(* Title: HOL/Old_Number_Theory/Pocklington.thy Author: Amine Chaieb *) section {* Pocklington's Theorem for Primes *} theory Pocklington imports Primes begin definition modeq:: "nat => nat => nat => bool" ("(1[_ = _] '(mod _'))") where "[a = b] (mod p) == ((a mod p) = (b mod p))" definition modneq:: "nat => nat => nat => bool" ("(1[_ ≠ _] '(mod _'))") where "[a ≠ b] (mod p) == ((a mod p) ≠ (b mod p))" lemma modeq_trans: "[| [a = b] (mod p); [b = c] (mod p) |] ==> [a = c] (mod p)" by (simp add:modeq_def) lemma modeq_sym[sym]: "[a = b] (mod p) ==> [b = a] (mod p)" unfolding modeq_def by simp lemma modneq_sym[sym]: "[a ≠ b] (mod p) ==> [b ≠ a] (mod p)" by (simp add: modneq_def) lemma nat_mod_lemma: assumes xyn: "[x = y] (mod n)" and xy:"y ≤ x" shows "∃q. x = y + n * q" using xyn xy unfolding modeq_def using nat_mod_eq_lemma by blast lemma nat_mod[algebra]: "[x = y] (mod n) <-> (∃q1 q2. x + n * q1 = y + n * q2)" unfolding modeq_def nat_mod_eq_iff .. (* Lemmas about previously defined terms. *) lemma prime: "prime p <-> p ≠ 0 ∧ p≠1 ∧ (∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < p --> coprime p m)" (is "?lhs <-> ?rhs") proof- {assume "p=0 ∨ p=1" hence ?thesis using prime_0 prime_1 by (cases "p=0", simp_all)} moreover {assume p0: "p≠0" "p≠1" {assume H: "?lhs" {fix m assume m: "m > 0" "m < p" {assume "m=1" hence "coprime p m" by simp} moreover {assume "p dvd m" hence "p ≤ m" using dvd_imp_le m by blast with m(2) have "coprime p m" by simp} ultimately have "coprime p m" using prime_coprime[OF H, of m] by blast} hence ?rhs using p0 by auto} moreover { assume H: "∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < p --> coprime p m" from prime_factor[OF p0(2)] obtain q where q: "prime q" "q dvd p" by blast from prime_ge_2[OF q(1)] have q0: "q > 0" by arith from dvd_imp_le[OF q(2)] p0 have qp: "q ≤ p" by arith {assume "q = p" hence ?lhs using q(1) by blast} moreover {assume "q≠p" with qp have qplt: "q < p" by arith from H[rule_format, of q] qplt q0 have "coprime p q" by arith with coprime_prime[of p q q] q have False by simp hence ?lhs by blast} ultimately have ?lhs by blast} ultimately have ?thesis by blast} ultimately show ?thesis by (cases"p=0 ∨ p=1", auto) qed lemma finite_number_segment: "card { m. 0 < m ∧ m < n } = n - 1" proof- have "{ m. 0 < m ∧ m < n } = {1..<n}" by auto thus ?thesis by simp qed lemma coprime_mod: assumes n: "n ≠ 0" shows "coprime (a mod n) n <-> coprime a n" using n dvd_mod_iff[of _ n a] by (auto simp add: coprime) (* Congruences. *) lemma cong_mod_01[simp,presburger]: "[x = y] (mod 0) <-> x = y" "[x = y] (mod 1)" "[x = 0] (mod n) <-> n dvd x" by (simp_all add: modeq_def, presburger) lemma cong_sub_cases: "[x = y] (mod n) <-> (if x <= y then [y - x = 0] (mod n) else [x - y = 0] (mod n))" apply (auto simp add: nat_mod) apply (rule_tac x="q2" in exI) apply (rule_tac x="q1" in exI, simp) apply (rule_tac x="q2" in exI) apply (rule_tac x="q1" in exI, simp) apply (rule_tac x="q1" in exI) apply (rule_tac x="q2" in exI, simp) apply (rule_tac x="q1" in exI) apply (rule_tac x="q2" in exI, simp) done lemma cong_mult_lcancel: assumes an: "coprime a n" and axy:"[a * x = a * y] (mod n)" shows "[x = y] (mod n)" proof- {assume "a = 0" with an axy coprime_0'[of n] have ?thesis by (simp add: modeq_def) } moreover {assume az: "a≠0" {assume xy: "x ≤ y" hence axy': "a*x ≤ a*y" by simp with axy cong_sub_cases[of "a*x" "a*y" n] have "[a*(y - x) = 0] (mod n)" by (simp only: if_True diff_mult_distrib2) hence th: "n dvd a*(y -x)" by simp from coprime_divprod[OF th] an have "n dvd y - x" by (simp add: coprime_commute) hence ?thesis using xy cong_sub_cases[of x y n] by simp} moreover {assume H: "¬x ≤ y" hence xy: "y ≤ x" by arith from H az have axy': "¬ a*x ≤ a*y" by auto with axy H cong_sub_cases[of "a*x" "a*y" n] have "[a*(x - y) = 0] (mod n)" by (simp only: if_False diff_mult_distrib2) hence th: "n dvd a*(x - y)" by simp from coprime_divprod[OF th] an have "n dvd x - y" by (simp add: coprime_commute) hence ?thesis using xy cong_sub_cases[of x y n] by simp} ultimately have ?thesis by blast} ultimately show ?thesis by blast qed lemma cong_mult_rcancel: assumes an: "coprime a n" and axy:"[x*a = y*a] (mod n)" shows "[x = y] (mod n)" using cong_mult_lcancel[OF an axy[unfolded mult.commute[of _a]]] . lemma cong_refl: "[x = x] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def) lemma eq_imp_cong: "a = b ==> [a = b] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_refl) lemma cong_commute: "[x = y] (mod n) <-> [y = x] (mod n)" by (auto simp add: modeq_def) lemma cong_trans[trans]: "[x = y] (mod n) ==> [y = z] (mod n) ==> [x = z] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def) lemma cong_add: assumes xx': "[x = x'] (mod n)" and yy':"[y = y'] (mod n)" shows "[x + y = x' + y'] (mod n)" proof- have "(x + y) mod n = (x mod n + y mod n) mod n" by (simp add: mod_add_left_eq[of x y n] mod_add_right_eq[of "x mod n" y n]) also have "… = (x' mod n + y' mod n) mod n" using xx' yy' modeq_def by simp also have "… = (x' + y') mod n" by (simp add: mod_add_left_eq[of x' y' n] mod_add_right_eq[of "x' mod n" y' n]) finally show ?thesis unfolding modeq_def . qed lemma cong_mult: assumes xx': "[x = x'] (mod n)" and yy':"[y = y'] (mod n)" shows "[x * y = x' * y'] (mod n)" proof- have "(x * y) mod n = (x mod n) * (y mod n) mod n" by (simp add: mod_mult_left_eq[of x y n] mod_mult_right_eq[of "x mod n" y n]) also have "… = (x' mod n) * (y' mod n) mod n" using xx'[unfolded modeq_def] yy'[unfolded modeq_def] by simp also have "… = (x' * y') mod n" by (simp add: mod_mult_left_eq[of x' y' n] mod_mult_right_eq[of "x' mod n" y' n]) finally show ?thesis unfolding modeq_def . qed lemma cong_exp: "[x = y] (mod n) ==> [x^k = y^k] (mod n)" by (induct k, auto simp add: cong_refl cong_mult) lemma cong_sub: assumes xx': "[x = x'] (mod n)" and yy': "[y = y'] (mod n)" and yx: "y <= x" and yx': "y' <= x'" shows "[x - y = x' - y'] (mod n)" proof- { fix x a x' a' y b y' b' have "(x::nat) + a = x' + a' ==> y + b = y' + b' ==> y <= x ==> y' <= x' ==> (x - y) + (a + b') = (x' - y') + (a' + b)" by arith} note th = this from xx' yy' obtain q1 q2 q1' q2' where q12: "x + n*q1 = x'+n*q2" and q12': "y + n*q1' = y'+n*q2'" unfolding nat_mod by blast+ from th[OF q12 q12' yx yx'] have "(x - y) + n*(q1 + q2') = (x' - y') + n*(q2 + q1')" by (simp add: distrib_left) thus ?thesis unfolding nat_mod by blast qed lemma cong_mult_lcancel_eq: assumes an: "coprime a n" shows "[a * x = a * y] (mod n) <-> [x = y] (mod n)" (is "?lhs <-> ?rhs") proof assume H: "?rhs" from cong_mult[OF cong_refl[of a n] H] show ?lhs . next assume H: "?lhs" hence H': "[x*a = y*a] (mod n)" by (simp add: mult.commute) from cong_mult_rcancel[OF an H'] show ?rhs . qed lemma cong_mult_rcancel_eq: assumes an: "coprime a n" shows "[x * a = y * a] (mod n) <-> [x = y] (mod n)" using cong_mult_lcancel_eq[OF an, of x y] by (simp add: mult.commute) lemma cong_add_lcancel_eq: "[a + x = a + y] (mod n) <-> [x = y] (mod n)" by (simp add: nat_mod) lemma cong_add_rcancel_eq: "[x + a = y + a] (mod n) <-> [x = y] (mod n)" by (simp add: nat_mod) lemma cong_add_rcancel: "[x + a = y + a] (mod n) ==> [x = y] (mod n)" by (simp add: nat_mod) lemma cong_add_lcancel: "[a + x = a + y] (mod n) ==> [x = y] (mod n)" by (simp add: nat_mod) lemma cong_add_lcancel_eq_0: "[a + x = a] (mod n) <-> [x = 0] (mod n)" by (simp add: nat_mod) lemma cong_add_rcancel_eq_0: "[x + a = a] (mod n) <-> [x = 0] (mod n)" by (simp add: nat_mod) lemma cong_imp_eq: assumes xn: "x < n" and yn: "y < n" and xy: "[x = y] (mod n)" shows "x = y" using xy[unfolded modeq_def mod_less[OF xn] mod_less[OF yn]] . lemma cong_divides_modulus: "[x = y] (mod m) ==> n dvd m ==> [x = y] (mod n)" apply (auto simp add: nat_mod dvd_def) apply (rule_tac x="k*q1" in exI) apply (rule_tac x="k*q2" in exI) by simp lemma cong_0_divides: "[x = 0] (mod n) <-> n dvd x" by simp lemma cong_1_divides:"[x = 1] (mod n) ==> n dvd x - 1" apply (cases "x≤1", simp_all) using cong_sub_cases[of x 1 n] by auto lemma cong_divides: "[x = y] (mod n) ==> n dvd x <-> n dvd y" apply (auto simp add: nat_mod dvd_def) apply (rule_tac x="k + q1 - q2" in exI, simp add: add_mult_distrib2 diff_mult_distrib2) apply (rule_tac x="k + q2 - q1" in exI, simp add: add_mult_distrib2 diff_mult_distrib2) done lemma cong_coprime: assumes xy: "[x = y] (mod n)" shows "coprime n x <-> coprime n y" proof- {assume "n=0" hence ?thesis using xy by simp} moreover {assume nz: "n ≠ 0" have "coprime n x <-> coprime (x mod n) n" by (simp add: coprime_mod[OF nz, of x] coprime_commute[of n x]) also have "… <-> coprime (y mod n) n" using xy[unfolded modeq_def] by simp also have "… <-> coprime y n" by (simp add: coprime_mod[OF nz, of y]) finally have ?thesis by (simp add: coprime_commute) } ultimately show ?thesis by blast qed lemma cong_mod: "~(n = 0) ==> [a mod n = a] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def) lemma mod_mult_cong: "~(a = 0) ==> ~(b = 0) ==> [x mod (a * b) = y] (mod a) <-> [x = y] (mod a)" by (simp add: modeq_def mod_mult2_eq mod_add_left_eq) lemma cong_mod_mult: "[x = y] (mod n) ==> m dvd n ==> [x = y] (mod m)" apply (auto simp add: nat_mod dvd_def) apply (rule_tac x="k*q1" in exI) apply (rule_tac x="k*q2" in exI, simp) done (* Some things when we know more about the order. *) lemma cong_le: "y <= x ==> [x = y] (mod n) <-> (∃q. x = q * n + y)" using nat_mod_lemma[of x y n] apply auto apply (simp add: nat_mod) apply (rule_tac x="q" in exI) apply (rule_tac x="q + q" in exI) by (auto simp: algebra_simps) lemma cong_to_1: "[a = 1] (mod n) <-> a = 0 ∧ n = 1 ∨ (∃m. a = 1 + m * n)" proof- {assume "n = 0 ∨ n = 1∨ a = 0 ∨ a = 1" hence ?thesis apply (cases "n=0", simp_all add: cong_commute) apply (cases "n=1", simp_all add: cong_commute modeq_def) apply arith apply (cases "a=1") apply (simp_all add: modeq_def cong_commute) done } moreover {assume n: "n≠0" "n≠1" and a:"a≠0" "a ≠ 1" hence a': "a ≥ 1" by simp hence ?thesis using cong_le[OF a', of n] by auto } ultimately show ?thesis by auto qed (* Some basic theorems about solving congruences. *) lemma cong_solve: assumes an: "coprime a n" shows "∃x. [a * x = b] (mod n)" proof- {assume "a=0" hence ?thesis using an by (simp add: modeq_def)} moreover {assume az: "a≠0" from bezout_add_strong[OF az, of n] obtain d x y where dxy: "d dvd a" "d dvd n" "a*x = n*y + d" by blast from an[unfolded coprime, rule_format, of d] dxy(1,2) have d1: "d = 1" by blast hence "a*x*b = (n*y + 1)*b" using dxy(3) by simp hence "a*(x*b) = n*(y*b) + b" by algebra hence "a*(x*b) mod n = (n*(y*b) + b) mod n" by simp hence "a*(x*b) mod n = b mod n" by (simp add: mod_add_left_eq) hence "[a*(x*b) = b] (mod n)" unfolding modeq_def . hence ?thesis by blast} ultimately show ?thesis by blast qed lemma cong_solve_unique: assumes an: "coprime a n" and nz: "n ≠ 0" shows "∃!x. x < n ∧ [a * x = b] (mod n)" proof- let ?P = "λx. x < n ∧ [a * x = b] (mod n)" from cong_solve[OF an] obtain x where x: "[a*x = b] (mod n)" by blast let ?x = "x mod n" from x have th: "[a * ?x = b] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def mod_mult_right_eq[of a x n]) from mod_less_divisor[ of n x] nz th have Px: "?P ?x" by simp {fix y assume Py: "y < n" "[a * y = b] (mod n)" from Py(2) th have "[a * y = a*?x] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def) hence "[y = ?x] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_mult_lcancel_eq[OF an]) with mod_less[OF Py(1)] mod_less_divisor[ of n x] nz have "y = ?x" by (simp add: modeq_def)} with Px show ?thesis by blast qed lemma cong_solve_unique_nontrivial: assumes p: "prime p" and pa: "coprime p a" and x0: "0 < x" and xp: "x < p" shows "∃!y. 0 < y ∧ y < p ∧ [x * y = a] (mod p)" proof- from p have p1: "p > 1" using prime_ge_2[OF p] by arith hence p01: "p ≠ 0" "p ≠ 1" by arith+ from pa have ap: "coprime a p" by (simp add: coprime_commute) from prime_coprime[OF p, of x] dvd_imp_le[of p x] x0 xp have px:"coprime x p" by (auto simp add: coprime_commute) from cong_solve_unique[OF px p01(1)] obtain y where y: "y < p" "[x * y = a] (mod p)" "∀z. z < p ∧ [x * z = a] (mod p) --> z = y" by blast {assume y0: "y = 0" with y(2) have th: "p dvd a" by (simp add: cong_commute[of 0 a p]) with p coprime_prime[OF pa, of p] have False by simp} with y show ?thesis unfolding Ex1_def using neq0_conv by blast qed lemma cong_unique_inverse_prime: assumes p: "prime p" and x0: "0 < x" and xp: "x < p" shows "∃!y. 0 < y ∧ y < p ∧ [x * y = 1] (mod p)" using cong_solve_unique_nontrivial[OF p coprime_1[of p] x0 xp] . (* Forms of the Chinese remainder theorem. *) lemma cong_chinese: assumes ab: "coprime a b" and xya: "[x = y] (mod a)" and xyb: "[x = y] (mod b)" shows "[x = y] (mod a*b)" using ab xya xyb by (simp add: cong_sub_cases[of x y a] cong_sub_cases[of x y b] cong_sub_cases[of x y "a*b"]) (cases "x ≤ y", simp_all add: divides_mul[of a _ b]) lemma chinese_remainder_unique: assumes ab: "coprime a b" and az: "a ≠ 0" and bz: "b≠0" shows "∃!x. x < a * b ∧ [x = m] (mod a) ∧ [x = n] (mod b)" proof- from az bz have abpos: "a*b > 0" by simp from chinese_remainder[OF ab az bz] obtain x q1 q2 where xq12: "x = m + q1 * a" "x = n + q2 * b" by blast let ?w = "x mod (a*b)" have wab: "?w < a*b" by (simp add: mod_less_divisor[OF abpos]) from xq12(1) have "?w mod a = ((m + q1 * a) mod (a*b)) mod a" by simp also have "… = m mod a" by (simp add: mod_mult2_eq) finally have th1: "[?w = m] (mod a)" by (simp add: modeq_def) from xq12(2) have "?w mod b = ((n + q2 * b) mod (a*b)) mod b" by simp also have "… = ((n + q2 * b) mod (b*a)) mod b" by (simp add: mult.commute) also have "… = n mod b" by (simp add: mod_mult2_eq) finally have th2: "[?w = n] (mod b)" by (simp add: modeq_def) {fix y assume H: "y < a*b" "[y = m] (mod a)" "[y = n] (mod b)" with th1 th2 have H': "[y = ?w] (mod a)" "[y = ?w] (mod b)" by (simp_all add: modeq_def) from cong_chinese[OF ab H'] mod_less[OF H(1)] mod_less[OF wab] have "y = ?w" by (simp add: modeq_def)} with th1 th2 wab show ?thesis by blast qed lemma chinese_remainder_coprime_unique: assumes ab: "coprime a b" and az: "a ≠ 0" and bz: "b ≠ 0" and ma: "coprime m a" and nb: "coprime n b" shows "∃!x. coprime x (a * b) ∧ x < a * b ∧ [x = m] (mod a) ∧ [x = n] (mod b)" proof- let ?P = "λx. x < a * b ∧ [x = m] (mod a) ∧ [x = n] (mod b)" from chinese_remainder_unique[OF ab az bz] obtain x where x: "x < a * b" "[x = m] (mod a)" "[x = n] (mod b)" "∀y. ?P y --> y = x" by blast from ma nb cong_coprime[OF x(2)] cong_coprime[OF x(3)] have "coprime x a" "coprime x b" by (simp_all add: coprime_commute) with coprime_mul[of x a b] have "coprime x (a*b)" by simp with x show ?thesis by blast qed (* Euler totient function. *) definition phi_def: "φ n = card { m. 0 < m ∧ m <= n ∧ coprime m n }" lemma phi_0[simp]: "φ 0 = 0" unfolding phi_def by auto lemma phi_finite[simp]: "finite ({ m. 0 < m ∧ m <= n ∧ coprime m n })" proof- have "{ m. 0 < m ∧ m <= n ∧ coprime m n } ⊆ {0..n}" by auto thus ?thesis by (auto intro: finite_subset) qed declare coprime_1[presburger] lemma phi_1[simp]: "φ 1 = 1" proof- {fix m have "0 < m ∧ m <= 1 ∧ coprime m 1 <-> m = 1" by presburger } thus ?thesis by (simp add: phi_def) qed lemma [simp]: "φ (Suc 0) = Suc 0" using phi_1 by simp lemma phi_alt: "φ(n) = card { m. coprime m n ∧ m < n}" proof- {assume "n=0 ∨ n=1" hence ?thesis by (cases "n=0", simp_all)} moreover {assume n: "n≠0" "n≠1" {fix m from n have "0 < m ∧ m <= n ∧ coprime m n <-> coprime m n ∧ m < n" apply (cases "m = 0", simp_all) apply (cases "m = 1", simp_all) apply (cases "m = n", auto) done } hence ?thesis unfolding phi_def by simp} ultimately show ?thesis by auto qed lemma phi_finite_lemma[simp]: "finite {m. coprime m n ∧ m < n}" (is "finite ?S") by (rule finite_subset[of "?S" "{0..n}"], auto) lemma phi_another: assumes n: "n≠1" shows "φ n = card {m. 0 < m ∧ m < n ∧ coprime m n }" proof- {fix m from n have "0 < m ∧ m < n ∧ coprime m n <-> coprime m n ∧ m < n" by (cases "m=0", auto)} thus ?thesis unfolding phi_alt by auto qed lemma phi_limit: "φ n ≤ n" proof- have "{ m. coprime m n ∧ m < n} ⊆ {0 ..<n}" by auto with card_mono[of "{0 ..<n}" "{ m. coprime m n ∧ m < n}"] show ?thesis unfolding phi_alt by auto qed lemma stupid[simp]: "{m. (0::nat) < m ∧ m < n} = {1..<n}" by auto lemma phi_limit_strong: assumes n: "n≠1" shows "φ(n) ≤ n - 1" proof- show ?thesis unfolding phi_another[OF n] finite_number_segment[of n, symmetric] by (rule card_mono[of "{m. 0 < m ∧ m < n}" "{m. 0 < m ∧ m < n ∧ coprime m n}"], auto) qed lemma phi_lowerbound_1_strong: assumes n: "n ≥ 1" shows "φ(n) ≥ 1" proof- let ?S = "{ m. 0 < m ∧ m <= n ∧ coprime m n }" from card_0_eq[of ?S] n have "φ n ≠ 0" unfolding phi_alt apply auto apply (cases "n=1", simp_all) apply (rule exI[where x=1], simp) done thus ?thesis by arith qed lemma phi_lowerbound_1: "2 <= n ==> 1 <= φ(n)" using phi_lowerbound_1_strong[of n] by auto lemma phi_lowerbound_2: assumes n: "3 <= n" shows "2 <= φ (n)" proof- let ?S = "{ m. 0 < m ∧ m <= n ∧ coprime m n }" have inS: "{1, n - 1} ⊆ ?S" using n coprime_plus1[of "n - 1"] by (auto simp add: coprime_commute) from n have c2: "card {1, n - 1} = 2" by (auto simp add: card_insert_if) from card_mono[of ?S "{1, n - 1}", simplified inS c2] show ?thesis unfolding phi_def by auto qed lemma phi_prime: "φ n = n - 1 ∧ n≠0 ∧ n≠1 <-> prime n" proof- {assume "n=0 ∨ n=1" hence ?thesis by (cases "n=1", simp_all)} moreover {assume n: "n≠0" "n≠1" let ?S = "{m. 0 < m ∧ m < n}" have fS: "finite ?S" by simp let ?S' = "{m. 0 < m ∧ m < n ∧ coprime m n}" have fS':"finite ?S'" apply (rule finite_subset[of ?S' ?S]) by auto {assume H: "φ n = n - 1 ∧ n≠0 ∧ n≠1" hence ceq: "card ?S' = card ?S" using n finite_number_segment[of n] phi_another[OF n(2)] by simp {fix m assume m: "0 < m" "m < n" "¬ coprime m n" hence mS': "m ∉ ?S'" by auto have "insert m ?S' ≤ ?S" using m by auto from m have "card (insert m ?S') ≤ card ?S" by - (rule card_mono[of ?S "insert m ?S'"], auto) hence False unfolding card_insert_disjoint[of "?S'" m, OF fS' mS'] ceq by simp } hence "∀m. 0 <m ∧ m < n --> coprime m n" by blast hence "prime n" unfolding prime using n by (simp add: coprime_commute)} moreover {assume H: "prime n" hence "?S = ?S'" unfolding prime using n by (auto simp add: coprime_commute) hence "card ?S = card ?S'" by simp hence "φ n = n - 1" unfolding phi_another[OF n(2)] by simp} ultimately have ?thesis using n by blast} ultimately show ?thesis by (cases "n=0") blast+ qed (* Multiplicativity property. *) lemma phi_multiplicative: assumes ab: "coprime a b" shows "φ (a * b) = φ a * φ b" proof- {assume "a = 0 ∨ b = 0 ∨ a = 1 ∨ b = 1" hence ?thesis by (cases "a=0", simp, cases "b=0", simp, cases"a=1", simp_all) } moreover {assume a: "a≠0" "a≠1" and b: "b≠0" "b≠1" hence ab0: "a*b ≠ 0" by simp let ?S = "λk. {m. coprime m k ∧ m < k}" let ?f = "λx. (x mod a, x mod b)" have eq: "?f ` (?S (a*b)) = (?S a × ?S b)" proof- {fix x assume x:"x ∈ ?S (a*b)" hence x': "coprime x (a*b)" "x < a*b" by simp_all hence xab: "coprime x a" "coprime x b" by (simp_all add: coprime_mul_eq) from mod_less_divisor a b have xab':"x mod a < a" "x mod b < b" by auto from xab xab' have "?f x ∈ (?S a × ?S b)" by (simp add: coprime_mod[OF a(1)] coprime_mod[OF b(1)])} moreover {fix x y assume x: "x ∈ ?S a" and y: "y ∈ ?S b" hence x': "coprime x a" "x < a" and y': "coprime y b" "y < b" by simp_all from chinese_remainder_coprime_unique[OF ab a(1) b(1) x'(1) y'(1)] obtain z where z: "coprime z (a * b)" "z < a * b" "[z = x] (mod a)" "[z = y] (mod b)" by blast hence "(x,y) ∈ ?f ` (?S (a*b))" using y'(2) mod_less_divisor[of b y] x'(2) mod_less_divisor[of a x] by (auto simp add: image_iff modeq_def)} ultimately show ?thesis by auto qed have finj: "inj_on ?f (?S (a*b))" unfolding inj_on_def proof(clarify) fix x y assume H: "coprime x (a * b)" "x < a * b" "coprime y (a * b)" "y < a * b" "x mod a = y mod a" "x mod b = y mod b" hence cp: "coprime x a" "coprime x b" "coprime y a" "coprime y b" by (simp_all add: coprime_mul_eq) from chinese_remainder_coprime_unique[OF ab a(1) b(1) cp(3,4)] H show "x = y" unfolding modeq_def by blast qed from card_image[OF finj, unfolded eq] have ?thesis unfolding phi_alt by simp } ultimately show ?thesis by auto qed (* Fermat's Little theorem / Fermat-Euler theorem. *) lemma nproduct_mod: assumes fS: "finite S" and n0: "n ≠ 0" shows "[setprod (λm. a(m) mod n) S = setprod a S] (mod n)" proof- have th1:"[1 = 1] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def) from cong_mult have th3:"∀x1 y1 x2 y2. [x1 = x2] (mod n) ∧ [y1 = y2] (mod n) --> [x1 * y1 = x2 * y2] (mod n)" by blast have th4:"∀x∈S. [a x mod n = a x] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def) from setprod.related [where h="(λm. a(m) mod n)" and g=a, OF th1 th3 fS, OF th4] show ?thesis by (simp add: fS) qed lemma nproduct_cmul: assumes fS:"finite S" shows "setprod (λm. (c::'a::{comm_monoid_mult})* a(m)) S = c ^ (card S) * setprod a S" unfolding setprod.distrib setprod_constant[OF fS, of c] .. lemma coprime_nproduct: assumes fS: "finite S" and Sn: "∀x∈S. coprime n (a x)" shows "coprime n (setprod a S)" using fS by (rule finite_subset_induct) (insert Sn, auto simp add: coprime_mul) lemma fermat_little: assumes an: "coprime a n" shows "[a ^ (φ n) = 1] (mod n)" proof- {assume "n=0" hence ?thesis by simp} moreover {assume "n=1" hence ?thesis by (simp add: modeq_def)} moreover {assume nz: "n ≠ 0" and n1: "n ≠ 1" let ?S = "{m. coprime m n ∧ m < n}" let ?P = "∏ ?S" have fS: "finite ?S" by simp have cardfS: "φ n = card ?S" unfolding phi_alt .. {fix m assume m: "m ∈ ?S" hence "coprime m n" by simp with coprime_mul[of n a m] an have "coprime (a*m) n" by (simp add: coprime_commute)} hence Sn: "∀m∈ ?S. coprime (a*m) n " by blast from coprime_nproduct[OF fS, of n "λm. m"] have nP:"coprime ?P n" by (simp add: coprime_commute) have Paphi: "[?P*a^ (φ n) = ?P*1] (mod n)" proof- let ?h = "λm. (a * m) mod n" have eq0: "(∏i∈?S. ?h i) = (∏i∈?S. i)" proof (rule setprod.reindex_bij_betw) have "inj_on (λi. ?h i) ?S" proof (rule inj_onI) fix x y assume "?h x = ?h y" then have "[a * x = a * y] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def) moreover assume "x ∈ ?S" "y ∈ ?S" ultimately show "x = y" by (auto intro: cong_imp_eq cong_mult_lcancel an) qed moreover have "?h ` ?S = ?S" proof safe fix y assume "coprime y n" then show "coprime (?h y) n" by (metis an nz coprime_commute coprime_mod coprime_mul_eq) next fix y assume y: "coprime y n" "y < n" from cong_solve_unique[OF an nz] obtain x where x: "x < n" "[a * x = y] (mod n)" by blast then show "y ∈ ?h ` ?S" using cong_coprime[OF x(2)] coprime_mul_eq[of n a x] an y x by (intro image_eqI[of _ _ x]) (auto simp add: coprime_commute modeq_def) qed (insert nz, simp) ultimately show "bij_betw ?h ?S ?S" by (simp add: bij_betw_def) qed from nproduct_mod[OF fS nz, of "op * a"] have "[(∏i∈?S. a * i) = (∏i∈?S. ?h i)] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_commute) also have "[(∏i∈?S. ?h i) = ?P] (mod n)" using eq0 fS an by (simp add: setprod_def modeq_def) finally show "[?P*a^ (φ n) = ?P*1] (mod n)" unfolding cardfS mult.commute[of ?P "a^ (card ?S)"] nproduct_cmul[OF fS, symmetric] mult_1_right by simp qed from cong_mult_lcancel[OF nP Paphi] have ?thesis . } ultimately show ?thesis by blast qed lemma fermat_little_prime: assumes p: "prime p" and ap: "coprime a p" shows "[a^ (p - 1) = 1] (mod p)" using fermat_little[OF ap] p[unfolded phi_prime[symmetric]] by simp (* Lucas's theorem. *) lemma lucas_coprime_lemma: assumes m: "m≠0" and am: "[a^m = 1] (mod n)" shows "coprime a n" proof- {assume "n=1" hence ?thesis by simp} moreover {assume "n = 0" hence ?thesis using am m exp_eq_1[of a m] by simp} moreover {assume n: "n≠0" "n≠1" from m obtain m' where m': "m = Suc m'" by (cases m, blast+) {fix d assume d: "d dvd a" "d dvd n" from n have n1: "1 < n" by arith from am mod_less[OF n1] have am1: "a^m mod n = 1" unfolding modeq_def by simp from dvd_mult2[OF d(1), of "a^m'"] have dam:"d dvd a^m" by (simp add: m') from dvd_mod_iff[OF d(2), of "a^m"] dam am1 have "d = 1" by simp } hence ?thesis unfolding coprime by auto } ultimately show ?thesis by blast qed lemma lucas_weak: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and an:"[a^(n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and nm: "∀m. 0 <m ∧ m < n - 1 --> ¬ [a^m = 1] (mod n)" shows "prime n" proof- from n have n1: "n ≠ 1" "n≠0" "n - 1 ≠ 0" "n - 1 > 0" "n - 1 < n" by arith+ from lucas_coprime_lemma[OF n1(3) an] have can: "coprime a n" . from fermat_little[OF can] have afn: "[a ^ φ n = 1] (mod n)" . {assume "φ n ≠ n - 1" with phi_limit_strong[OF n1(1)] phi_lowerbound_1[OF n] have c:"φ n > 0 ∧ φ n < n - 1" by arith from nm[rule_format, OF c] afn have False ..} hence "φ n = n - 1" by blast with phi_prime[of n] n1(1,2) show ?thesis by simp qed lemma nat_exists_least_iff: "(∃(n::nat). P n) <-> (∃n. P n ∧ (∀m < n. ¬ P m))" (is "?lhs <-> ?rhs") proof assume ?rhs thus ?lhs by blast next assume H: ?lhs then obtain n where n: "P n" by blast let ?x = "Least P" {fix m assume m: "m < ?x" from not_less_Least[OF m] have "¬ P m" .} with LeastI_ex[OF H] show ?rhs by blast qed lemma nat_exists_least_iff': "(∃(n::nat). P n) <-> (P (Least P) ∧ (∀m < (Least P). ¬ P m))" (is "?lhs <-> ?rhs") proof- {assume ?rhs hence ?lhs by blast} moreover { assume H: ?lhs then obtain n where n: "P n" by blast let ?x = "Least P" {fix m assume m: "m < ?x" from not_less_Least[OF m] have "¬ P m" .} with LeastI_ex[OF H] have ?rhs by blast} ultimately show ?thesis by blast qed lemma power_mod: "((x::nat) mod m)^n mod m = x^n mod m" proof(induct n) case 0 thus ?case by simp next case (Suc n) have "(x mod m)^(Suc n) mod m = ((x mod m) * (((x mod m) ^ n) mod m)) mod m" by (simp add: mod_mult_right_eq[symmetric]) also have "… = ((x mod m) * (x^n mod m)) mod m" using Suc.hyps by simp also have "… = x^(Suc n) mod m" by (simp add: mod_mult_left_eq[symmetric] mod_mult_right_eq[symmetric]) finally show ?case . qed lemma lucas: assumes n2: "n ≥ 2" and an1: "[a^(n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and pn: "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd n - 1 --> ¬ [a^((n - 1) div p) = 1] (mod n)" shows "prime n" proof- from n2 have n01: "n≠0" "n≠1" "n - 1 ≠ 0" by arith+ from mod_less_divisor[of n 1] n01 have onen: "1 mod n = 1" by simp from lucas_coprime_lemma[OF n01(3) an1] cong_coprime[OF an1] have an: "coprime a n" "coprime (a^(n - 1)) n" by (simp_all add: coprime_commute) {assume H0: "∃m. 0 < m ∧ m < n - 1 ∧ [a ^ m = 1] (mod n)" (is "EX m. ?P m") from H0[unfolded nat_exists_least_iff[of ?P]] obtain m where m: "0 < m" "m < n - 1" "[a ^ m = 1] (mod n)" "∀k <m. ¬?P k" by blast {assume nm1: "(n - 1) mod m > 0" from mod_less_divisor[OF m(1)] have th0:"(n - 1) mod m < m" by blast let ?y = "a^ ((n - 1) div m * m)" note mdeq = mod_div_equality[of "(n - 1)" m] from coprime_exp[OF an(1)[unfolded coprime_commute[of a n]], of "(n - 1) div m * m"] have yn: "coprime ?y n" by (simp add: coprime_commute) have "?y mod n = (a^m)^((n - 1) div m) mod n" by (simp add: algebra_simps power_mult) also have "… = (a^m mod n)^((n - 1) div m) mod n" using power_mod[of "a^m" n "(n - 1) div m"] by simp also have "… = 1" using m(3)[unfolded modeq_def onen] onen by (simp add: power_Suc0) finally have th3: "?y mod n = 1" . have th2: "[?y * a ^ ((n - 1) mod m) = ?y* 1] (mod n)" using an1[unfolded modeq_def onen] onen mod_div_equality[of "(n - 1)" m, symmetric] by (simp add:power_add[symmetric] modeq_def th3 del: One_nat_def) from cong_mult_lcancel[of ?y n "a^((n - 1) mod m)" 1, OF yn th2] have th1: "[a ^ ((n - 1) mod m) = 1] (mod n)" . from m(4)[rule_format, OF th0] nm1 less_trans[OF mod_less_divisor[OF m(1), of "n - 1"] m(2)] th1 have False by blast } hence "(n - 1) mod m = 0" by auto then have mn: "m dvd n - 1" by presburger then obtain r where r: "n - 1 = m*r" unfolding dvd_def by blast from n01 r m(2) have r01: "r≠0" "r≠1" by - (rule ccontr, simp)+ from prime_factor[OF r01(2)] obtain p where p: "prime p" "p dvd r" by blast hence th: "prime p ∧ p dvd n - 1" unfolding r by (auto intro: dvd_mult) have "(a ^ ((n - 1) div p)) mod n = (a^(m*r div p)) mod n" using r by (simp add: power_mult) also have "… = (a^(m*(r div p))) mod n" using div_mult1_eq[of m r p] p(2)[unfolded dvd_eq_mod_eq_0] by simp also have "… = ((a^m)^(r div p)) mod n" by (simp add: power_mult) also have "… = ((a^m mod n)^(r div p)) mod n" using power_mod[of "a^m" "n" "r div p" ] .. also have "… = 1" using m(3) onen by (simp add: modeq_def power_Suc0) finally have "[(a ^ ((n - 1) div p))= 1] (mod n)" using onen by (simp add: modeq_def) with pn[rule_format, OF th] have False by blast} hence th: "∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < n - 1 --> ¬ [a ^ m = 1] (mod n)" by blast from lucas_weak[OF n2 an1 th] show ?thesis . qed (* Definition of the order of a number mod n (0 in non-coprime case). *) definition "ord n a = (if coprime n a then Least (λd. d > 0 ∧ [a ^d = 1] (mod n)) else 0)" (* This has the expected properties. *) lemma coprime_ord: assumes na: "coprime n a" shows "ord n a > 0 ∧ [a ^(ord n a) = 1] (mod n) ∧ (∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < ord n a --> ¬ [a^ m = 1] (mod n))" proof- let ?P = "λd. 0 < d ∧ [a ^ d = 1] (mod n)" from euclid[of a] obtain p where p: "prime p" "a < p" by blast from na have o: "ord n a = Least ?P" by (simp add: ord_def) {assume "n=0 ∨ n=1" with na have "∃m>0. ?P m" apply auto apply (rule exI[where x=1]) by (simp add: modeq_def)} moreover {assume "n≠0 ∧ n≠1" hence n2:"n ≥ 2" by arith from na have na': "coprime a n" by (simp add: coprime_commute) from phi_lowerbound_1[OF n2] fermat_little[OF na'] have ex: "∃m>0. ?P m" by - (rule exI[where x="φ n"], auto) } ultimately have ex: "∃m>0. ?P m" by blast from nat_exists_least_iff'[of ?P] ex na show ?thesis unfolding o[symmetric] by auto qed (* With the special value 0 for non-coprime case, it's more convenient. *) lemma ord_works: "[a ^ (ord n a) = 1] (mod n) ∧ (∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < ord n a --> ~[a^ m = 1] (mod n))" apply (cases "coprime n a") using coprime_ord[of n a] by (blast, simp add: ord_def modeq_def) lemma ord: "[a^(ord n a) = 1] (mod n)" using ord_works by blast lemma ord_minimal: "0 < m ==> m < ord n a ==> ~[a^m = 1] (mod n)" using ord_works by blast lemma ord_eq_0: "ord n a = 0 <-> ~coprime n a" by (cases "coprime n a", simp add: coprime_ord, simp add: ord_def) lemma ord_divides: "[a ^ d = 1] (mod n) <-> ord n a dvd d" (is "?lhs <-> ?rhs") proof assume rh: ?rhs then obtain k where "d = ord n a * k" unfolding dvd_def by blast hence "[a ^ d = (a ^ (ord n a) mod n)^k] (mod n)" by (simp add : modeq_def power_mult power_mod) also have "[(a ^ (ord n a) mod n)^k = 1] (mod n)" using ord[of a n, unfolded modeq_def] by (simp add: modeq_def power_mod power_Suc0) finally show ?lhs . next assume lh: ?lhs { assume H: "¬ coprime n a" hence o: "ord n a = 0" by (simp add: ord_def) {assume d: "d=0" with o H have ?rhs by (simp add: modeq_def)} moreover {assume d0: "d≠0" then obtain d' where d': "d = Suc d'" by (cases d, auto) from H[unfolded coprime] obtain p where p: "p dvd n" "p dvd a" "p ≠ 1" by auto from lh[unfolded nat_mod] obtain q1 q2 where q12:"a ^ d + n * q1 = 1 + n * q2" by blast hence "a ^ d + n * q1 - n * q2 = 1" by simp with dvd_diff_nat [OF dvd_add [OF divides_rexp[OF p(2), of d'] dvd_mult2[OF p(1), of q1]] dvd_mult2[OF p(1), of q2]] d' have "p dvd 1" by simp with p(3) have False by simp hence ?rhs ..} ultimately have ?rhs by blast} moreover {assume H: "coprime n a" let ?o = "ord n a" let ?q = "d div ord n a" let ?r = "d mod ord n a" from cong_exp[OF ord[of a n], of ?q] have eqo: "[(a^?o)^?q = 1] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def power_Suc0) from H have onz: "?o ≠ 0" by (simp add: ord_eq_0) hence op: "?o > 0" by simp from mod_div_equality[of d "ord n a"] lh have "[a^(?o*?q + ?r) = 1] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def mult.commute) hence "[(a^?o)^?q * (a^?r) = 1] (mod n)" by (simp add: modeq_def power_mult[symmetric] power_add[symmetric]) hence th: "[a^?r = 1] (mod n)" using eqo mod_mult_left_eq[of "(a^?o)^?q" "a^?r" n] apply (simp add: modeq_def del: One_nat_def) by (simp add: mod_mult_left_eq[symmetric]) {assume r: "?r = 0" hence ?rhs by (simp add: dvd_eq_mod_eq_0)} moreover {assume r: "?r ≠ 0" with mod_less_divisor[OF op, of d] have r0o:"?r >0 ∧ ?r < ?o" by simp from conjunct2[OF ord_works[of a n], rule_format, OF r0o] th have ?rhs by blast} ultimately have ?rhs by blast} ultimately show ?rhs by blast qed lemma order_divides_phi: "coprime n a ==> ord n a dvd φ n" using ord_divides fermat_little coprime_commute by simp lemma order_divides_expdiff: assumes na: "coprime n a" shows "[a^d = a^e] (mod n) <-> [d = e] (mod (ord n a))" proof- {fix n a d e assume na: "coprime n a" and ed: "(e::nat) ≤ d" hence "∃c. d = e + c" by arith then obtain c where c: "d = e + c" by arith from na have an: "coprime a n" by (simp add: coprime_commute) from coprime_exp[OF na, of e] have aen: "coprime (a^e) n" by (simp add: coprime_commute) from coprime_exp[OF na, of c] have acn: "coprime (a^c) n" by (simp add: coprime_commute) have "[a^d = a^e] (mod n) <-> [a^(e + c) = a^(e + 0)] (mod n)" using c by simp also have "… <-> [a^e* a^c = a^e *a^0] (mod n)" by (simp add: power_add) also have "… <-> [a ^ c = 1] (mod n)" using cong_mult_lcancel_eq[OF aen, of "a^c" "a^0"] by simp also have "… <-> ord n a dvd c" by (simp only: ord_divides) also have "… <-> [e + c = e + 0] (mod ord n a)" using cong_add_lcancel_eq[of e c 0 "ord n a", simplified cong_0_divides] by simp finally have "[a^d = a^e] (mod n) <-> [d = e] (mod (ord n a))" using c by simp } note th = this have "e ≤ d ∨ d ≤ e" by arith moreover {assume ed: "e ≤ d" from th[OF na ed] have ?thesis .} moreover {assume de: "d ≤ e" from th[OF na de] have ?thesis by (simp add: cong_commute) } ultimately show ?thesis by blast qed (* Another trivial primality characterization. *) lemma prime_prime_factor: "prime n <-> n ≠ 1∧ (∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd n --> p = n)" proof- {assume n: "n=0 ∨ n=1" hence ?thesis using prime_0 two_is_prime by auto} moreover {assume n: "n≠0" "n≠1" {assume pn: "prime n" from pn[unfolded prime_def] have "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd n --> p = n" using n apply (cases "n = 0 ∨ n=1",simp) by (clarsimp, erule_tac x="p" in allE, auto)} moreover {assume H: "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd n --> p = n" from n have n1: "n > 1" by arith {fix m assume m: "m dvd n" "m≠1" from prime_factor[OF m(2)] obtain p where p: "prime p" "p dvd m" by blast from dvd_trans[OF p(2) m(1)] p(1) H have "p = n" by blast with p(2) have "n dvd m" by simp hence "m=n" using dvd_antisym[OF m(1)] by simp } with n1 have "prime n" unfolding prime_def by auto } ultimately have ?thesis using n by blast} ultimately show ?thesis by auto qed lemma prime_divisor_sqrt: "prime n <-> n ≠ 1 ∧ (∀d. d dvd n ∧ d⇧^{2}≤ n --> d = 1)" proof- {assume "n=0 ∨ n=1" hence ?thesis using prime_0 prime_1 by (auto simp add: nat_power_eq_0_iff)} moreover {assume n: "n≠0" "n≠1" hence np: "n > 1" by arith {fix d assume d: "d dvd n" "d⇧^{2}≤ n" and H: "∀m. m dvd n --> m=1 ∨ m=n" from H d have d1n: "d = 1 ∨ d=n" by blast {assume dn: "d=n" have "n⇧^{2}> n*1" using n by (simp add: power2_eq_square) with dn d(2) have "d=1" by simp} with d1n have "d = 1" by blast } moreover {fix d assume d: "d dvd n" and H: "∀d'. d' dvd n ∧ d'⇧^{2}≤ n --> d' = 1" from d n have "d ≠ 0" apply - apply (rule ccontr) by simp hence dp: "d > 0" by simp from d[unfolded dvd_def] obtain e where e: "n= d*e" by blast from n dp e have ep:"e > 0" by simp have "d⇧^{2}≤ n ∨ e⇧^{2}≤ n" using dp ep by (auto simp add: e power2_eq_square mult_le_cancel_left) moreover {assume h: "d⇧^{2}≤ n" from H[rule_format, of d] h d have "d = 1" by blast} moreover {assume h: "e⇧^{2}≤ n" from e have "e dvd n" unfolding dvd_def by (simp add: mult.commute) with H[rule_format, of e] h have "e=1" by simp with e have "d = n" by simp} ultimately have "d=1 ∨ d=n" by blast} ultimately have ?thesis unfolding prime_def using np n(2) by blast} ultimately show ?thesis by auto qed lemma prime_prime_factor_sqrt: "prime n <-> n ≠ 0 ∧ n ≠ 1 ∧ ¬ (∃p. prime p ∧ p dvd n ∧ p⇧^{2}≤ n)" (is "?lhs <->?rhs") proof- {assume "n=0 ∨ n=1" hence ?thesis using prime_0 prime_1 by auto} moreover {assume n: "n≠0" "n≠1" {assume H: ?lhs from H[unfolded prime_divisor_sqrt] n have ?rhs apply clarsimp apply (erule_tac x="p" in allE) apply simp done } moreover {assume H: ?rhs {fix d assume d: "d dvd n" "d⇧^{2}≤ n" "d≠1" from prime_factor[OF d(3)] obtain p where p: "prime p" "p dvd d" by blast from n have np: "n > 0" by arith from d(1) n have "d ≠ 0" by - (rule ccontr, auto) hence dp: "d > 0" by arith from mult_mono[OF dvd_imp_le[OF p(2) dp] dvd_imp_le[OF p(2) dp]] d(2) have "p⇧^{2}≤ n" unfolding power2_eq_square by arith with H n p(1) dvd_trans[OF p(2) d(1)] have False by blast} with n prime_divisor_sqrt have ?lhs by auto} ultimately have ?thesis by blast } ultimately show ?thesis by (cases "n=0 ∨ n=1", auto) qed (* Pocklington theorem. *) lemma pocklington_lemma: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and nqr: "n - 1 = q*r" and an: "[a^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and aq:"∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd q --> coprime (a^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1) n" and pp: "prime p" and pn: "p dvd n" shows "[p = 1] (mod q)" proof- from pp prime_0 prime_1 have p01: "p ≠ 0" "p ≠ 1" by - (rule ccontr, simp)+ from cong_1_divides[OF an, unfolded nqr, unfolded dvd_def] obtain k where k: "a ^ (q * r) - 1 = n*k" by blast from pn[unfolded dvd_def] obtain l where l: "n = p*l" by blast {assume a0: "a = 0" hence "a^ (n - 1) = 0" using n by (simp add: power_0_left) with n an mod_less[of 1 n] have False by (simp add: power_0_left modeq_def)} hence a0: "a≠0" .. from n nqr have aqr0: "a ^ (q * r) ≠ 0" using a0 by simp hence "(a ^ (q * r) - 1) + 1 = a ^ (q * r)" by simp with k l have "a ^ (q * r) = p*l*k + 1" by simp hence "a ^ (r * q) + p * 0 = 1 + p * (l*k)" by (simp add: ac_simps) hence odq: "ord p (a^r) dvd q" unfolding ord_divides[symmetric] power_mult[symmetric] nat_mod by blast from odq[unfolded dvd_def] obtain d where d: "q = ord p (a^r) * d" by blast {assume d1: "d ≠ 1" from prime_factor[OF d1] obtain P where P: "prime P" "P dvd d" by blast from d dvd_mult[OF P(2), of "ord p (a^r)"] have Pq: "P dvd q" by simp from aq P(1) Pq have caP:"coprime (a^ ((n - 1) div P) - 1) n" by blast from Pq obtain s where s: "q = P*s" unfolding dvd_def by blast have P0: "P ≠ 0" using P(1) prime_0 by - (rule ccontr, simp) from P(2) obtain t where t: "d = P*t" unfolding dvd_def by blast from d s t P0 have s': "ord p (a^r) * t = s" by algebra have "ord p (a^r) * t*r = r * ord p (a^r) * t" by algebra hence exps: "a^(ord p (a^r) * t*r) = ((a ^ r) ^ ord p (a^r)) ^ t" by (simp only: power_mult) have "[((a ^ r) ^ ord p (a^r)) ^ t= 1^t] (mod p)" by (rule cong_exp, rule ord) then have th: "[((a ^ r) ^ ord p (a^r)) ^ t= 1] (mod p)" by (simp add: power_Suc0) from cong_1_divides[OF th] exps have pd0: "p dvd a^(ord p (a^r) * t*r) - 1" by simp from nqr s s' have "(n - 1) div P = ord p (a^r) * t*r" using P0 by simp with caP have "coprime (a^(ord p (a^r) * t*r) - 1) n" by simp with p01 pn pd0 have False unfolding coprime by auto} hence d1: "d = 1" by blast hence o: "ord p (a^r) = q" using d by simp from pp phi_prime[of p] have phip: " φ p = p - 1" by simp {fix d assume d: "d dvd p" "d dvd a" "d ≠ 1" from pp[unfolded prime_def] d have dp: "d = p" by blast from n have n12:"Suc (n - 2) = n - 1" by arith with divides_rexp[OF d(2)[unfolded dp], of "n - 2"] have th0: "p dvd a ^ (n - 1)" by simp from n have n0: "n ≠ 0" by simp from d(2) an n12[symmetric] have a0: "a ≠ 0" by - (rule ccontr, simp add: modeq_def) have th1: "a^ (n - 1) ≠ 0" using n d(2) dp a0 by auto from coprime_minus1[OF th1, unfolded coprime] dvd_trans[OF pn cong_1_divides[OF an]] th0 d(3) dp have False by auto} hence cpa: "coprime p a" using coprime by auto from coprime_exp[OF cpa, of r] coprime_commute have arp: "coprime (a^r) p" by blast from fermat_little[OF arp, simplified ord_divides] o phip have "q dvd (p - 1)" by simp then obtain d where d:"p - 1 = q * d" unfolding dvd_def by blast from prime_0 pp have p0:"p ≠ 0" by - (rule ccontr, auto) from p0 d have "p + q * 0 = 1 + q * d" by simp with nat_mod[of p 1 q, symmetric] show ?thesis by blast qed lemma pocklington: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and nqr: "n - 1 = q*r" and sqr: "n ≤ q⇧^{2}" and an: "[a^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and aq:"∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd q --> coprime (a^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1) n" shows "prime n" unfolding prime_prime_factor_sqrt[of n] proof- let ?ths = "n ≠ 0 ∧ n ≠ 1 ∧ ¬ (∃p. prime p ∧ p dvd n ∧ p⇧^{2}≤ n)" from n have n01: "n≠0" "n≠1" by arith+ {fix p assume p: "prime p" "p dvd n" "p⇧^{2}≤ n" from p(3) sqr have "p^(Suc 1) ≤ q^(Suc 1)" by (simp add: power2_eq_square) hence pq: "p ≤ q" unfolding exp_mono_le . from pocklington_lemma[OF n nqr an aq p(1,2)] cong_1_divides have th: "q dvd p - 1" by blast have "p - 1 ≠ 0"using prime_ge_2[OF p(1)] by arith with divides_ge[OF th] pq have False by arith } with n01 show ?ths by blast qed (* Variant for application, to separate the exponentiation. *) lemma pocklington_alt: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and nqr: "n - 1 = q*r" and sqr: "n ≤ q⇧^{2}" and an: "[a^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and aq:"∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd q --> (∃b. [a^((n - 1) div p) = b] (mod n) ∧ coprime (b - 1) n)" shows "prime n" proof- {fix p assume p: "prime p" "p dvd q" from aq[rule_format] p obtain b where b: "[a^((n - 1) div p) = b] (mod n)" "coprime (b - 1) n" by blast {assume a0: "a=0" from n an have "[0 = 1] (mod n)" unfolding a0 power_0_left by auto hence False using n by (simp add: modeq_def dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric])} hence a0: "a≠ 0" .. hence a1: "a ≥ 1" by arith from one_le_power[OF a1] have ath: "1 ≤ a ^ ((n - 1) div p)" . {assume b0: "b = 0" from p(2) nqr have "(n - 1) mod p = 0" apply (simp only: dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]) by (rule dvd_mult2, simp) with mod_div_equality[of "n - 1" p] have "(n - 1) div p * p= n - 1" by auto hence eq: "(a^((n - 1) div p))^p = a^(n - 1)" by (simp only: power_mult[symmetric]) from prime_ge_2[OF p(1)] have pS: "Suc (p - 1) = p" by arith from b(1) have d: "n dvd a^((n - 1) div p)" unfolding b0 cong_0_divides . from divides_rexp[OF d, of "p - 1"] pS eq cong_divides[OF an] n have False by simp} then have b0: "b ≠ 0" .. hence b1: "b ≥ 1" by arith from cong_coprime[OF cong_sub[OF b(1) cong_refl[of 1] ath b1]] b(2) nqr have "coprime (a ^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1) n" by (simp add: coprime_commute)} hence th: "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd q --> coprime (a ^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1) n " by blast from pocklington[OF n nqr sqr an th] show ?thesis . qed (* Prime factorizations. *) definition "primefact ps n = (foldr op * ps 1 = n ∧ (∀p∈ set ps. prime p))" lemma primefact: assumes n: "n ≠ 0" shows "∃ps. primefact ps n" using n proof(induct n rule: nat_less_induct) fix n assume H: "∀m<n. m ≠ 0 --> (∃ps. primefact ps m)" and n: "n≠0" let ?ths = "∃ps. primefact ps n" {assume "n = 1" hence "primefact [] n" by (simp add: primefact_def) hence ?ths by blast } moreover {assume n1: "n ≠ 1" with n have n2: "n ≥ 2" by arith from prime_factor[OF n1] obtain p where p: "prime p" "p dvd n" by blast from p(2) obtain m where m: "n = p*m" unfolding dvd_def by blast from n m have m0: "m > 0" "m≠0" by auto from prime_ge_2[OF p(1)] have "1 < p" by arith with m0 m have mn: "m < n" by auto from H[rule_format, OF mn m0(2)] obtain ps where ps: "primefact ps m" .. from ps m p(1) have "primefact (p#ps) n" by (simp add: primefact_def) hence ?ths by blast} ultimately show ?ths by blast qed lemma primefact_contains: assumes pf: "primefact ps n" and p: "prime p" and pn: "p dvd n" shows "p ∈ set ps" using pf p pn proof(induct ps arbitrary: p n) case Nil thus ?case by (auto simp add: primefact_def) next case (Cons q qs p n) from Cons.prems[unfolded primefact_def] have q: "prime q" "q * foldr op * qs 1 = n" "∀p ∈set qs. prime p" and p: "prime p" "p dvd q * foldr op * qs 1" by simp_all {assume "p dvd q" with p(1) q(1) have "p = q" unfolding prime_def by auto hence ?case by simp} moreover { assume h: "p dvd foldr op * qs 1" from q(3) have pqs: "primefact qs (foldr op * qs 1)" by (simp add: primefact_def) from Cons.hyps[OF pqs p(1) h] have ?case by simp} ultimately show ?case using prime_divprod[OF p] by blast qed lemma primefact_variant: "primefact ps n <-> foldr op * ps 1 = n ∧ list_all prime ps" by (auto simp add: primefact_def list_all_iff) (* Variant of Lucas theorem. *) lemma lucas_primefact: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and an: "[a^(n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and psn: "foldr op * ps 1 = n - 1" and psp: "list_all (λp. prime p ∧ ¬ [a^((n - 1) div p) = 1] (mod n)) ps" shows "prime n" proof- {fix p assume p: "prime p" "p dvd n - 1" "[a ^ ((n - 1) div p) = 1] (mod n)" from psn psp have psn1: "primefact ps (n - 1)" by (auto simp add: list_all_iff primefact_variant) from p(3) primefact_contains[OF psn1 p(1,2)] psp have False by (induct ps, auto)} with lucas[OF n an] show ?thesis by blast qed (* Variant of Pocklington theorem. *) lemma mod_le: assumes n: "n ≠ (0::nat)" shows "m mod n ≤ m" proof- from mod_div_equality[of m n] have "∃x. x + m mod n = m" by blast then show ?thesis by auto qed lemma pocklington_primefact: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and qrn: "q*r = n - 1" and nq2: "n ≤ q⇧^{2}" and arnb: "(a^r) mod n = b" and psq: "foldr op * ps 1 = q" and bqn: "(b^q) mod n = 1" and psp: "list_all (λp. prime p ∧ coprime ((b^(q div p)) mod n - 1) n) ps" shows "prime n" proof- from bqn psp qrn have bqn: "a ^ (n - 1) mod n = 1" and psp: "list_all (λp. prime p ∧ coprime (a^(r *(q div p)) mod n - 1) n) ps" unfolding arnb[symmetric] power_mod by (simp_all add: power_mult[symmetric] algebra_simps) from n have n0: "n > 0" by arith from mod_div_equality[of "a^(n - 1)" n] mod_less_divisor[OF n0, of "a^(n - 1)"] have an1: "[a ^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" unfolding nat_mod bqn apply - apply (rule exI[where x="0"]) apply (rule exI[where x="a^(n - 1) div n"]) by (simp add: algebra_simps) {fix p assume p: "prime p" "p dvd q" from psp psq have pfpsq: "primefact ps q" by (auto simp add: primefact_variant list_all_iff) from psp primefact_contains[OF pfpsq p] have p': "coprime (a ^ (r * (q div p)) mod n - 1) n" by (simp add: list_all_iff) from prime_ge_2[OF p(1)] have p01: "p ≠ 0" "p ≠ 1" "p =Suc(p - 1)" by arith+ from div_mult1_eq[of r q p] p(2) have eq1: "r* (q div p) = (n - 1) div p" unfolding qrn[symmetric] dvd_eq_mod_eq_0 by (simp add: mult.commute) have ath: "!!a (b::nat). a <= b ==> a ≠ 0 ==> 1 <= a ∧ 1 <= b" by arith from n0 have n00: "n ≠ 0" by arith from mod_le[OF n00] have th10: "a ^ ((n - 1) div p) mod n ≤ a ^ ((n - 1) div p)" . {assume "a ^ ((n - 1) div p) mod n = 0" then obtain s where s: "a ^ ((n - 1) div p) = n*s" unfolding mod_eq_0_iff by blast hence eq0: "(a^((n - 1) div p))^p = (n*s)^p" by simp from qrn[symmetric] have qn1: "q dvd n - 1" unfolding dvd_def by auto from dvd_trans[OF p(2) qn1] div_mod_equality'[of "n - 1" p] have npp: "(n - 1) div p * p = n - 1" by (simp add: dvd_eq_mod_eq_0) with eq0 have "a^ (n - 1) = (n*s)^p" by (simp add: power_mult[symmetric]) hence "1 = (n*s)^(Suc (p - 1)) mod n" using bqn p01 by simp also have "… = 0" by (simp add: mult.assoc) finally have False by simp } then have th11: "a ^ ((n - 1) div p) mod n ≠ 0" by auto have th1: "[a ^ ((n - 1) div p) mod n = a ^ ((n - 1) div p)] (mod n)" unfolding modeq_def by simp from cong_sub[OF th1 cong_refl[of 1]] ath[OF th10 th11] have th: "[a ^ ((n - 1) div p) mod n - 1 = a ^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1] (mod n)" by blast from cong_coprime[OF th] p'[unfolded eq1] have "coprime (a ^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1) n" by (simp add: coprime_commute) } with pocklington[OF n qrn[symmetric] nq2 an1] show ?thesis by blast qed end