NEXT (Basic Bus: One initiator (II).)
Network On Chip and Bus Structures.
Transmitting data consumes energy and causes delay. Basic physical parameters:
Speed of light on silicon and on a PCB is 200 metres per microsecond.
A clock frequency of 2 GHz has a wavelength of 2E8/2E9 = 10 cm.
Within a synchronous digital clock domain requires connections to be less
than (say) 1/10th of a wavelength.
Conductor series resistance further slows signal propagation and is dominant source of delay,
- So need to register a signal
in several D-types if it passes from one corner of an 8mm chip to the other!
Can have several thousand wires per millimetre per layer: fat busses (128 bits or wider) are easily possible.
DRAM is several centimeters away from the SoC and also has significant internal delay.
Need to use protocols that are tolerant to registers (4P H/S degrades with reciprocal of delay).
But first let's revist the simple hwen/rwen system used in the `socparts' section.