In this talk we will describe the evolution of a suite of advanced failure analysis techniques used for rapid fault localization on integrated circuits. These techniques have evolved from the basic electron-beam induced current method from electron microscopy. Clever beam energy control lead to the development of the resistive contrast imaging (RCI) technique. RCI proved very useful for evaluating the continuity of metal and poly interconnect layers. RCI was limited in that it provided information about all conductors; both good and bad. The need for rapid fault localization methods that return information from defective areas only lead to further technique development. Modifications to the bias and amplification setup used for RCI lead to the charge induced voltage alteration (CIVA) and the low beam energy, LECIVA, techniques. Like RCI, CIVA and LECIVA rely on an electron beam to stimulate the sample. Unlike RCI, they produce images by monitoring voltage changes across a constant current supply. This modification allows these techniques to produce images with content from the defective regions on integrated circuits only. From these electron beam-based techniques, the optical beam equivalent, LIVA or light induced voltage alteration technique was developed for scanning laser microscope use. LIVA differed from it's electron beam counterparts only in the stimulus, i.e. the use of a scanned laser beam. LIVA relies on the generation of electron-hole pairs and requires the use of wavelengths less than 1100 nm. LIVA produces images similar to CIVA and LECIVA except that the conductor fan-out network is not visible, only diffusions connected to open conductors appear in the images. The thermally induced voltage alteration (TIVA) and Seebeck effect imaging (SEI) techniques solve this problem by using longer wavelength lasers where electron-hole pairs are not generated. TIVA and SEI use a thermal stimulus with the same basic bias method used in the original CIVA technique. TIVA, LIVA, and SEI have the ability to be used from the front or backside of the die. We will describe the physics behind each technique and demonstrate their applications through examples.