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SCAR: Sensor Context-aware Adaptive Routing Protocol

Sensor devices are being embedded in all sorts of items including vehicles, furniture but also animal and human bodies through health monitors and tagging techniques.
The collection of the information generated by these devices is a challenging task as the data results in enormous amounts and the sensors have scarce resources (especially in terms of energy for the forwarding of the data). Fortunately, the data is often delay tolerant and its delivery to the sinks is, in most cases, not time critical.

We devise a Sensor Context-Aware Routing protocol (SCAR), which exploits movement and resource prediction techniques to smartly forward data towards the right direction at any point in time. In order to cope with the possibly frequent sensor faults, we also adopt a multi-path routing approach which increases the reliability. 
The protocol is based on Context-aware Adaptive Routing.

People involved

Dr. Cecilia Mascolo

Dr. Mirco Musolesi

Mr. Bence Pásztor


We have implemented SCAR for the Tmote Sky platform using the Contiki Operating System. The protocol was evaluated using COOJA, a network simulator for Contiki. You can find installation instructions on the Contiki website.
The SCAR code has recently been updated for the most recent version of contiki (2.1), and upgraded to use rime as the networking stack instead of the uIP found in the old version, since rime is more memory efficient, having been desinged specifically for sensor networks. scar.c contains the networking protocol. Applications can call scar_send(...) to send a message using the protocol, while the protocol broadcasts an event upon recieving a message, which can then be picked up by applications. Examples are data_source.c and data_sink.c. The implementation is hardware-independent, and has been tested on the tmote sky platforms.
Please contact Bence if you wish to have the code!


Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Data Collection with SCAR
Bence Pasztor, Mirco Musolesi and Cecilia Mascolo
In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS 2007). Pisa, Italy, October 2007.

Demo Abstract: Data Collection in Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks using SCAR
Cecilia Mascolo, Mirco Musolesi and Bence Pasztor
In Proceeding of the 4th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2006). Boulder, CO, USA. November 2006. ACM Press.

SCAR: Context-aware Adaptive Routing in Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

Cecilia Mascolo and Mirco Musolesi
In Proceedings of the Delay Tolerant Networks Symposium. ACM International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC) 2006. Vancouver, Canada. July 2006. ACM Press.

Pictures of the Demo at SenSys'06


Guido, The SCAR robot carrying TMote Sky

Demo at Sensys'06

The demo setting


For any questions about SCAR, please contact Bence Pásztor.