Programming in Java


Supervision 3




Foreword        If you comment your code, so will I!

                        Programs might not work the first time! 

                        If any of the following is unclear, please let me know. 






Make a two player game, which can be played on one machine or over a network, which is a version of the traditional game of Battleships.  If you choose to implement an AI, we can have a competition!  



Your task is to try to pull together your knowledge of the java language and the way it works, along with your understanding of how to program, come up with algorithms and solve problems in a logical and clear way, in order to try and make a slightly larger and more satisfying program then perhaps you have in the past. 


As this is a first course in software engineering, I have provided the following guidelines (the hard bit of developing a system!) and you need to understand and fill in the gaps if you wish!  However, you are encouraged to do the whole thing yourself, if you want to, and my solution is by no means the only one, although I can justify it…! 


The only requirement of your implementation is that it conforms to the rules of the game and protocol specified below.  This will allow a game to be played, with each player using their favourite and possibly different implementations. 


Below are the rules and protocol, also provided in  There then follows a set of “clues” that outline and begin to solve the whole problem, which you can use as much of as you wish. 


Files are provided to help you get started as well, including a demo (my implementation) (class files only!) (yes, could you backwards engineer, no you shouldn’t!).  The demo implementation client is hard coded to try and connect to the localhost, so you run two instances of the game on one machine to play. 



Rules of the Game


1.         Each player will decide to become a server or a client (the later role required the

IP address of a server to be known).


2.         Each player connects to another suitable player


3.         Each player positions their fleet.  There can be any combination of the ships from the static docking array (see below), but there must be at least 1 Tug.


4.         Each player does not know anything about their opponents fleet, accept their must be at least one Tug.


5.         A starting player is chosen at random by the server, who informs the client


6.         Players take it in turns to try and fire upon their opponents ships


7.         Each player is obliged to immediately inform the attacker of the damage their attack has caused.  This is the only other source of information about an opponents fleet.


8.         The first player to fire upon all of their opponent’s ships, thereby destroying the opposing fleet, is the winner.


9.         If a players fleet if destroyed, this must be included in the information provided to the attacker.


10.       The game ends and can be repeated from step 1.





·        When the game ends, the winner could communicate the actual layout of his board to the other player.

·        The players could be artificial (ly "intelligent")

·        The interface could be textual/graphical/...




Game protocol


A reliable network communication channel should be used (e.g. TCP/IP)


The level 4 body of all messages should be a sequences of 8-bit integers (bytes) and take this format:


START_MESSAGE, message length, Application Body, END_MESSAGE  (no commas in the actual message!)


Application Body = sequence of integers, minimum length = 1, maximum length = 8



N.B. The body of the ISO OSI layer 4 message != application level 'Body' used above and below.     "XXXX/XXXX/XXXX" means there are 3 possible values for this part of the message.






1.      Initialise server

2.      Listen for client - get 2-way TCP socket communication channel


4.      Decide which player is to start

5.      Send PLAYER message (Body = PLAYER CLIENT/SERVER)

6.      Process situation if necessary

7.      Enter ATTACKING/DEFENDING state as appropriate

8.      End of game - commute and display winner.  Close connection and stop being server.




1.      Initialise client

2.      Attempt to connect to server - get 2-way TCP socket communication channel

3.      WAITING

4.      Receive starting player message (Body = PLAYER CLIENT/SERVER)

5.      Process situation if necessary

6.      Enter ATTACKING/DEFENDING state as appropriate

7.      End of game - commute and display winner.  Close connection and stop being client.





1.      Send FIRE message (Body = FIRE X-coord Y-coord)

2.      Process situation if wish

3.      Receive Intelligence message

(Body = PREVIOUS_COORD/HIT/MISS X-coord Y-coord) or

(Body = SUNK/DESTROYED_FLEET X-coord Y-coord

                                                                        ship_type minX maxX minY maxY)


(X/Y-coords are the for the last shot, min/max-X/Y are the coords for the sunken ship)


4.      Process situation

5.      Go to DEFENDING/IDLE state





1.      Receive FIRE message (Body = FIRE X-coord Y-coord)

2.      Process situation

3.      Send Intelligence message

(Body = PREVIOUS_COORD/HIT/MISS X-coord Y-coord) or

(Body = SUNK/DESTROYED_FLEET X-coord Y-coord Ship-Type

                                                                                                minX maxX minY maxY)

4.      Process situation if necessary

5.      Go to ATTACKING/IDLE state




The core (attacking/defending section) of the protocol can also be seen as follows:


Attacker                                                 Defender


Send fire message

                                                                Receive fire(d upon) message

                                                                Process this information:

                                                                              Update own board

                                                                              Form reply to inform attacker of results

                                                                              Send reply message

                                                                Potentially end the game or become the attacker

Receive reply message

Process this information:

                                                                Update enemy board

Potentially end the game or become the defender






Protocol Constants



/* Networking parameters */

PORT = 3333;  // Port - get it!!



/* States */

IDLE = 0;                    // Not playing game - hasn't started / has ended;


LISTENING = 1;         // Server listening for client to initalise communication


WAITING = 2;            // Client waiting for starting player, having intialise

// communications (setup TCP socket)


ATTACKING = 3;      // Sending FIRE message, wait for intelligence, processing

// intelligence


DEFENDING = 4;       // Waiting for FIRE message, processing situation, reporting

// intelligence



/* Messages */


// Housekeeping

START_MESSAGE = 5;         // Message header

END_MESSAGE = 6;             // Message footer


// Turn

PLAYER = 7;                                      // Message Type: Starting player

CLIENT = 8;                                       // Clients turn

SERVER = 9;                                      // Servers turn


// Events

FIRE = 10;                                           // Message Type: Attack


PREVIOUS_COORD = 11;                // Message Type: Intelligence - have fired upon this

// location before


MISS = 12;                                          // Message Type: Intelligence - shot in open water


HIT = 13;                                             // Message Type: Intelligence - hit a ship (unknown

// type)


SUNK = 14;                                        // Message Type: Intelligence - hit a ship, ship

// totally destroyed and sunk, type is indicated


DESTROYED_FLEET = 15;               // Message Type: Intelligence - last ship is sunk,

// whole fleet destroyed.  Type of ship is indicated


// Ship types

TUG = 16;                                           // Size = 2; Initial quantity = 2;

SUBMARINE = 17;                            // Size = 3; Initial quantity = 1;

CRUISER = 18;                                   // Size = 4; Initial quantity = 1;

DESTROYER = 19;                            // Size = 4; Initial quantity = 1;

AIRCRAFT_CARRIER = 20; // Size = 5; Initial quantity = 1;


/* Game parameters */



// create set of ships and their types to use in creating a fleet

dockyard = new Ship[6];

ship_types = new int[6];




            dockyard[0] = new Tug();

            dockyard[1] = new Tug();

            dockyard[2] = new Submarine();

            dockyard[3] = new Cruiser();

            dockyard[4] = new Destroyer();

            dockyard[5] = new AircraftCarrier();


            ship_types[0] = Protocol.TUG;

            ship_types[1] = Protocol.TUG;

            ship_types[2] = Protocol.SUBMARINE;

            ship_types[3] = Protocol.CRUISER;

            ship_types[4] = Protocol.DESTROYER;

            ship_types[5] = Protocol.AIRCRAFT_CARRIER;




Proposed implementation


Below is a UML diagram for my implementation. 




Inherits from




Shares containment


Contains (has only reference)




A class




A brief explanation of the diagram / whole program is:  the Protocol class is a state machine, which, when activated, steps though the different stages on the protocol, until it is stopped by the game ending.  When external operations are required it calls methods from interfaces to interact with the user, the rest of the game or the network connection.  To promote encapsulation, call back functions for sending and messages were included in this class.


The ConnectionManager class deals with network connection and sending/receiving of messages


The Renders provide methods, though inheritance, to interact with the user. 


The state of the game is maintained though the Board, which is made up of different kinds of Square, some of which contain different types of Ships.  There are two boards maintained, one for the player (the friend one) and one for the opponent (enemy one).  The friend board is set up at the beginning of the game.  The enemy game is updated as the game progresses as the point of the game is to find this out! 


The correct state of the game ensures that the right results are provided by invoking a “fire” of “render” method on any type of square, through subsumption.  For example whether a square as been fired upon before is important to how is appears to the user. 


The Game class takes care of the rest, which basically consists of the methods that the Protocol class requires, which aren’t handled by the Connection Manager and setting up and starting the game.