Theory Residues

theory Residues
imports More_Ring Multiplicative_Group Totient
(*  Title:      HOL/Number_Theory/Residues.thy
    Author:     Jeremy Avigad

An algebraic treatment of residue rings, and resulting proofs of
Euler's theorem and Wilson's theorem.

section ‹Residue rings›

theory Residues

definition QuadRes :: "int ⇒ int ⇒ bool"
  where "QuadRes p a = (∃y. ([y^2 = a] (mod p)))"

definition Legendre :: "int ⇒ int ⇒ int"
  where "Legendre a p =
    (if ([a = 0] (mod p)) then 0
     else if QuadRes p a then 1
     else -1)"

subsection ‹A locale for residue rings›

definition residue_ring :: "int ⇒ int ring"
    "residue_ring m =
      ⦇carrier = {0..m - 1},
       monoid.mult = λx y. (x * y) mod m,
       one = 1,
       zero = 0,
       add = λx y. (x + y) mod m⦈"

locale residues =
  fixes m :: int and R (structure)
  assumes m_gt_one: "m > 1"
  defines "R ≡ residue_ring m"

lemma abelian_group: "abelian_group R"
proof -
  have "∃y∈{0..m - 1}. (x + y) mod m = 0" if "0 ≤ x" "x < m" for x
  proof (cases "x = 0")
    case True
    with m_gt_one show ?thesis by simp
    case False
    then have "(x + (m - x)) mod m = 0"
      by simp
    with m_gt_one that show ?thesis
      by (metis False atLeastAtMost_iff diff_ge_0_iff_ge diff_left_mono int_one_le_iff_zero_less less_le)
  with m_gt_one show ?thesis
    by (fastforce simp add: R_def residue_ring_def mod_add_right_eq ac_simps  intro!: abelian_groupI)

lemma comm_monoid: "comm_monoid R"
  unfolding R_def residue_ring_def
  apply (rule comm_monoidI)
    using m_gt_one  apply auto
  apply (metis mod_mult_right_eq mult.assoc mult.commute)
  apply (metis mult.commute)

lemma cring: "cring R"
  apply (intro cringI abelian_group comm_monoid)
  unfolding R_def residue_ring_def
  apply (auto simp add: comm_semiring_class.distrib mod_add_eq mod_mult_left_eq)


sublocale residues < cring
  by (rule cring)

context residues

text ‹
  These lemmas translate back and forth between internal and
  external concepts.

lemma res_carrier_eq: "carrier R = {0..m - 1}"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def)

lemma res_add_eq: "x ⊕ y = (x + y) mod m"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def)

lemma res_mult_eq: "x ⊗ y = (x * y) mod m"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def)

lemma res_zero_eq: "𝟬 = 0"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def)

lemma res_one_eq: "𝟭 = 1"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def units_of_def)

lemma res_units_eq: "Units R = {x. 0 < x ∧ x < m ∧ coprime x m}"
  using m_gt_one
  unfolding Units_def R_def residue_ring_def
  apply auto
    apply (subgoal_tac "x ≠ 0")
     apply auto
   apply (metis invertible_coprime_int)
  apply (subst (asm) coprime_iff_invertible'_int)
   apply (auto simp add: cong_int_def mult.commute)

lemma res_neg_eq: "⊖ x = (- x) mod m"
  using m_gt_one unfolding R_def a_inv_def m_inv_def residue_ring_def
  apply simp
  apply (rule the_equality)
   apply (simp add: mod_add_right_eq)
   apply (simp add: add.commute mod_add_right_eq)
  apply (metis add.right_neutral minus_add_cancel mod_add_right_eq mod_pos_pos_trivial)

lemma finite [iff]: "finite (carrier R)"
  by (simp add: res_carrier_eq)

lemma finite_Units [iff]: "finite (Units R)"
  by (simp add: finite_ring_finite_units)

text ‹
  The function ‹a ↦ a mod m› maps the integers to the
  residue classes. The following lemmas show that this mapping
  respects addition and multiplication on the integers.

lemma mod_in_carrier [iff]: "a mod m ∈ carrier R"
  unfolding res_carrier_eq
  using insert m_gt_one by auto

lemma add_cong: "(x mod m) ⊕ (y mod m) = (x + y) mod m"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def mod_simps)

lemma mult_cong: "(x mod m) ⊗ (y mod m) = (x * y) mod m"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def mod_simps)

lemma zero_cong: "𝟬 = 0"
  by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def)

lemma one_cong: "𝟭 = 1 mod m"
  using m_gt_one by (auto simp: R_def residue_ring_def)

(* FIXME revise algebra library to use 1? *)
lemma pow_cong: "(x mod m) (^) n = x^n mod m"
  using m_gt_one
  apply (induct n)
  apply (auto simp add: nat_pow_def one_cong)
  apply (metis mult.commute mult_cong)

lemma neg_cong: "⊖ (x mod m) = (- x) mod m"
  by (metis mod_minus_eq res_neg_eq)

lemma (in residues) prod_cong: "finite A ⟹ (⨂i∈A. (f i) mod m) = (∏i∈A. f i) mod m"
  by (induct set: finite) (auto simp: one_cong mult_cong)

lemma (in residues) sum_cong: "finite A ⟹ (⨁i∈A. (f i) mod m) = (∑i∈A. f i) mod m"
  by (induct set: finite) (auto simp: zero_cong add_cong)

lemma mod_in_res_units [simp]:
  assumes "1 < m" and "coprime a m"
  shows "a mod m ∈ Units R"
proof (cases "a mod m = 0")
  case True
  with assms show ?thesis
    by (auto simp add: res_units_eq gcd_red_int [symmetric])
  case False
  from assms have "0 < m" by simp
  then have "0 ≤ a mod m" by (rule pos_mod_sign [of m a])
  with False have "0 < a mod m" by simp
  with assms show ?thesis
    by (auto simp add: res_units_eq gcd_red_int [symmetric] ac_simps)

lemma res_eq_to_cong: "(a mod m) = (b mod m) ⟷ [a = b] (mod m)"
  by (auto simp: cong_int_def)

text ‹Simplifying with these will translate a ring equation in R to a congruence.›
lemmas res_to_cong_simps =
  add_cong mult_cong pow_cong one_cong
  prod_cong sum_cong neg_cong res_eq_to_cong

text ‹Other useful facts about the residue ring.›
lemma one_eq_neg_one: "𝟭 = ⊖ 𝟭 ⟹ m = 2"
  apply (simp add: res_one_eq res_neg_eq)
  apply (metis add.commute add_diff_cancel mod_mod_trivial one_add_one uminus_add_conv_diff
    zero_neq_one zmod_zminus1_eq_if)


subsection ‹Prime residues›

locale residues_prime =
  fixes p :: nat and R (structure)
  assumes p_prime [intro]: "prime p"
  defines "R ≡ residue_ring (int p)"

sublocale residues_prime < residues p
  unfolding R_def residues_def
  using p_prime apply auto
  apply (metis (full_types) of_nat_1 of_nat_less_iff prime_gt_1_nat)

context residues_prime

lemma is_field: "field R"
proof -
  have "gcd x (int p) ≠ 1 ⟹ 0 ≤ x ⟹ x < int p ⟹ x = 0" for x
    by (metis dual_order.order_iff_strict gcd.commute less_le_not_le p_prime prime_imp_coprime prime_nat_int_transfer zdvd_imp_le)
  then show ?thesis
    apply (intro cring.field_intro2 cring)
     apply (auto simp add: res_carrier_eq res_one_eq res_zero_eq res_units_eq)

lemma res_prime_units_eq: "Units R = {1..p - 1}"
  apply (subst res_units_eq)
  apply auto
  apply (subst gcd.commute)
  apply (auto simp add: p_prime prime_imp_coprime_int zdvd_not_zless)


sublocale residues_prime < field
  by (rule is_field)

section ‹Test cases: Euler's theorem and Wilson's theorem›

subsection ‹Euler's theorem›

lemma (in residues) totient_eq: "totient (nat m) = card (Units R)"
proof -
  have *: "inj_on nat (Units R)"
    by (rule inj_onI) (auto simp add: res_units_eq)
  define m' where "m' = nat m"
  from m_gt_one have "m = int m'" "m' > 1"
    by (simp_all add: m'_def)
  then have "x ∈ Units R ⟷ x ∈ int ` totatives m'" for x
    unfolding res_units_eq
    by (cases x; cases "x = m") (auto simp: totatives_def transfer_int_nat_gcd)
  then have "Units R = int ` totatives m'"
    by blast
  then have "totatives m' = nat ` Units R"
    by (simp add: image_image)
  then have "card (totatives (nat m)) = card (nat ` Units R)"
    by (simp add: m'_def)
  also have "… = card (Units R)"
    using * card_image [of nat "Units R"] by auto
  finally show ?thesis
    by (simp add: totient_def)

lemma (in residues_prime) totient_eq: "totient p = p - 1"
  using totient_eq by (simp add: res_prime_units_eq)

lemma (in residues) euler_theorem:
  assumes "coprime a m"
  shows "[a ^ totient (nat m) = 1] (mod m)"
proof -
  have "a ^ totient (nat m) mod m = 1 mod m"
    by (metis assms finite_Units m_gt_one mod_in_res_units one_cong totient_eq pow_cong units_power_order_eq_one)
  then show ?thesis
    using res_eq_to_cong by blast

lemma euler_theorem:
  fixes a m :: nat
  assumes "coprime a m"
  shows "[a ^ totient m = 1] (mod m)"
proof (cases "m = 0 | m = 1")
  case True
  then show ?thesis by auto
  case False
  with assms show ?thesis
    using residues.euler_theorem [of "int m" "int a"] transfer_int_nat_cong
    by (auto simp add: residues_def transfer_int_nat_gcd(1)) force

lemma fermat_theorem:
  fixes p a :: nat
  assumes "prime p" and "¬ p dvd a"
  shows "[a ^ (p - 1) = 1] (mod p)"
proof -
  from assms prime_imp_coprime [of p a] have "coprime a p"
    by (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  then have "[a ^ totient p = 1] (mod p)"
     by (rule euler_theorem)
  also have "totient p = p - 1"
    by (rule totient_prime) (rule assms)
  finally show ?thesis .

subsection ‹Wilson's theorem›

lemma (in field) inv_pair_lemma: "x ∈ Units R ⟹ y ∈ Units R ⟹
    {x, inv x} ≠ {y, inv y} ⟹ {x, inv x} ∩ {y, inv y} = {}"
  apply auto
  apply (metis Units_inv_inv)+

lemma (in residues_prime) wilson_theorem1:
  assumes a: "p > 2"
  shows "[fact (p - 1) = (-1::int)] (mod p)"
proof -
  let ?Inverse_Pairs = "{{x, inv x}| x. x ∈ Units R - {𝟭, ⊖ 𝟭}}"
  have UR: "Units R = {𝟭, ⊖ 𝟭} ∪ ⋃?Inverse_Pairs"
    by auto
  have "(⨂i∈Units R. i) = (⨂i∈{𝟭, ⊖ 𝟭}. i) ⊗ (⨂i∈⋃?Inverse_Pairs. i)"
    apply (subst UR)
    apply (subst finprod_Un_disjoint)
         apply (auto intro: funcsetI)
    using inv_one apply auto[1]
    using inv_eq_neg_one_eq apply auto
  also have "(⨂i∈{𝟭, ⊖ 𝟭}. i) = ⊖ 𝟭"
    apply (subst finprod_insert)
        apply auto
    apply (frule one_eq_neg_one)
    using a apply force
  also have "(⨂i∈(⋃?Inverse_Pairs). i) = (⨂A∈?Inverse_Pairs. (⨂y∈A. y))"
    apply (subst finprod_Union_disjoint)
       apply auto
     apply (metis Units_inv_inv)+
  also have "… = 𝟭"
    apply (rule finprod_one)
     apply auto
    apply (subst finprod_insert)
        apply auto
    apply (metis inv_eq_self)
  finally have "(⨂i∈Units R. i) = ⊖ 𝟭"
    by simp
  also have "(⨂i∈Units R. i) = (⨂i∈Units R. i mod p)"
    by (rule finprod_cong') (auto simp: res_units_eq)
  also have "… = (∏i∈Units R. i) mod p"
    by (rule prod_cong) auto
  also have "… = fact (p - 1) mod p"
    apply (simp add: fact_prod)
    using assms
    apply (subst res_prime_units_eq)
    apply (simp add: int_prod zmod_int prod_int_eq)
  finally have "fact (p - 1) mod p = ⊖ 𝟭" .
  then show ?thesis
    by (metis of_nat_fact Divides.transfer_int_nat_functions(2)
        cong_int_def res_neg_eq res_one_eq)

lemma wilson_theorem:
  assumes "prime p"
  shows "[fact (p - 1) = - 1] (mod p)"
proof (cases "p = 2")
  case True
  then show ?thesis
    by (simp add: cong_int_def fact_prod)
  case False
  then show ?thesis
    using assms prime_ge_2_nat
    by (metis residues_prime.wilson_theorem1 residues_prime.intro le_eq_less_or_eq)

text ‹
  This result can be transferred to the multiplicative group of
  ‹ℤ/pℤ› for ‹p› prime.›

lemma mod_nat_int_pow_eq:
  fixes n :: nat and p a :: int
  shows "a ≥ 0 ⟹ p ≥ 0 ⟹ (nat a ^ n) mod (nat p) = nat ((a ^ n) mod p)"
  by (simp add: int_one_le_iff_zero_less nat_mod_distrib order_less_imp_le nat_power_eq[symmetric])

theorem residue_prime_mult_group_has_gen :
 fixes p :: nat
 assumes prime_p : "prime p"
 shows "∃a ∈ {1 .. p - 1}. {1 .. p - 1} = {a^i mod p|i . i ∈ UNIV}"
proof -
  have "p ≥ 2"
    using prime_gt_1_nat[OF prime_p] by simp
  interpret R: residues_prime p "residue_ring p"
    by (simp add: residues_prime_def prime_p)
  have car: "carrier (residue_ring (int p)) - {𝟬residue_ring (int p)} = {1 .. int p - 1}"
    by (auto simp add: R.zero_cong R.res_carrier_eq)

  have "x (^)residue_ring (int p) i = x ^ i mod (int p)"
    if "x ∈ {1 .. int p - 1}" for x and i :: nat
    using that R.pow_cong[of x i] by auto
  obtain a where a: "a ∈ {1 .. int p - 1}"
    and a_gen: "{1 .. int p - 1} = {a(^)residue_ring (int p)i|i::nat . i ∈ UNIV}"
    using field.finite_field_mult_group_has_gen[OF R.is_field]
    by (auto simp add: car[symmetric] carrier_mult_of)
  have "nat ` {1 .. int p - 1} = {1 .. p - 1}" (is "?L = ?R")
    have "n ∈ ?R" if "n ∈ ?L" for n
      using that ‹p≥2› by force
    then show "?L ⊆ ?R" by blast
    have "n ∈ ?L" if "n ∈ ?R" for n
      using that ‹p≥2› Set_Interval.transfer_nat_int_set_functions(2) by fastforce
    then show "?R ⊆ ?L" by blast
  have "nat ` {a^i mod (int p) | i::nat. i ∈ UNIV} = {nat a^i mod p | i . i ∈ UNIV}" (is "?L = ?R")
    have "x ∈ ?R" if "x ∈ ?L" for x
    proof -
      from that obtain i where i: "x = nat (a^i mod (int p))"
        by blast
      then have "x = nat a ^ i mod p"
        using mod_nat_int_pow_eq[of a "int p" i] a ‹p≥2› by auto
      with i show ?thesis by blast
    then show "?L ⊆ ?R" by blast
    have "x ∈ ?L" if "x ∈ ?R" for x
    proof -
      from that obtain i where i: "x = nat a^i mod p"
        by blast
      with mod_nat_int_pow_eq[of a "int p" i] a ‹p≥2› show ?thesis
        by auto
    then show "?R ⊆ ?L" by blast
  ultimately have "{1 .. p - 1} = {nat a^i mod p | i. i ∈ UNIV}"
    by presburger
  moreover from a have "nat a ∈ {1 .. p - 1}" by force
  ultimately show ?thesis ..