Computer Laboratory

Course pages 2013–14

Pee-Wee OSPF Protocol Details

Pee-Wee OSPF Protocol Details

Protocol Overview:

  PWOSPF is a greatly simplified link state routing protocol based on OSPFv2
  (rfc 1247).  Like OSPFv2, routers participating in a PWOSPF topology
  periodically broadcast HELLO packets to discover and maintain a list of
  neighbors.  Whenever a change in a link status is detected (for example the
  addition or deletion of a router to the topology) or a timeout occurs, each
  router floods its view of the network throughout the topology so that each
  router has a complete database of the network connectivity.  Djikstra's
  algorithm is used by each router independently to determine the next
  hop in the forwarding table to all advertised routes.

Data Structures:

PWOSPF Router:

  Like OSPF, PWOSPF operates within an "area" of routers, defined by a 32 bit
  value.  A router can only participate in one area at a time.  Each router in
  an area must have a unique 32 bit router ID.  By convention, the IP address
  of the 0th interface is used as the router ID.  0 and 0xffffffff are invalid
  router IDs and can be used internally to mark uninitialized router ID fields.

  Each router must therefore define the following values:

  32 bit router ID
  32 bit area ID
  16 bit lsuint    - interval in seconds between link state update broadcasts
  List of router interfaces

PWOSPF Interface:

  The interface is a key abstraction in PWOSPF for logically decomposing the
  topology.  Interfaces between neighboring routers are connected by links which
  must have an associated subnet and mask.  All links are assumed to be
  bi-directional.  Note you must support multiple routers connected to a
  single interface, ie. via a hub or switch. 

  An interface within a pwospf router is defined by the following values:

  32 bit ip address  - IP address of associated interface
  32 bit mask mask   - subnet mask of assocaited interface
  16 bit helloint    - interval in seconds between HELLO broadcasts
  list [
    32 bit neighbor id - ID of neighboring router.
    32 bit neighbor ip - IP address of neighboring router's interface this
                         interface is directly connected to.

PWOSPF Hello Protocol:

  To discover and maintain the state of available links, a router participating
  in a PWOSPF topology periodically listens for and broadcasts HELLO packets.
  HELLO packets are broadcasted every helloint seconds with a destination
  address of ALLSPFRouters that is defined as "" (0xe0000005).  This
  implies that all participating routers must be configured to receive and
  process packets sent to ALLSPFRouters.  On receipt of a HELLO packet a router
  may do one of three things.  If the packet is invalid or corrupt the router
  will drop and ignore the packet and optionally log the error.  If the packet
  is from a yet to be identified neighbor and no other neighbors have been
  discovered off of the incoming interface, the router will add the neighbor to
  the interface.  If the packet is from a known neighbor, the router will mark
  the time the packet was received to track the uptime of its neighbor. The
  set of links of routers to neighbors provides the basic connectivity
  information for the full topology.

  PWOSPF routers use HELLO packets to monitor the status of a neighboring
  router.  If a neighboring router does not emit a HELLO packet within
  NEIGHBOR_TIMEOUT seconds (three times the neighbor's HelloInt) of the last HELLO received,
  the router is assumed down, removed from the interface and a link state
  update flood is initiated.  Note that ONLY HELLO packets are used to
  determine link status.  Even in the case where the router is actively routing
  packets and generating link state update packets, if no HELLO packets are
  generated it will be considered disconnected from the topology.

PWOSPF Link State Updates:

  Global network connectivity is obtained by each router through link state
  updates in which local link connectivity information is flooded throughout
  the area by each router. Link state updates are sent periodically every
  LSUINT seconds (default value of 30) and whenever a change in link status is
  detected.  If a link state change initiates a links state update, the lsuint
  counter is reset to wait another LSUINT seconds before triggering another

  The link state advertisements generated by each router lists the subnets of
  each of the router's interfaces and all neighboring routers.  Link state
  updates operate via a simple sequenced, unacknowledged flooding scheme in
  which received packets are flooded to all neighbors except the neighbor from
  whom the packet was received.  Generated packets are flooded to all
  neighbors (they should be addressed directly to each neighbor - i.e., do not
  send them to the special ALLSPFRouters address). LSU packets are used
  to build and maintain the network topology database at each router.  If the
  LSU packet does not advertise a change in the state of the topology as
  is already reflected in the database it is the state of the topology as
  discarded and the sequence number is updated.  Otherwise, the information is
  used to update the database and the router's forwarding tables are
  recalculated using Djikstra's algorithm.

  A gateway router may advertise an additional default subnet for an interface
  that is connected to a separate network.  In the typical case, this interface
  will be the networks link to the Internet and will advertise a default subnet
  of  All traffic not destined to a subnet on the PWOSPF network will
  be routed to this as a gateway to the Internet.

The Topology Database

  Every router in a PWOSPF area maintains a full representation of the area,
  network topology.  This topology database is used to calculate the next hop
  for each destination in the network.  A typical implementation of the
  topology database will contain an adjacency list of all the routers in the
  network as well as the subnets associated with each link.  Djikstra's
  algorithm is used on the adjacency list to determine the  best, next hop for
  each router.  The forwarding table is then built using the advertised routes
  from each router and the next hop to those routers as determined by

  If there are discrepancies in advertisements from two different hosts about
  the same link, the link is assumed invalid and not added to the database.
  This may happen in the following cases:

  - Host A advertises that it is connected to subnet with mask
    and neighbor B.  Host B does not advertise that A is a neighbor.

  - Host A advertises that it is connected to subnet with mask
    and neighbor B.  Host B advertises it is connected to a subnet with mask with neighbor A.

 In both of these cases the link should not be added to the advertised

 Each entry in the database is time-stamped with the last time an LSU for
 the associated router was received.  If an LSU is not received from the
 host within LSU_TIMEOUT seconds (three times LSUINT) from the last, the entry
 is invalidated and removed from the database.

Handling Incoming PWOSPF Packets

 Each host participating in a PWOSPF topology must check the following values
 on incoming pwospf packets: 

 o The version number field must specify protocol version 2.
 o The 16-bit checksum on the PWOSPF packet's contents must be
   verified. (the 64-bit authentication field must be excluded
   from the checksum calculation)
 o The area ID found in the PWOSPF header must match the Area ID
   of the receiving router.
 o The Authentication type specified must match the authentication type
   of the receiving router.

 PWOSPF does not support authentication, however it is our plan to progress
 towards OSPFv2 compatibility.  For this reason, we are using the full OSPFv2
 header format which contains both an Authtication type and data field.  These
 fields should be set to 0 for all valid PWOSPF packets.

Handling Incoming HELLO Packets

   This section explains the detailed processing of a received Hello packet.
   The generic input processing of PWOSPF packets will have checked the
   validity of the IP header and the PWOSPF packet header.  Next, the values of
   the Network Mask and HelloInt fields in the received Hello packet must be
   checked against the values configured for the receiving interface.  Any
   mismatch causes processing to stop and the packet to be dropped.  In other
   words, the above fields are really describing the attached network's

   At this point, an attempt is made to match the source of the Hello Packet to
   one of the receiving interface's neighbors.  If the receiving interface is
   a multi-access network (either broadcast or non-broadcast) the source is
   identified by the IP source address found in the Hello's IP header.  The
   interface's current neighbor(s) are contained in the interface's data
   structure.  If the interface does not have a neighbor, a neighbor is created.
   If the interface already has neighbor(s) but none  match the IP of the
   incoming packet, a new neighbor is added. Finally, if the HELLO packet matches
   a current neighbor, the neighbor's "last hello packet received" timer is

Handling Incoming LSU Packets

  Each received LSU packet must go through the following handling procedure.
  If the LSU was originally generated by the incoming router, the packet is
  dropped.  If the sequence number matches that of the last packet received
  from the sending host, the packet is dropped.  If the packet contents are
  equivalent to the contents of the packet last received from the sending host,
  the host's database entry is updated and the packet is ignored.  If the LSU
  is from a host not currently in the database, the packets contents are used
  to update the database and Djikstra's algorithm is used to recompute the
  forwarding table.  Finally, if the LSU data is for a host currently in the
  database but the information has changed, the LSU is used to update the
  database, and Djikstra's algorithm is run to recompute the forwarding table.

  All received packets with new sequence numbers are flooded to all neighbors
  but the incoming neighbor of the packet.  The TTL header is only checked
  in the forwarding stage and should not be considered when handling the packet
  locally.  The TTL field of all flooded packets must be decremented before
  exiting the router.  If the field after decrement is zero or less, the packet
  must not be flooded.


  PWOSPF are expected to be encapsulated IPv4 packets with IP protocol number
  89 (the same as OSPFv2). OSPF HELLO packets are sent to destination IP
  address ALLSPFRouters which is defined as "" (0xe0000005).  All LSU
  packets are sent point to point using the IP address of the neighboring
  interface as the destination.

PWOSPF Packet Header Format

  All PWOSPF packets are encapsulated in a common header that is identical to
  the OSPFv2 header.   Using the OSPFv2 header will allow PWOSPF to converge on
  OSPF compliance in the future and is recognized by protocol analyzers such
  as ethereal which can greatly aid in debugging.  The PWOSPF header is as

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   |   Version #   |     Type      |         Packet length         |
   |                          Router ID                            |
   |                           Area ID                             |
   |           Checksum            |             Autype            |
   |                       Authentication                          |
   |                       Authentication                          |

Version #
    The PWOSPF/OSPF version number.  This specification documents version 2 of
    the protocol.

    The OSPF packet types are as follows.  The format of each of these
    packet types is described in a succeeding section.

                        Type   Description
                        1      Hello
                        4      Link State Update

Packet length
    The length of the protocol packet in bytes.  This length includes
    the standard OSPF header.

Router ID
    The Router ID of the packet's source.  In OSPF, the source and
    destination of a routing protocol packet are the two ends of an
    (potential) adjacency.

Area ID
    A 32 bit number identifying the area that this packet belongs to.
    All OSPF packets are associated with a single area.  Most travel a
    single hop only. 

    The standard IP checksum of the entire contents of the packet,
    excluding the 64-bit authentication field.  This checksum is
    calculated as the 16-bit one's complement of the one's complement
    sum of all the 16-bit words in the packet, excepting the
    authentication field.  If the packet's length is not an integral
    number of 16-bit words, the packet is padded with a byte of zero
    before checksumming.

   Set to zero in PWOSPF

   Set to zero in PWOSPF

HELLO Packet Format 

  Hello packets are PWOSPF packet type 1.  These packets are sent periodically
  on all interfaces in order to establish and maintain neighbor relationships.
  In addition, Hellos broadcast enabling dynamic discovery of neighboring

  All routers connected to a common network must agree on certain parameters
  (network mask and helloint).  These parameters are included in Hello packets,
  so that differences can inhibit the forming of neighbor relationships.  A
  full HELLO packet with PWOSPF header is as follows:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     |   Version #   |       1       |         Packet length         |
     |                          Router ID                            |
     |                           Area ID                             |
     |           Checksum            |             Autype            |
     |                       Authentication                          |
     |                       Authentication                          |
     |                        Network Mask                           |
     |         HelloInt              |           padding             |

  Network mask
      The network mask associated with this interface.  For example, if
      the interface is to a class B network whose third byte is used for
      subnetting, the network mask is 0xffffff00.

      The number of seconds between this router's Hello packets.

LSU Packet Format 

  LSU packets implement the flooding of link states and  are used to build and
  maintain the network topology database at each router.  Each link state
  update packet carries a collection of link state advertisements on hop
  further from its origin.  Several link state advertisements may be included
  in a single packet.  A link state packet with full PWOSF header looks as

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   |   Version #   |       4       |         Packet length         |
   |                          Router ID                            |
   |                           Area ID                             |
   |           Checksum            |             Autype            |
   |                       Authentication                          |
   |                       Authentication                          |
   |     Sequence                |          TTL                    |
   |                      # advertisements                         |
   |                                                               |
   +-                                                            +-+
   |                  Link state advertisements                    |
   +-                                                            +-+
   |                              ...                              |

     Unique sequence number associated with each Link State Updated.
     Incremented by the LSU source for each subsequence updated.  Duplicate
     LSU packets are dropped by the receiver.

     Hop limited value decremented each time the packet is forwarded.  The
     TTL value is only considered during packet forwarding and not during
     packet reception.
  # of advertisements
     Total number of link state advertisements contained in the packet

  Link state advertisements

   Each link state update packet should contain 1 or more link state
   advertisements.  The advertisements are the reachable routes directly
   connected to the advertising router.  Routes are in the form of the subnet,
   mask and router neighor for the attached link. Link state advertisements
   look specifically as follows:

   |                           Subnet                              |
   |                           Mask                                |
   |                         Router ID                             |

      Subnet number of the advertised route.  Note that default routes
      will have a subnet value of

      Subnet mask of the advertised route

   Router ID
      ID of the neighboring router on the advertised link.  If there is no
      connected router to the link the RID should be set to 0.


     In the below topology with subnet 192.168.128 using IP addresses
     allocated as showing (xxx is intended to be 192.168.128).

              xxx.1      xxx.2     xxx.4      xxx.5   xxx.8  xxx.9
 [Internet]-[FW]---------------- A ------------------ B ------- <endhost>

   Assuming FW is not participating in the PWOSPF area.

   A could advertise the following routes

   1. (subnet between A and the firewall)
      RID    0

   2. (default route to the Internet)

   3. (link shared with B
      RID  (B's router ID)

  B could advertise the following routes 

  1. (link shared with A)
      RID  (A's router ID)

 2. (Link to end host)
      RID (no attached PWOSPF router)