plus monocyte fraction (LMF). The sample population consisted of 291 healthy subjects with low exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (B[a]P) through their smoking (n=126 smokers) or dietary habits (n=165 non-smokers with high (>or=52 times/year) consumption of charcoaled meat or pizza). The bulky anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct levels were detected by HPLC/fluorescence analysis and genotypes by PCR. Anti-B[a]PDE-DNA was present (>or=0.5 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) in 163 (56%) subjects (median (range) 0.77 (0.125-32.0) adducts/10(8) nucleotides), with smokers showing a significantly higher adduct level than non-smokers with high consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). Our exposed-sample population with unfavourable XPC PAT+/- or +/+ and GSTM1 null genotypes has the significantly highest adduct level (P<0.01). Taking into account tobacco smoke and diet as sources of exposure to B[a]P, low-activity XPC PAT+ shows a major role in smokers (P<0.05) and GSTM1 null in non-smokers with frequent consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). The modulation of anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in the LMF by GSTM1 null and low-activity XPC PAT+ polymorphisms may be considered as potential genetic susceptibility factors that can modify individual responses to low PAH (B[a]P) genotoxic exposure, with the consequent risk of cancer in the general population.

    • The role of p53 in DNA damage-mediated cytotoxicity overrides its ability to regulate nucleotide excision repair in human fibroblasts.
    • Bhana and Lloyd
    • Mutagenesis
    • 2008 Jan
    • 23 : 1
    • Abstract

    The p53 tumour suppressor protein plays a pivotal role in the response of mammalian cells to DNA damage. In addition to its regulatory role in cell cycle progression, p53 regulates apoptosis and can therefore influence cellular survival in response to DNA damage. More recent work has revealed that p53 is also involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) of structurally diverse types of DNA damage. The relative influence of p53 on NER and cellular sensitivity to DNA damage was investigated in this study using cells that differ in p53 status. Two cell models were selected: 041 TR fibroblasts in which the expression of p53 is regulated by a tetracycline-inducible promoter, and WI38 primary lung fibroblasts together with their isogenic derivative VA13, in which p53 is abrogated post-translationally by SV40 transformation. Cells were exposed to the clinically and environmentally relevant DNA-damaging agents cisplatin (0-5 microM, 2 h), (+/-)-anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (0-0.5 microM, 30 min) and UV-C (0-5 J/m2), each of which induce structurally distinct types of DNA damage known to be subject to p53-dependent NER. Sensitivity of the p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells to this DNA damage was then compared at each dose of DNA-damaging agent using the clonogenic survival assay and the colorimetric MTT assay. p53-proficient cells were more sensitive than p53-deficient cells to cisplatin, (+/-)-anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide and UV-C; these differences in cellular sensitivity were more apparent in the 041 TR cells (up to 3.6-, 5.8- and 1.9-fold, respectively) than the WI38/VA13 cells (up to 2.3-, 1.4- and 1.4-fold, respectively). Thus, despite the well-documented persistence of DNA damage in p53-deficient fibroblasts due to impaired NER, loss of p53 results in reduced DNA damage-mediated cytotoxicity.

    • Assessment of the genotoxic potential of benzo(a)pyrene and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).
    • Binelli, Riva, Cogni and Provini
    • Mutat Res
    • 2008 Jan
    • 649 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    The single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay and the micronucleus (MN) test were carried out with haemocytes of Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) specimens to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp'-DDE, a metabolite of pp'-DDT). Mussels were exposed to three different concentrations (0.1 microg/L, 2 microg/L, 10 microg/L) of each chemical in water during 168 h (SCGE assay) and 96 h (MN test) of exposure under laboratory conditions. These levels correspond to nominal molar concentrations of 0.4 nM, 7.9 nM and 40 nM for BaP and 0.3 nM, 6.2 nM and 31 nM for pp'-DDE, respectively. Concurrently, the levels of toxicants were measured in soft tissues of the mussels by gas-chromatographic analyses, to evaluate their temporal trends and the dose/response relationships. Significant increases of the ratio between the comet length and the diameter of the comet head (LDR) and of micronucleus frequencies in comparison with baseline levels were observed not only for all concentrations of BaP, but also for pp'-DDE (except 0.3 nM). The concentration above which DNA damage starts to be significantly increased was 0.8 nmol/g lipids for BaP and 1.6 nmol/g lipids for pp'-DDE, respectively. The results of these experiments show a clear genotoxic effect on this non-target organism not only for the well-known genotoxicant BaP, but also for the final metabolite of pp'-DDT at soft-tissue concentrations that have been found in several aquatic ecosystems worldwide.

    • Mutagenicity of surface soil from residential areas in Kyoto city, Japan, and identification of major mutagens.
    • Watanabe, Takahashi, Konishi, Hoshino, Hasei, Asanoma, Hirayama and Wakabayashi
    • Mutat Res
    • 2008 Jan
    • 649 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    To clarify the mutagenic potential of surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto city, surface soil samples were collected twice or three times from 12 sites, and their organic extracts were examined by the Ames/Salmonella assay. Almost all (>92%) samples showed mutagenicity in TA98 without and with S9 mix, and 8/25 (32%) samples showed high (1000-10,000 revertants/g of soil) or extreme (>10,000 revertants/g of soil) activity. Moreover, to identify the major mutagens in surface soil in Kyoto, a soil sample was collected at a site where soil contamination with mutagens was severe and continual. The soil extract, which showed potent mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix, was fractionated by diverse column chromatography methods. Five major mutagenic constituents were isolated and identified to be 1,6-dinitropyrene (DNP), 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-trinitropyrene (TNP), 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene (DNF), and 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (DNBeP) by co-chromatography using high performance liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. Contribution ratios of 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP to total mutagenicity of the soil extract in TA98 without S9 mix were 3, 10, 10, 10, and 6%, respectively. These nitroarenes were detected in surface soil samples collected from four different residential sites in other prefectures, and their contribution ratios to soil mutagenicity were from 0.7 to 22%. These results suggest that surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto was widely contaminated with mutagens and there were some sites where surface soils were heavily polluted. 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP may be major mutagenic constituents that contaminate surface soil in Kyoto and other residential areas.

    • DNA adducts formation and induction of apoptosis in rat liver epithelial 'stem-like' cells exposed to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
    • Topinka, Marvanová, Vondrácek, Sevastyanova, Nováková, Krcmár, Pencíková and Machala
    • Mutat Res
    • 2008 Feb
    • 638 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    The bipotent liver progenitor cells, so called oval cells, may participate at the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by chemical carcinogens. Unlike in mature parenchymal cells, little is known about formation of DNA adducts and other genotoxic events in oval cells. In the present study, we employed spontaneously immortalized rat liver WB-F344 cell line, which is an established in vitro model of oval cells, in order to study genotoxic effects of selected carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With exception of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and partly also benzo[g]chrysene and benz[a]anthracene, all other PAHs under the study induced high levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA. In contrast, we observed distinct genotoxic and cytotoxic potencies of PAHs. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and to a lesser extent also benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[g]chrysene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, formed high levels of DNA adducts. This was accompanied with accumulation of Ser-15 phosphorylated form of p53 protein and induction of apoptosis. Contrary to that, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene induced only low amounts of DNA adducts formation and minimal apoptosis, without exerting significant effects on p53 phosphorylation. Finally, we studied effects of 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene and fluoranthene, inhibitors of CYP1B1 activity, which plays a central role in metabolic activation of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene. In a dose-dependent manner, both compounds inhibited apoptosis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, suggesting that it interferes with the metabolic activation of the latter one. The present data show that in model cell line sharing phenotypic properties with oval cells, PAHs can be efficiently metabolized to form ultimate genotoxic metabolites. Liver progenitor cells could be thus susceptible to this type of genotoxic insult, which makes WB-F344 cell line a useful tool for studies of genotoxic effects of organic contaminants in liver cells. Our results also suggest that, unlike in mature hepatocytes, CYP1B1 might be a primary enzyme responsible for formation of DNA adducts in liver progenitor cells.

    • AHR- and DNA-damage-mediated gene expression responses induced by benzo(a)pyrene in human cell lines.
    • Hockley, Arlt, Brewer, Te Poele, Workman, Giddings and Phillips
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 2007 Dec
    • 20 : 12
    • Abstract

    Carcinogens induce complex transcriptional responses in cells that may hold key mechanistic information. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) modulation of transcription may occur through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or through responses to DNA damage. To characterize further the expression profiles induced by BaP in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells obtained in our previous study, they were compared to those induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which activates AHR but does not bind to DNA, and anti-benzo(a)pyrene- trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), which binds directly to DNA but does not activate AHR. A total of 22 genes had altered expression in MCF-7 cells after both BaP and TCDD exposure, and a total of 29 genes had altered expression in HepG2 cells. In both cell lines, xenobiotic metabolism was upregulated through induction of NQO1, MGST1, and CYP1B1. A total of 78 expression changes were induced by both BaP and BPDE in MCF-7 cells, and a total of 29 expression changes were induced by both BaP and BPDE in HepG2 cells. These genes were predominantly involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. BaP and BPDE caused the repression of histone genes in both cell lines, suggesting that regulation of these genes is an important component of the DNA damage response. Interestingly, overlap of the BPDE and TCDD gene expression profiles was also observed. Furthermore, some genes were modulated by BaP but not by TCDD or BPDE, including induction of CRY1 and MAK, which may represent novel signaling pathways that are independent of both AHR activation and DNA damage. Promoter analysis identified candidate genes for direct transcriptional regulation by either AHR or p53. These analyses have further dissected and characterized the complex cellular response to BaP.

    • Identification through microarray gene expression analysis of cellular responses to benzo(a)pyrene and its diol-epoxide that are dependent or independent of p53.
    • Hockley, Arlt, Jahnke, Hartwig, Giddings and Phillips
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 2008 Jan
    • 29 : 1
    • Abstract

    Human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116) differing in p53 status were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or anti-benzo(a)pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) and their gene expression responses compared by complementary DNA microarray technology. Exposure of cells to BPDE for up to 24 h resulted in gene expression profiles more distinguishable by duration of exposure than by p53 status, although a subset of genes were identified that had significantly different expression in p53 wild-type (WT) cells relative to p53-null cells. Apoptotic signalling genes were up-regulated in p53-WT cells but not in p53-null cells and, consistent with this, reduced viability and caspase activity were also p53 dependent. BPDE modulated cell cycle and histone genes in both cell lines and, in agreement with this, both cell lines accumulated in S phase. In p53-WT cells, G(2) arrest was also evident, which was associated with accumulation of CDKN1A. Regardless of p53 status, exposure to BaP for up to 48 h had subtle effects on gene transcription and had no influence on cell viability or cell cycle. Interestingly, DNA adduct formation after BaP, but not BPDE, exposure was p53 dependent with 10-fold lower levels detected in p53-null cells. Other cell lines were investigated for BaP-DNA adduct formation and in these the effect of p53 knockdown was also to reduce adduct formation. Taken together, these results give further insight into the role of p53 in the response of human cells to BaP and BPDE and suggest that loss of this tumour suppressor can influence the metabolic activation of BaP.

    • Overlapping gene expression profiles of model compounds provide opportunities for immunotoxicity screening.
    • Baken, Pennings, Jonker, Schaap, de Vries, van Steeg, Breit and van Loveren
    • Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
    • 2008 Jan
    • 226 : 1
    • Abstract

    In order to investigate immunotoxic effects of a set of model compounds in mice, a toxicogenomics approach was combined with information on macroscopical and histopathological effects on spleens and on modulation of immune function. Bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO), cyclosporin A (CsA), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) were administered to C57BL/6 mice at immunosuppressive dose levels. Acetaminophen (APAP) was included in the study since indications of immunomodulating properties of this compound have appeared in the literature. TBTO exposure caused the most pronounced effect on gene expression and also resulted in the most severe reduction of body weight gain and induction of splenic irregularities. All compounds caused inhibition of cell division in the spleen as shown by microarray analysis as well as by suppression of lymphocyte proliferation after application of a contact sensitizer as demonstrated in an immune function assay that was adapted from the local lymph node assay. The immunotoxicogenomics approach applied in this study thus pointed to immunosuppression through cell cycle arrest as a common mechanism of action of immunotoxicants, including APAP. Genes related to cell division such as Ccna2, Brca1, Birc5, Incenp, and Cdkn1a (p21) were identified as candidate genes to indicate anti-proliferative effects of xenobiotics in immune cells for future screening assays. The results of our experiments also show the value of group wise pathway analysis for detection of more subtle transcriptional effects and the potency of evaluation of effects in the spleen to demonstrate immunotoxicity.

    • Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, environmental tobacco smoke, and child development in the World Trade Center cohort.
    • Perera, Tang, Rauh, Tu, Tsai, Becker, Stein, King, Del Priore and Lederman
    • Environ Health Perspect
    • 2007 Oct
    • 115 : 10
    • Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are air pollutants released by the World Trade Center (WTC) fires and urban combustion sources. BaP-DNA adducts provide a measure of PAH-specific genetic damage, which has been associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes and cancer. We previously reported that levels of BaP-DNA adducts in maternal and umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery were elevated among subjects who had resided within 1 mile of the WTC site during the month after 9/11; and that elevated blood adducts in combination with in utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were significantly associated with decreased fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to WTC pollutants on child development. METHODS: After 11 September 2001, we enrolled a cohort of nonsmoking pregnant women who delivered at three lower Manhattan hospitals. We have followed a subset of children through their third birthdays and measured cognitive and motor development using the Bayley-II Scales of Child Development (BSID-II). RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, we found a significant interaction between cord blood adducts and in utero exposure to ETS on mental development index score at 3 years of age (p = 0.02, n = 98) whereas neither adducts nor ETS alone was a significant predictor of (BSID-II) cognitive development. CONCLUSION: Although limited by small numbers, these results suggest that exposure to elevated levels of PAHs in conjunction with prenatal ETS exposure may have contributed to a modest reduction in cognitive development among cohort children.

    • The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in inducing mutations in mouse skin.
    • Chakravarti, Venugopal, Mailander, Meza, Higginbotham, Cavalieri and Rogan
    • Mutat Res
    • 2008 Jan
    • 649 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) form stable and depurinating DNA adducts in mouse skin to induce preneoplastic mutations. Some mutations transform cells, which then clonally expand to establish tumors. Strong clues about the mutagenic mechanism can be obtained if the PAH-DNA adducts can be correlated with both preneoplastic and tumor mutations. To this end, we studied mutagenesis in PAH-treated early preneoplastic skin (1 day after exposure) and in the induced papillomas in SENCAR mice. Papillomas were studied by PCR amplification of the H-ras gene and sequencing. For benzo[a]pyrene (BP), BP-7,8-dihydrodiol (BPDHD), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), the codon 13 (GGC to GTC) and codon 61 (CAA to CTA) mutations in papillomas corresponded to the relative levels of Gua and Ade-depurinating adducts, despite BP and BPDHD forming significant amounts of stable DNA adducts. Such a relationship was expected for DMBA and DB[a,l]P, as they formed primarily depurinating adducts. These results suggest that depurinating adducts play a major role in forming the tumorigenic mutations. To validate this correlation, preneoplastic skin mutations were studied by cloning H-ras PCR products and sequencing individual clones. DMBA- and DB[a,l]P-treated skin showed primarily A.T to G.C mutations, which correlated with the high ratio of the Ade/Gua-depurinating adducts. Incubation of skin DNA with T.G-DNA glycosylase eliminated most of these A.T to G.C mutations, indicating that they existed as G.T heteroduplexes, as would be expected if they were formed by errors in the repair of abasic sites generated by the depurinating adducts. BP and its metabolites induced mainly G.C to T.A mutations in preneoplastic skin. However, PCR over unrepaired anti-BPDE-N(2)dG adducts can generate similar mutations as artifacts of the study protocol, making it difficult to establish an adduct-mutation correlation for determining which BP-DNA adducts induce the early preneoplastic mutations. In conclusion, this study suggests that depurinating adducts play a major role in PAH mutagenesis.

    • Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene in T-47D human breast cancer cells: roles of PAH interactions and PAH metabolites.
    • Spink, Wu, Spink, Hussain, Vakharia, Pentecost and Kaminsky
    • Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
    • 2008 Feb
    • 226 : 3
    • Abstract

    The interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cytochromes P450 (CYP) are complex; PAHs are enzyme inducers, substrates, and inhibitors. In T-47D breast cancer cells, exposure to 0.1 to 1 microM benzo(k)fluoranthene (BKF) induced CYP1A1/1B1-catalyzed 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) metabolism, whereas BKF levels greater than 1 muM inhibited E(2) metabolism. Time course studies showed that induction of CYP1-catalyzed E(2) metabolism persisted after the disappearance of BKF or co-exposed benzo(a)pyrene, suggesting that BKF metabolites retaining Ah receptor agonist activity were responsible for prolonged CYP1 induction. BKF metabolites were shown, through the use of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase reporter assays to induce CYP1A1/1B1 in T-47D cells. Metabolites formed by oxidation at the C-2/C-3 region of BKF had potencies for CYP1 induction exceeding those of BKF, whereas C-8/C-9 oxidative metabolites were somewhat less potent than BKF. The activities of expressed human CYP1A1 and 1B1 with BKF as substrate were investigated by use of HPLC with fluorescence detection, and by GC/MS. The results showed that both enzymes efficiently catalyzed the formation of 3-, 8-, and 9-OHBKF from BKF. These studies indicate that the inductive effects of PAH metabolites as potent CYP1 inducers are likely to be additional important factors in PAH-CYP interactions that affect metabolism and bioactivation of other PAHs, ultimately modulating PAH toxicity and carcinogenicity.

    • Glutathione transferase pi plays a critical role in the development of lung carcinogenesis following exposure to tobacco-related carcinogens and urethane.
    • Ritchie, Henderson, Wang, Vassieva, Carrie, Farmer, Gaskell, Park and Wolf
    • Cancer Res
    • 2007 Oct
    • 67 : 19
    • Abstract

    Human cancer is controlled by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Such environmental factors are well defined for smoking-induced lung cancer; however, the roles of specific genes have still to be elucidated. Glutathione transferase pi (GSTP) catalyzes the detoxification of electrophilic diol epoxides produced by the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a common constituent of tobacco smoke. Activity-altering polymorphisms in Gstp have therefore been speculated to be potential risk modifiers in lung cancer development. To clearly establish a role for GSTP in lung tumorigenesis, we investigated whether deletion of the murine Gstp genes (Gstp1 and Gstp2) alters susceptibility to chemically induced lung tumors following exposure to BaP, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), and urethane. Gstp-null mice were found to have substantially increased numbers of adenomas relative to wild-type mice following exposure to all three compounds (8.3-, 4.3-, and 8.7-fold increase for BaP, 3-MC, and urethane, respectively). In Gstp-null mice, the capacity of pulmonary cytosol to catalyze conjugation of the BaP diol epoxide was significantly reduced. Concomitant with this, a significant increase in the level of BaP DNA adducts was measured in the lungs of null animals; however, no increase in DNA adducts was measured in the case of 3-MC exposure, suggesting that an alternative protective pathway exists. Indeed, significant differences in pulmonary gene expression profiles were also noted between wild-type and null mice. This is the first report to establish a clear correlation between Gstp status and lung cancer in vivo.

    • Cell division cycle 25B phosphatase is essential for benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-Diol-9,10-epoxide induced neoplastic transformation.
    • Srivastava, Bansal, Oguri, Lazo and Singh
    • Cancer Res
    • 2007 Oct
    • 67 : 19
    • Abstract

    Cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B) phosphatase controls entry into mitosis and regulates recovery from G2-M checkpoint-induced arrest. In the present study, we show that exposure of diploid mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) to the ultimate carcinogen anti-benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent increase in Cdc25B protein levels. Chronic exposure of wild-type (Cdc25B+/+) MEFs to anti-BPDE (0.1 micromol/L) caused neoplastic transformation characterized by colony formation in culture and tumor production in nude mice. In contrast, the Cdc25B null MEFs were resistant to anti-BPDE-induced transformation. Furthermore, a carcinogenic dose of the parent hydrocarbon (BP) increased Cdc25B protein levels in the target organ, lung. The biological importance of elevated Cdc25B levels was documented by the early reentry into mitosis of cells overexpressing ectopic Cdc25B levels even in the presence of DNA damage following anti-BPDE exposure, whereas control cells resumed only after DNA damage was repaired. We conclude that Cdc25B has an essential role in anti-BPDE-induced neoplastic transformation, including regulation of cell cycle resumption in the presence of DNA damage.

    • Dynamic changes of XPA, XPC, XPF, XPG and ERCC1 protein expression and their correlations with levels of DNA damage in human bronchial epithelia cells exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.
    • Yang, Liu, Niu, Zou, Gong, Yuan and Wu
    • Toxicol Lett
    • 2007 Nov
    • 174 : 1-3
    • Abstract

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitously distributed environmental pollutant known to cause DNA damage, which may be repaired through nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, little is known about dynamic changes in levels of DNA damage and their correlations with levels of NER proteins in cells exposed to BaP. In a series of experiments using the human bronchial epithelia cells (16HBE) exposed to different concentrations of BaP for different times, we measured dynamic changes in levels of DNA damage and expression of NER subunit xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) groups A, C, F, G (XPA, XPC, XPF, XPG) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), and analyzed their possible correlations. We found that in vitro exposure to BaP reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 2 to 64microM and increased DNA damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Our results showed that levels of these NER proteins significantly increased and peaked at 12th or 24th, 8th or 12th and 4th or 8th hours in cells exposed to 2, 8 and 16microM BaP, respectively. ERCC1 expression increased by 2.4-, 4.2- and 19.3-fold for exposure to 2, 8 and 16microM BaP, respectively, compared with control group. Moreover, levels of ERCC1 in cells exposed 16microM BaP significantly higher than those in 2 and 8microM BaP from 2nd to 48th hours. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between Olive tail moments and relative ratios of ERCC1 in cells exposed to BaP. Our results suggested ERCC1 may be an important limiting factor for NER, but the mechanisms underlying this observation needs further investigation.

    • Enhanced mutagenesis of Salmonella tester strains due to deletion of genes other than uvrB.
    • Swartz, Parks, Umbach, Ward, Schaaper and DeMarini
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 2007 Oct
    • 48 : 8
    • Abstract

    The standard Salmonella mutagenicity (Ames) tester strains are missing 15-119 genes due to the extended Delta(gal-bio-uvrB) mutations that render the strains excision-repair deficient (DeltauvrB). We constructed strains of Salmonella that are homologous to tester strains TA98 and TA100 except that in place of the uvrB deletion, they contain single-gene defects in either uvrB, moaA, moeA, or both uvrB and moeA. We then tested the following mutagens in these strains: 2-acetylaminofluorene, Glu-P-1, 4-aminobiphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, MX, 1-nitropyrene, 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP), and 2-amino-6-hydroxylaminopurine (AHAP). We confirmed in Salmonella a previous finding in Escherichia coli that the enhanced mutagenicity of the purine analogues HAP and AHAP is not due to the deletion of the uvrB gene but due to the deletion of moeA and/or moaA, which are involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. The spontaneous mutant frequency and induced mutagenic potency of mutagens due to the extended DeltauvrB mutation are due largely to the deletion of uvrB and to some extent of moeA/moaA at the frameshift hisD3052 allele of TA98 but involve other genes in addition to uvrB and moeA/moaA at the base-substitution hisG46 allele of TA100. The extended DeltauvrB mutation does not prevent the detection of mutagens that would have been detected in a strain containing a single uvrB defect. Because of the deletion of moeA/moaA, the extended uvrB deletion generally enhanced spontaneous and induced mutagenicity, especially at the base-substitution allele. This enhanced sensitivity may underlay the severe health effects in humans who have mutations in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis genes.

    • Antimutagenic properties of a polyphenol-enriched extract derived from sesame-seed perisperm.
    • Lazarou, Grougnet and Papadopoulos
    • Mutat Res
    • 2007 Dec
    • 634 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    A polyphenolic mixture derived from sesame-seed perisperm (SSP) strongly reduced the mutagenicity of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), sodium azide (NaN(3)), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in strains TA100 and/or TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium. It exhibited desmutagenic activity against H(2)O(2), BaP in TA98 and/or TA100 and biomutagenic activity (apparently by affecting the DNA-repair system) against NaN(3) in strain TA100. According to in vitro experiments the polyphenolic mixture inhibited the activity of the CYP1A1 (EROD) enzyme responsible for the activation of BaP in the Ames' test, as well as that of the cytosolic enzyme GST. A cytosolic fraction from liver of male Wistar rats treated with either 20% SSP in the food, or 3mg or 6 mg of polyphenolic mixture/20 g food/day for a time period of 8 weeks reduced the mutagenic potential of BaP in strains TA100 and TA98, with the cytosolic fraction from rats treated with SSP causing the strongest reduction. Furthermore, a microsomal fraction from the 20% SSP-treated rats inhibited the mutagenicity of BaP in strains TA100 (26.3%) and TA98 (23%). In contrast, a microsomal fraction from rats treated with 3mg of polyphenolic mixture stimulated the mutagenicity of BaP in TA100 but reduced it in TA98, while for the microsomal fraction from rats treated with 6 mg of polyphenolic mixture, these effects on TA100 and TA98 were reversed.

    • Sequence distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along duplex DNA.
    • Matter, Guza, Zhao, Li, Jones and Tretyakova
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 2007 Oct
    • 20 : 10
    • Abstract

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the major metabolite of ethanol and may be responsible for an increased gastrointestinal cancer risk associated with alcohol beverage consumption. Furthermore, AA is one of the most abundant carcinogens in tobacco smoke and induces tumors of the respiratory tract in laboratory animals. AA binding to DNA induces Schiff base adducts at the exocyclic amino group of dG, N2-ethylidene-dG, which are reversible on the nucleoside level but can be stabilized by reduction to N2-ethyl-dG. Mutagenesis studies in the HPRT reporter gene and in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have revealed the ability of AA to induce G-->A transitions and A-->T transversions, as well as frameshift and splice mutations. AA-induced point mutations are most prominent at 5'-AGG-3' trinucleotides, possibly a result of sequence specific adduct formation, mispairing, and/or repair. However, DNA sequence preferences for the formation of acetaldehyde adducts have not been previously examined. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope labeling-HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS approach developed in our laboratory to analyze the distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing two prominent lung cancer mutational "hotspots" and their surrounding DNA sequences. 1,7,NH 2-(15)N-2-(13)C-dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes derived from the K-ras protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene, followed by AA treatment and NaBH 3CN reduction to convert N2-ethylidene-dG to N2-ethyl-dG. Capillary HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS was used to quantify N2-ethyl-dG adducts originating from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled guanine nucleobases and to map adduct formation along DNA duplexes. We found that the formation of N2-ethyl-dG adducts was only weakly affected by the local sequence context and was slightly increased in the presence of 5-methylcytosine within CG dinucleotides. These results are in contrast with sequence-selective formation of other tobacco carcinogen-DNA adducts along K-ras- and p53-derived duplexes and the preferential modification of endogenously methylated CG dinucleotides by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and acrolein.

    • Tissue distribution and metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in embryonic and larval medaka (Oryzias latipes).
    • Hornung, Cook, Fitzsimmons, Kuehl and Nichols
    • Toxicol Sci
    • 2007 Dec
    • 100 : 2
    • Abstract

    The need to understand chemical uptake, distribution, and metabolism in embryonic and larval fish derives from the fact that these early life stages often exhibit greater sensitivity to xenobiotic compounds than do adult animals. In this study, a 6-h acute waterborne exposure immediately after fertilization was used to quickly load the egg with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). This exposure was used to mimic the initial egg concentration of a persistent bioaccumulative toxicant that could result from maternal transfer. We used multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) in combination with conventional analytical chemistry methods to characterize the tissue distribution of BaP and its principal metabolites in medaka embryos and post-hatch larvae. Embryonic metabolism of BaP was evident by MPLSM prior to liver formation or heart development. A major product of this metabolism was identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as BaP-3-glucuronide. MPLSM showed that metabolites were sequestered within the yolk, biliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. When the gastrointestinal tract became patent a few days after hatch, the metabolites were rapidly eliminated. These findings indicate that some of the earliest embryonic tissues are metabolically competent and that redistribution of BaP and its metabolic products occurs throughout development. Rapid metabolism of BaP substantially reduces the body burden of parent chemical in the developing embryo, potentially reducing toxicity. It remains unclear whether metabolism of BaP in medaka embryos leads to the formation of DNA adducts associated with genotoxic effects or yields metabolites that later lead to other toxicity in juveniles or adults.

    • Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in human bronchoalveolar H358 cells using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    • Jiang, Gelhaus, Mangal, Harvey, Blair and Penning
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 2007 Sep
    • 20 : 9
    • Abstract

    Benzo[ a]pyrene (B[ a]P), a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is metabolically activated by three enzymatic pathways: by peroxidases (e.g., cytochrome P450 peroxidase) to yield radical cations, by P4501A1/1B1 monooxygenation and epoxide hydrolase to yield diol epoxides, and by P4501A1/1B1 monooxygenation, epoxide hydrolase, and aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) to yield o-quinones. In humans, a major exposure site for environmental and tobacco smoke PAH is the lung; however, the profile of B[ a]P metabolites formed at this site has not been well characterized. In this study, human bronchoalveolar H358 cells were exposed to B[ a]P, and metabolites generated by peroxidase (B[ a]P-1,6- and B[ a]P-3,6-diones), from cytochrome P4501A1/1B1 monooxygenation [3-hydroxy-B[ a]P, B[ a]P-7,8- and 9,10- trans-dihydrodiols, and B[ a]P- r-7, t-8, t-9, c-10-tetrahydrotetrol (B[ a]P-tetraol-1)], and from AKRs (B[ a]P-7,8-dione) were detected and quantified by RP-HPLC, with in-line photo-diode array and radiometric detection, and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Progress curves showed a lag phase in the formation of 3-hydroxy-B[ a]P, B[ a]P-7,8- trans-dihydrodiol, B[ a]P-tetraol-1, and B[ a]P-7,8-dione over 24 h. Northern blot analysis showed that B[ a]P induced P4501B1 and AKR1C isoforms in H358 cells in a time-dependent manner, providing an explanation for the lag phase. Pretreatment of H358 cells with 10 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) eliminated this lag phase but did not alter the levels of the individual metabolites observed, suggesting that both B[ a]P and TCDD induction ultimately yield the same B[ a]P metabolic profile. The one exception was B[ a]P-3,6-dione which was formed without a lag phase in the absence and presence of TCDD, suggesting that the peroxidase responsible for its formation was neither P4501A1 nor 1B1. Candidate peroxidases that remain include PGH synthases and uninduced P450 isoforms. This study shows that the P4501A1/1B1 and AKR pathways are inducible in human lung cells and that the peroxidase pathway was not. It also provides evidence that each of the pathways of PAH activation yields their distinctive metabolites in H358 human lung cells and that each pathway may contribute to the carcinogenic process.

    • Binary PAH mixtures cause additive or antagonistic effects on gene expression but synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation.
    • Staal, Hebels, van Herwijnen, Gottschalk, van Schooten and van Delft
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 2007 Dec
    • 28 : 12
    • Abstract

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) cover a wide range of structurally related compounds which differ greatly in their carcinogenic potency. PAH exposure usually occurs through mixtures rather than individual compounds. Therefore, we assessed whether the effects of binary PAH mixtures on gene expression, DNA adduct formation, apoptosis and cell cycle are additive compared with the effects of the individual compounds in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). Equimolar and equitoxic mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) with either dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), fluoranthene (FA) or 1-methylphenanthrene (1-MPA) were studied. DB[a,l]P, B[a]P, DB[a,h]A and B[b]F dose-dependently increased apoptosis and blocked cells cycle in S-phase. PAH mixtures showed an additive effect on apoptosis and on cell cycle blockage. DNA adduct formation in mixtures was higher than expected based on the individual compounds, indicating a synergistic effect of PAH mixtures. Equimolar mixtures of B[a]P and DB[a,l]P (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM) were assessed for their effects on gene expression. Only at 1.0 microM, the mixture showed antagonism. All five compounds were also tested as a binary mixture with B[a]P in equitoxic concentrations. The combinations of B[a]P with B[b]F, DB[a,h]A or FA showed additivity, whereas B[a]P with DB[a,l]P or 1-MPA showed antagonism. Many individual genes showed additivity in mixtures, but some genes showed mostly antagonism or synergism. Our results show that the effects of binary mixtures of PAHs on gene expression are generally additive or slightly antagonistic, suggesting no effect or decreased carcinogenic potency, whereas the effects on DNA adduct formation show synergism, which rather indicates increased carcinogenic potency.

    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of soil and olives collected in areas contaminated with creosote released from old railway ties.
    • Moret, Purcaro and Conte
    • Sci Total Environ
    • 2007 Nov
    • 386 : 1-3
    • Abstract

    Simple sample preparation procedures involving sonication and solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection, were used to analyse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and olives collected in areas contaminated with creosote-treated railway ties. Very high PAH contents (with amounts ranging from 114.7 to 2157.2 and from 167.3 to 3121.8 microg kg(-1) dry weight for total light PAHs and total heavy PAHs, respectively) were found in soil sampled up to 1 m from the source of contamination. The PAH load decreased rapidly with the distance from the railway ties. High amounts of light PAHs, up to 6359.9 microg kg(-1), were also found in oil extracted from olives collected in a rural area where old railway ties were stored. No appreciable transfer of heavy PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene was observed in oil samples.

    • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin modulates functional differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells Downregulation of RelB by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
    • Lee, Hwang, Sung, Jeon, Gill, Youn and Park
    • Toxicol Lett
    • 2007 Aug
    • 173 : 1
    • Abstract

    We have previously shown that benzo(a)pyrene inhibits the growth and functional differentiation of mouse bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) [Hwang, J.A., Lee, J.A., Cheong, S.W., Youn, H.J., Park, J.H., 2007. Benzo(a)pyrene inhibits growth and functional differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Downregulation of RelB and eIF3 p170 by benzo(a)pyrene. Toxicol. Lett. 169, 82-90]. Since the toxic effects of benzo(a)pyrene are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent, we examined the effects of the very potent AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the growth and functional differentiation of mouse BM-derived DCs. Ten nanomolars of TCDD had significant effects on functional differentiation of mouse DCs derived from BM cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. The yields of DCs, flow-cytometrically analyzed for co-expression of CD11c/MHCII or CD11c/CD86, were reduced for TCDD-treated cultures, but TCDD itself had no effect on the growth of BM. DCs from TCDD-treated cultures expressed higher levels of MHCII and CD86, whereas expression of CD11c was reduced, compared with vehicle-treated cultures. Production of IL-10, but not IL-12, by the DCs from TCDD-treated cultures was decreased. Allogeneic T-cell stimulating ability of TCDD-treated DCs was increased compared to control DCs. The effects of TCDD were dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), because alpha-naphthoflavone, an AhR antagonist, suppressed the effects of TCDD on IL-10 production and T-cell stimulating ability. RT-PCR revealed the downregulation of RelB, a transcription factor necessary for DCs differentiation and function. Taken together, although benzo(a)pyrene and TCDD exert their effects via binding to AhR, their effects on the growth and functional differentiation of bone marrow-derived DCs are different.

    • Effects of the environmental mammary carcinogen 6-nitrochrysene on p53 and p21(Cip1) protein expression and cell cycle regulation in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells.
    • Sun, Herzog, Krzeminski, Amin, Perdew and El-Bayoumy
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 2007 Oct
    • 170 : 1
    • Abstract

    The environmental pollutant 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC) is a potent mammary carcinogen in rats; it is more potent than numerous classical mammary carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The mechanisms that account for the remarkable carcinogenicity of 6-NC remain elusive. Similar to BaP, 6-NC is also known to induce DNA damage in rodents and in human breast tissues. As an initial investigation, we reasoned that DNA damage induced by 6-NC may alter the expression of p53 protein in a manner that differs from other DNA damaging carcinogens (e.g. BaP). Using human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and immortalized human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells, we determined the effects of 6-NC on the expression of p53 protein and its direct downstream target cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1) as well as on the cell cycle progression. Western blot analysis demonstrated that treatments of MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells with 6-NC for 12, 24 or 48h did not increase the level of total p53 protein; however, an increase of p21(Cip1) protein and a commitment increase of G(1) phase were observed in MCF-10A cells but not in MCF-7 cells. Further studies using 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydro-6-hydroxylaminochrysene (1,2-DHD-6-NHOH-C), the putative ultimate genotoxic metabolite of 6-NC, was conducted and showed a significant induction of p53 (p<0.05) in MCF-7 cells; however, this effect was not evident in MCF-10A cells, indicating the varied DNA damage responses between the two cell lines. By contrast to numerous DNA damaging agents such as BaP which is known to stimulate p53 expression, the lack of p53 response by 6-NC imply the lack of protective functions mediated by p53 (e.g. DNA repair machinery) after exposure to 6-NC and this may, in part, account for its remarkable carcinogenicity in the mammary tissue.

    • A combined approach to the evaluation of organic air pollution - a case study of urban air in Sarajevo and Tuzla(Bosnia and Herzegovina).
    • Skarek, Cupr, Bartos, Kohoutek, Klánová and Holoubek
    • Sci Total Environ
    • 2007 Oct
    • 384 : 1-3
    • Abstract

    Organic pollution is a complex mixture where besides usually discussed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) a lot of other toxic or potentially toxic compounds occur. In this case, the organic air pollution in two important industrial cities, Sarajevo and Tuzla, in Bosnia and Herzegovina (part of former Yugoslavia) was assessed with the emphasis placed on genotoxic risks using both chemical (PAHs analyses) and biological approaches (genotoxicity testing with a screening bacterial genotoxicity test - SOS chromotest). The study was performed as a part of the APOPSBAL project (ICA2-CT2002-10007). So far there has not been any information either about the PAHs pollution or the genotoxic activity of the organic air pollution for the localities under the study. Therefore, the presented information is considered absolutely unique. Both used approaches made possible to identify the localities with the highest pollution level and genotoxic risks in both cities. Generally, higher levels of both parameters were determined in Tuzla, which is much more industrialized than Sarajevo, and especially at localities close to city centers and affected by traffic emissions, but also at localities polluted by emissions from industry and household heating. Even if benzo(a)pyrene concentrations exceeded the maximum permitted levels for this pollutant at some localities in Tuzla, the PAHs concentrations were fully comparable with the levels determined in other industrial European cities. Significant genotoxicity of the organic extracts was detected for almost all of the urban localities in the test both without (-S9; direct genotoxicity) and with the addition of metabolic activation (+S9; indirect genotoxicity). The observed direct genotoxic activities were discussed in relation to a potential presence of PAHs derivatives in the air. The indirect genotoxic activities were apparently higher at the localities with higher contents of carcinogenic PAHs. The significant relationship between the determined genotoxic activities and the PAHs pollution was also confirmed by a regression analysis. However, the correlations were not absolute because the observed genotoxic activity was also dependent on the presence of other organic pollutants than the PAHs. It concerns predominantly direct genotoxicity which is not related with the PAHs, but with their nitro-, oxi-, and hydroxy-derivatives and also other unknown polar organic pollutants. However, the concentrations of the direct genotoxins apparently correlated with the PAHs contents in the air. The study showed that screening genotoxicity tests, such as the SOS chromotest, could be effectively used for the identification of localities with increased genotoxic risks. In comparison with the health risk assessment which is usually based on the chemical analyses of only a small part of the pollution mixture, the bioassays enable us to evaluate the risks of all the mixture. The localities with the highest detected human health risks according to the screening bioassays may then be analyzed in detail with specific chemical methods to identify their causes.

    • Spectral differentiation and immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis separation of enantiomeric benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-derived DNA adducts.
    • Miksa, Chinnappan, Dang, Reppert, Matter, Tretyakova, Grubor and Jankowiak
    • Chem Res Toxicol
    • 2007 Aug
    • 20 : 8
    • Abstract

    Antibody cross-reactivity makes separation and differentiation of enantiomeric analytes one of the most challenging problems in immunoanalytical research, particularly for the analysis of structurally related biological molecules [such as benzo( a)pyrene (BP) metabolites and BP-derived DNA adducts]. It has recently been shown that the interaction of enantiomers of BP tetrols (BPT) with a promiscuous anti-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( anti-PAH) monoclonal antibody (mAb) allowed for separation of all four enantiomeric isomers using immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis [ Grubor, N. M. , Armstrong, D. W. , and Jankowiak, R. ( 2006) Electrophoresis 27, 1078 ] and unambiguous spectral resolution using fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) [ Grubor, N. M. , Liu, Y. , Han, X. , Armstrong, D.W. , and Jankowiak, R. ( 2006) J. Am.Chem. Soc. 128, 6409 ]. Here, we expand the use of the above two methodologies to the group of biologically important molecules that are products of BP diol epoxide (BPDE)-induced DNA damage. Four diastereomeric anti-BPDE-derived deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts, that is, (+)- and (-)- anti-trans-BPDE- N (2)-dG and (+)- and (-)- anti-cis-BPDE- N (2)-dG, were electrophoretically separated and spectroscopically differentiated using 8E11 mAb raised against BP-DNA conjugates. In fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) experiments, complexes of BPDE-dG adducts with mAb revealed differences in fluorescence origin band positions, bandwidths, and vibrational patterns for all four BPDE- N (2)-dG adducts. Narrow fluorescence origin bands observed for (-)- trans-BPDE-dG (70 cm (-1)) and (+)- trans-BPDE- N (2)-dG (80 cm (-1)) suggest spatial constraint within the mAb binding pocket. Broader origin bands observed for cis type adducts ( approximately 120 cm (-1)) in 8E11 mAb suggest different binding geometries and/or conformational changes, as also indicated by changes in vibrational frequencies observed for the (+)- anti-cis and (-)- anti-cis adducts complexed with mAb. FLNS revealed that binding conformations and interactions within the mAb binding pocket are different for each adduct, enabling unambiguous positive identification. The methodologies described in this manuscript could also be used for analysis of DNA adducts following enzymatic hydrolysis of BPDE-adducted DNA to free nucleosides.

    • Indole-3-carbinol inhibits 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone plus benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice and modulates carcinogen-induced alterations in protein levels.
    • Kassie, Anderson, Scherber, Yu, Lahti, Upadhyaya and Hecht
    • Cancer Res
    • 2007 Jul
    • 67 : 13
    • Abstract

    We tested the chemopreventive efficacy of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a constituent of Brassica vegetables, and its major condensation product, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), against lung tumorigenesis induced by a mixture of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in A/J mice. The mixture of NNK plus BaP (2 micromol each) was administered by gavage as eight weekly doses, whereas I3C (112 micromol/g diet) and DIM (2 and 30 micromol/g diet in experiments 1 and 2, respectively) were given in the diet for 23 weeks beginning at 50% of carcinogen treatment. I3C reduced NNK plus BaP-induced tumor multiplicity by 78% in experiment 1 and 86% in experiment 2; the respective reductions in tumor multiplicity by DIM were 5% and 66%. Using a quantitative proteomics method, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified at least 250 proteins in lung tissues. Of these proteins, nine showed differences in relative abundance in lung tissues of carcinogen-treated versus untreated mice: fatty acid synthase, transketolase, pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C), L-plastin, annexin A1, and haptoglobin increased, whereas transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and apolipoprotein A-1 decreased. Supplementation of the diet of carcinogen-treated mice with I3C reduced the level of SP-C, L-plastin, annexin A1, and haptoglobin to that of untreated controls. These results were verified using immunoblotting. We show here that tumor-associated signature proteins are increased during NNK plus BaP-induced lung carcinogenesis, and I3C inhibits this effect, suggesting that the lung tumor chemopreventive activity of I3C might be related to modulation of carcinogen-induced alterations in protein levels.

    • Modulatory effects of Mentha piperata on lung tumor incidence, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress in benzo[a]pyrene-treated Swiss albino mice.
    • White
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 2007 Jul
    • 48 : 6
    • No Abstract
    • Diesel exhaust influences carcinogenic PAH-induced genotoxicity and gene expression in human breast epithelial cells in culture.
    • Courter, Pereira and Baird
    • Mutat Res
    • 2007 Dec
    • 625 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    The carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) are widespread environmental pollutants, however their toxicological effects within a mixture is not established. We investigated the influence of diesel exhaust (DE) on B[a]P and DB[a,l]P-induced PAH-DNA adduct formation, metabolic activation, gene expression and 8-oxo-dG adduct levels in human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) in culture. Following 24 and 48h, cells co-exposed to DE plus B[a]P exhibited a significant decrease in PAH-DNA adduct levels, compared with B[a]P alone, as determined by (33)P-postlabeling combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity, as measured by the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay and CYP1B1 expression, significantly increased with co-exposure of DE plus DB[a,l]P, compared with DB[a,l]P alone. Aldo keto-reductase (AKR)1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C3 expression also significantly increased in cells exposed to DE plus PAH, compared with PAH exposure alone. Cell populations exhibiting 8-oxo-dG adducts significantly increased in response to exposure to B[a]P or DE plus B[a]P for 24h, compared with vehicle control, as quantified by flow cytometry. These results suggest that complex mixtures may modify the carcinogenic potency of PAH by shifting the metabolic activation pathway from the production of PAH diol-epoxides to AKR pathway-derived metabolites.

    • Impact of multiple genetic polymorphisms on effects of a 4-week blueberry juice intervention on ex vivo induced lymphocytic DNA damage in human volunteers.
    • Wilms, Boots, de Boer, Maas, Pachen, Gottschalk, Ketelslegers, Godschalk, Haenen, van Schooten and Kleinjans
    • Carcinogenesis
    • 2007 Aug
    • 28 : 8
    • Abstract

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a decrease in cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease, presumably caused by antioxidants. We designed a human intervention study to assess antioxidative and possible anti-genotoxic properties of fruit-borne antioxidants. We hypothesized that individuals bearing genetic polymorphisms for genes related to quercetin metabolism, benzo[a]pyrene metabolism, oxidative stress and DNA repair differ in their response to DNA protective effects of increased antioxidant intake. In the present study, 168 healthy volunteers consumed a blueberry/apple juice that provided 97 mg quercetin and 16 mg ascorbic acid a day. After a 4-week intervention period, plasma concentrations of quercetin and ascorbic acid and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were significantly increased. Further, we found 20% protection (P < 0.01) against ex vivo H(2)O(2)-provoked oxidative DNA damage, measured by comet assay. However, the level of ex vivo induced benzo[a]pyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts was 28% increased upon intervention (P < 0.01). Statistical analysis of 34 biologically relevant genetic polymorphisms revealed that six significantly influenced the outcome of the intervention. Lymphocytes from individuals bearing variant genotype for Cyp1B1 5 seemed to benefit more than wild-types from DNA damage-protecting effects upon intervention. Variants for COMT tended to benefit less or even experienced detrimental effects from intervention. With respect to GSTT1, the effect is ambiguous; variants respond better in terms of intervention-related increase in TEAC, but wild-types benefit more from its protecting effects against oxidative DNA damage. We conclude that genotyping for relevant polymorphisms enables selecting subgroups among the general population that benefit more of DNA damage-modulating effects of micronutrients.

    • Protective effects of Mentha piperita Linn on benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in Swiss albino mice.
    • Mutagenesis
    • 2007 Jul
    • 22 : 4
    • No Abstract
    • Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.
    • Plazar, Zegura, Lah and Filipic
    • Mutat Res
    • 2007 Aug
    • 632 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid present in the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabinaceae) and a common ingredient of beer. Recently, xanthohumol has gained considerable interest due to its potential cancer chemo-preventive effect. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible anti-genotoxic activity of xanthohumol in metabolically competent human hepatoma HepG2 cells, by use of the comet assay. Xanthohumol by itself was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic to the cells at concentrations below 10microM. However, a significant protective effect against the pro-carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was observed at concentrations as low as 0.01microM. In cells treated with xanthohumol in combination with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) - an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - no protective effect was observed and xanthohumol also showed no significant scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. On the other hand, HepG2 cells pre-treated with xanthohumol showed significantly reduced levels of t-BOOH-induced DNA strand breaks, indicating that its protective effect is mediated by induction of cellular defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. As xanthohumol is known to be an effective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes and an inducer of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR), our findings can be explained by an inhibition of metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens and/or by induction of carcinogen-detoxifying and anti-oxidative enzymes by xanthohumol. These results provide evidence that xanthohumol displays anti-genotoxic activity in metabolically competent human cells.

    • Increased mutant frequency by carbon black, but not quartz, in the lacZ and cII transgenes of muta mouse lung epithelial cells.
    • Jacobsen, Saber, White, Møller, Pojana, Vogel, Loft, Gingerich, Soper, Douglas and Wallin
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 2007 Jul
    • 48 : 6
    • Abstract

    Carbon black and quartz are relatively inert solid particulate materials that are carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Quartz is a human carcinogen, whereas data on carbon black are contradictory, and there are few data on mammalian mutagenesis. We determined the mutant frequency following eight repeated 72-hr incubations with 75 mug/ml carbon black (Printex 90) or 100 mug/ml quartz (SRM1878a) particles in the FE1 Muta Mouse lung epithelial cell line. For carbon black exposed cells, the mutant frequency was 1.40-fold (95% CI: 1.22-1.58) for cII and 1.23-fold (95% CI: 1.10-1.37) for lacZ compared with identically passaged untreated cells. Quartz did not significantly affect the mutant frequency. Carbon black also induced DNA strand breaks (P = 0.02) and oxidized purines (P = 0.008), as measured by the Comet assay. Quartz induced marginally more oxidized purines, but no change in strand breaks. We detected five (phenanthrene, flouranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene) of the 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an extract of carbon black. The detected PAHs are only weakly mutagenic compared with benzo[a]pyrene, and were present in very low amounts. In conclusion, carbon black was weakly mutagenic in vitro at the cII and lacZ loci. It also induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases. More studies are essential for understanding the biological significance of these findings, and clearly documenting DNA sequence changes. The results do not necessarily imply that other carbonaceous nano materials are genotoxic.

    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cervix of women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: an immunohistochemistry study.
    • Pratt, Sirajuddin, Poirier, Schiffman, Glass, Scott, Rush, Olivero and Castle
    • Mutat Res
    • 2007 Nov
    • 624 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    Among women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), there is a two- to five-fold increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women who smoke compared to those who do not smoke. Because tobacco smoke contains carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it was of interest to examine human cervical tissue for PAH-DNA adduct formation. Here, we measured PAH-DNA adduct formation in cervical biopsies collected in follow-up among women who tested positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) was used to measure nuclear PAH-DNA adduct formation. Cultured human cervical keratinocytes exposed to 0, 0.153, or 0.331microM BPDE showed dose-dependent increases in r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N(2)deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adducts. For BPdG adduct analysis, paraffin-embedded keratinocytes were stained by IHC with analysis of nuclear color intensity by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS) and, in parallel cultures, extracted DNA was assayed by quantitative BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). For paraffin-embedded samples from carcinogenic HPV-infected women, normal-appearing cervical squamous epithelium suitable for scoring was found in samples from 75 of the 114 individuals, including 29 cases of cervical precancer or cancer and 46 controls. With a lower limit of detection of 20 adducts/10(8) nucleotides, detectable PAH-DNA adduct values ranged from 25 to 191/10(8) nucleotides, with a median of 75/10(8) nucleotides. PAH-DNA adduct values above 150/10(8) nucleotides were found in eight samples, and in three samples adducts were non-detectable. There was no correlation between PAH-DNA adduct formation and either smoking or case status. Therefore, PAH-DNA adduct formation as measured by this methodology did not appear related to the increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer among carcinogenic HPV-infected smokers.

    • Benzo[a]pyrene-induced cytochrome P450 1A and DNA binding in cultured trout hepatocytes - inhibition by plant polyphenols.
    • Tsuji and Walle
    • Chem Biol Interact
    • 2007 Aug
    • 169 : 1
    • Abstract

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) mainly induce lung cancer in humans, but induce liver cancer in fishes. The chemoprevention of cancers through inhibition of molecular events via phytochemicals is a potentially beneficial area of research, and has been carried out in human cell cultures in the past. Carcinogenesis initiation events are thought to occur in similar ways in fish and humans. Our study investigated the feasibility of using cultured rainbow trout CRL-2301 liver cells as a model for BaP-induced carcinogenesis and its prevention by dietary phytochemicals. Treatment with 1 microM BaP resulted in extensive time-dependent covalent binding to cellular DNA and marked cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A induction, for both about a 20-fold increase, which is similar to what has been observed in cultured human cells. A surprisingly high expression of epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity in these cells likely contributed substantially to the bioactivation of BaP. Two methoxylated flavones and the stilbene resveratrol were effective inhibitors of both the BaP-DNA binding and CYP 1A induction, in particular 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF), supporting a role for these dietary compounds as cancer chemopreventive agents. Unlike in human liver or bronchial cells, the main mechanism of inhibition of BaP-induced CYP 1A activity in trout liver cells appears to be direct competition at the protein level. Different cellular responses in any particular model used can be expected and the effect of cell context on the biological responses to xenobiotics, including carcinogens as well as polyphenols, must be considered. The trout CRL-2301 cells' sensitivity to BaP treatment is a clear advantage when contemplating a model system for studies of PAH-induced carcinogenesis and cancer chemoprevention. However, extrapolation to human organs should be done cautiously.

    • Inhalation exposure of traffic police officers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the winter in Beijing, China.
    • Liu, Tao, Yang, Dou, Yang and Coveney
    • Sci Total Environ
    • 2007 Sep
    • 383 : 1-3
    • Abstract

    This study concerns the use of personal samplers to evaluate the exposure of traffic police to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the winter of 2005 in Beijing. We measured the samples collected for gas and particulate phases PAHs with the same technique used for an earlier study during the summer of 2004, and evaluated exposure risk based on the calculated benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaP(eq)) of both summer and winter. The mean exposure concentrations of gaseous and particulate phase PAHs in the winter are 4300+/-2900 ng/m(3) and 750+/-1000 ng/m(3), respectively, significantly higher than those measured simultaneously at control sites and also considerably higher than the values measured during the summer. The exposure PAH profiles for police and the control subjects are similar with predominant naphthalene in gaseous phase and dominant fluoranthene, pyrene, anthracene and naphthalene in particulate phase. Large daily variations occur both in summer and winter, because of the changes in the weather conditions especially wind speed and relative humidity which tend to disperse and scavenge PAHs in air. In the winter, the average BaP(eq) value for traffic police is 82.1 ng/m(3), which is significantly higher than those for the control subjects and the national standard of 10 ng/m(3) for ambient air. Particulate phase PAHs contribute more than 90% of the total exposure risk in the winter. Annually, weighted-average probabilities of exceeding the national standard (10 ng/m(3)) are 69.3% and 20.6% for the police and the controls, respectively.

    • Enhanced spontaneous and benzo(a)pyrene-induced mutations in the lung of Nrf2-deficient gpt delta mice.
    • Aoki, Hashimoto, Amanuma, Matsumoto, Hiyoshi, Takano, Masumura, Itoh, Nohmi and Yamamoto
    • Cancer Res
    • 2007 Jun
    • 67 : 12
    • Abstract

    The lung is an organ that is sensitive to mutations induced by chemicals in ambient air, and transgenic mice harboring guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene as a target gene are a well-established model system for assessing genotoxicity in vivo. Transcription factor Nrf2 mediates inducible and constitutive expression of cytoprotective enzymes against xenobiotics and mutagens. To address whether Nrf2 is also involved in DNA protection, we generated nrf2+/-::gpt and nrf2-/-::gpt mice. The spontaneous mutation frequency of the gpt gene in the lung was approximately three times higher in nrf2-null (nrf2-/-) mice than nrf2 heterozygous (nrf2+/-) and wild-type (nrf2+/+) mice, whereas in the liver, the mutation frequency was higher in nrf2-/- and nrf2+/- mice than in nrf2+/+ wild-type mice. By contrast, no difference in mutation frequency was observed in testis among the three genotypes. A single intratracheal instillation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) increased the lung mutation frequency 3.1- and 6.1-fold in nrf2+/- and nrf2-/- mice, respectively, compared with BaP-untreated nrf2+/- mice, showing that nrf2-/- mice are more susceptible to genotoxic carcinogens. Surprisingly, mutation profiles of the gpt gene in BaP-treated nrf2+/- mice was substantially different from that in BaP-untreated nrf2-/- mice. In nrf2-/- mice, spontaneous and BaP-induced mutation hotspots were observed at nucleotides 64 and 140 of gpt, respectively. These results thus show that Nrf2 aids in the prevention of mutations in vivo and suggest that Nrf2 protects genomic DNA against certain types of mutations.

    • In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced DNA adducts and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck.
    • Li, Wang, Chang, El-Naggar, Sturgis and Wei
    • Cancer Res
    • 2007 Jun
    • 67 : 12
    • Abstract

    In this large confirmatory study of 803 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) and 839 controls frequency matched by age, sex, and ethnicity, we further examined potential predictors of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-induced adduct levels and their associations with SCCHN risk. BPDE-DNA adduct levels were determined by the (32)P-postlabeling method in peripheral lymphocytes after in vitro challenged by BPDE. We also genotyped for GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1 Ile(105)Val, and GSTP1 Ala(114)Val. Potential predictors of BPDE-DNA adducts were evaluated by stratification and multivariate linear regression analyses and the association between adduct levels and SCCHN risk by multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found that mean BPDE-DNA adduct levels (the relative adduct labeling x 10(7) +/- SD) were significantly higher in cases (77.6 +/- 111.8) than in controls (57.3 +/- 98.3; P < 0.001). Using the median control value (29.22) as a cutoff, 63% of the cases were distributed above this level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.10). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between adduct quartiles and SCCHN risk (P(trend) < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that ethnicity and smoking were significant predictors of BPDE-DNA adduct levels in controls. In conclusion, we confirmed the previously reported association between in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adduct levels and SCCHN risk, and the assay may help identify individuals at high risk of developing smoking-related cancers.

    • Selected stormwater priority pollutants: a European perspective.
    • Eriksson, Baun, Scholes, Ledin, Ahlman, Revitt, Noutsopoulos and Mikkelsen
    • Sci Total Environ
    • 2007 Sep
    • 383 : 1-3
    • Abstract

    The chemical characteristics of stormwater are dependent on the nature of surfaces (roads, roofs etc.) with which it comes into contact during the runoff process as well as natural processes and anthropogenic activities in the catchments. The different types of pollutants may cause problems during utilisation, detention or discharge of stormwater to the environment and may pose specific demands to decentralised treatment. This paper proposes a scientifically justifiable list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP) to be used, e.g., for evaluation of the chemical risks occurring in different handling strategies. The SSPP-list consists of 25 pollutant parameters including eight of the priority pollutants currently identified in the European Water Framework Directive. It contains general water quality parameters (organic and suspended matter, nutrients and pH); metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Zn); PAH (naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene); herbicides (pendimethalin, phenmedipham, glyphosate and terbutylazine); and other representative industrially derived compounds (nonylphenol ethoxylates, pentachlorophenol, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, PCB-28 and methyl tert-butyl ether). Tools for flux modelling, enabling calculation of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), and for ranking the susceptibility of a pollutant to removal within a range of structural stormwater treatment systems or best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, but further work is required to allow all SSPPs to be addressed in the development of future stormwater pollution control measures. In addition, the identified SSPPs should be considered for inclusion in stormwater related monitoring campaigns.

    • From genomics to mechanistic insight: a global perspective on molecular deficits induced by environmental agents.
    • Ramos, Steffen, Falahatpisheh and Nanez
    • Environ Mol Mutagen
    • 2007 Jun
    • 48 : 5
    • Abstract

    As the postgenomic era continues to unfold, a new wave of scientific investigation is upon us focusing on the application of genomic technologies to study the meanings encrypted on the DNA code and the responses of living organisms to changes in their environment. Recent functional genomics studies in this laboratory have focused on the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a ubiquitous transcription factor, in genetic programming during renal development. Also of interest is the application of genomics investigations to the study of chronic medical conditions associated with early life exposures to environmental contaminants. Molecular evidence is discussed in this review within the framework of human molecular medicine.

    • Comparison of the effects of arsenic and cadmium on benzo(a)pyrene-induced micronuclei in mouse bone-marrow.
    • Lewińska, Arkusz, Stańczyk, Palus, Dziubałtowska and Stepnik
    • Mutat Res
    • 2007 Aug
    • 632 : 1-2
    • Abstract

    This study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic interactions between the common environmental pollutants: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), which are known to be human carcinogens. C57BL/6J/Han mice were pre-treated with 100mg cadmium chloride (Cd(2+))/L or 50mg sodium arsenite (As(3+))/L in drinking water for 7 days and then given a single dose of 200mg BaP/kg bw by intra-peritoneal injection. A third group of mice did not receive the pre-treatment and was given BaP alone. Mice were sacrificed before or at 12, 24, 48 or 72h aft