Theory Group

theory Group
imports Lattice FuncSet
(*  Title:      HOL/Algebra/Group.thy
    Author:     Clemens Ballarin, started 4 February 2003

Based on work by Florian Kammueller, L C Paulson and Markus Wenzel.
*)

theory Group
imports Lattice "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet"
begin

section {* Monoids and Groups *}

subsection {* Definitions *}

text {*
  Definitions follow \cite{Jacobson:1985}.
*}

record 'a monoid =  "'a partial_object" +
  mult    :: "['a, 'a] => 'a" (infixl "⊗\<index>" 70)
  one     :: 'a ("\<one>\<index>")

definition
  m_inv :: "('a, 'b) monoid_scheme => 'a => 'a" ("inv\<index> _" [81] 80)
  where "invG x = (THE y. y ∈ carrier G & x ⊗G y = \<one>G & y ⊗G x = \<one>G)"

definition
  Units :: "_ => 'a set"
  --{*The set of invertible elements*}
  where "Units G = {y. y ∈ carrier G & (∃x ∈ carrier G. x ⊗G y = \<one>G & y ⊗G x = \<one>G)}"

consts
  pow :: "[('a, 'm) monoid_scheme, 'a, 'b::semiring_1] => 'a"  (infixr "'(^')\<index>" 75)

overloading nat_pow == "pow :: [_, 'a, nat] => 'a"
begin
  definition "nat_pow G a n = rec_nat \<one>G (%u b. b ⊗G a) n"
end

overloading int_pow == "pow :: [_, 'a, int] => 'a"
begin
  definition "int_pow G a z =
   (let p = rec_nat \<one>G (%u b. b ⊗G a)
    in if z < 0 then invG (p (nat (-z))) else p (nat z))"
end

locale monoid =
  fixes G (structure)
  assumes m_closed [intro, simp]:
         "[|x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G|] ==> x ⊗ y ∈ carrier G"
      and m_assoc:
         "[|x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G|] 
          ==> (x ⊗ y) ⊗ z = x ⊗ (y ⊗ z)"
      and one_closed [intro, simp]: "\<one> ∈ carrier G"
      and l_one [simp]: "x ∈ carrier G ==> \<one> ⊗ x = x"
      and r_one [simp]: "x ∈ carrier G ==> x ⊗ \<one> = x"

lemma monoidI:
  fixes G (structure)
  assumes m_closed:
      "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> x ⊗ y ∈ carrier G"
    and one_closed: "\<one> ∈ carrier G"
    and m_assoc:
      "!!x y z. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
      (x ⊗ y) ⊗ z = x ⊗ (y ⊗ z)"
    and l_one: "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> \<one> ⊗ x = x"
    and r_one: "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> x ⊗ \<one> = x"
  shows "monoid G"
  by (fast intro!: monoid.intro intro: assms)

lemma (in monoid) Units_closed [dest]:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> x ∈ carrier G"
  by (unfold Units_def) fast

lemma (in monoid) inv_unique:
  assumes eq: "y ⊗ x = \<one>"  "x ⊗ y' = \<one>"
    and G: "x ∈ carrier G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "y' ∈ carrier G"
  shows "y = y'"
proof -
  from G eq have "y = y ⊗ (x ⊗ y')" by simp
  also from G have "... = (y ⊗ x) ⊗ y'" by (simp add: m_assoc)
  also from G eq have "... = y'" by simp
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma (in monoid) Units_m_closed [intro, simp]:
  assumes x: "x ∈ Units G" and y: "y ∈ Units G"
  shows "x ⊗ y ∈ Units G"
proof -
  from x obtain x' where x: "x ∈ carrier G" "x' ∈ carrier G" and xinv: "x ⊗ x' = \<one>" "x' ⊗ x = \<one>"
    unfolding Units_def by fast
  from y obtain y' where y: "y ∈ carrier G" "y' ∈ carrier G" and yinv: "y ⊗ y' = \<one>" "y' ⊗ y = \<one>"
    unfolding Units_def by fast
  from x y xinv yinv have "y' ⊗ (x' ⊗ x) ⊗ y = \<one>" by simp
  moreover from x y xinv yinv have "x ⊗ (y ⊗ y') ⊗ x' = \<one>" by simp
  moreover note x y
  ultimately show ?thesis unfolding Units_def
    -- "Must avoid premature use of @{text hyp_subst_tac}."
    apply (rule_tac CollectI)
    apply (rule)
    apply (fast)
    apply (rule bexI [where x = "y' ⊗ x'"])
    apply (auto simp: m_assoc)
    done
qed

lemma (in monoid) Units_one_closed [intro, simp]:
  "\<one> ∈ Units G"
  by (unfold Units_def) auto

lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_closed [intro, simp]:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> inv x ∈ carrier G"
  apply (unfold Units_def m_inv_def, auto)
  apply (rule theI2, fast)
   apply (fast intro: inv_unique, fast)
  done

lemma (in monoid) Units_l_inv_ex:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. y ⊗ x = \<one>"
  by (unfold Units_def) auto

lemma (in monoid) Units_r_inv_ex:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. x ⊗ y = \<one>"
  by (unfold Units_def) auto

lemma (in monoid) Units_l_inv [simp]:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> inv x ⊗ x = \<one>"
  apply (unfold Units_def m_inv_def, auto)
  apply (rule theI2, fast)
   apply (fast intro: inv_unique, fast)
  done

lemma (in monoid) Units_r_inv [simp]:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> x ⊗ inv x = \<one>"
  apply (unfold Units_def m_inv_def, auto)
  apply (rule theI2, fast)
   apply (fast intro: inv_unique, fast)
  done

lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_Units [intro, simp]:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> inv x ∈ Units G"
proof -
  assume x: "x ∈ Units G"
  show "inv x ∈ Units G"
    by (auto simp add: Units_def
      intro: Units_l_inv Units_r_inv x Units_closed [OF x])
qed

lemma (in monoid) Units_l_cancel [simp]:
  "[| x ∈ Units G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
   (x ⊗ y = x ⊗ z) = (y = z)"
proof
  assume eq: "x ⊗ y = x ⊗ z"
    and G: "x ∈ Units G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "z ∈ carrier G"
  then have "(inv x ⊗ x) ⊗ y = (inv x ⊗ x) ⊗ z"
    by (simp add: m_assoc Units_closed del: Units_l_inv)
  with G show "y = z" by simp
next
  assume eq: "y = z"
    and G: "x ∈ Units G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "z ∈ carrier G"
  then show "x ⊗ y = x ⊗ z" by simp
qed

lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_inv [simp]:
  "x ∈ Units G ==> inv (inv x) = x"
proof -
  assume x: "x ∈ Units G"
  then have "inv x ⊗ inv (inv x) = inv x ⊗ x" by simp
  with x show ?thesis by (simp add: Units_closed del: Units_l_inv Units_r_inv)
qed

lemma (in monoid) inv_inj_on_Units:
  "inj_on (m_inv G) (Units G)"
proof (rule inj_onI)
  fix x y
  assume G: "x ∈ Units G"  "y ∈ Units G" and eq: "inv x = inv y"
  then have "inv (inv x) = inv (inv y)" by simp
  with G show "x = y" by simp
qed

lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_comm:
  assumes inv: "x ⊗ y = \<one>"
    and G: "x ∈ Units G"  "y ∈ Units G"
  shows "y ⊗ x = \<one>"
proof -
  from G have "x ⊗ y ⊗ x = x ⊗ \<one>" by (auto simp add: inv Units_closed)
  with G show ?thesis by (simp del: r_one add: m_assoc Units_closed)
qed

text {* Power *}

lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_closed [intro, simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x (^) (n::nat) ∈ carrier G"
  by (induct n) (simp_all add: nat_pow_def)

lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_0 [simp]:
  "x (^) (0::nat) = \<one>"
  by (simp add: nat_pow_def)

lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_Suc [simp]:
  "x (^) (Suc n) = x (^) n ⊗ x"
  by (simp add: nat_pow_def)

lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_one [simp]:
  "\<one> (^) (n::nat) = \<one>"
  by (induct n) simp_all

lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_mult:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x (^) (n::nat) ⊗ x (^) m = x (^) (n + m)"
  by (induct m) (simp_all add: m_assoc [THEN sym])

lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_pow:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> (x (^) n) (^) m = x (^) (n * m::nat)"
  by (induct m) (simp, simp add: nat_pow_mult add.commute)


(* Jacobson defines submonoid here. *)
(* Jacobson defines the order of a monoid here. *)


subsection {* Groups *}

text {*
  A group is a monoid all of whose elements are invertible.
*}

locale group = monoid +
  assumes Units: "carrier G <= Units G"

lemma (in group) is_group: "group G" by (rule group_axioms)

theorem groupI:
  fixes G (structure)
  assumes m_closed [simp]:
      "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> x ⊗ y ∈ carrier G"
    and one_closed [simp]: "\<one> ∈ carrier G"
    and m_assoc:
      "!!x y z. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
      (x ⊗ y) ⊗ z = x ⊗ (y ⊗ z)"
    and l_one [simp]: "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> \<one> ⊗ x = x"
    and l_inv_ex: "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. y ⊗ x = \<one>"
  shows "group G"
proof -
  have l_cancel [simp]:
    "!!x y z. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
    (x ⊗ y = x ⊗ z) = (y = z)"
  proof
    fix x y z
    assume eq: "x ⊗ y = x ⊗ z"
      and G: "x ∈ carrier G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "z ∈ carrier G"
    with l_inv_ex obtain x_inv where xG: "x_inv ∈ carrier G"
      and l_inv: "x_inv ⊗ x = \<one>" by fast
    from G eq xG have "(x_inv ⊗ x) ⊗ y = (x_inv ⊗ x) ⊗ z"
      by (simp add: m_assoc)
    with G show "y = z" by (simp add: l_inv)
  next
    fix x y z
    assume eq: "y = z"
      and G: "x ∈ carrier G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "z ∈ carrier G"
    then show "x ⊗ y = x ⊗ z" by simp
  qed
  have r_one:
    "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> x ⊗ \<one> = x"
  proof -
    fix x
    assume x: "x ∈ carrier G"
    with l_inv_ex obtain x_inv where xG: "x_inv ∈ carrier G"
      and l_inv: "x_inv ⊗ x = \<one>" by fast
    from x xG have "x_inv ⊗ (x ⊗ \<one>) = x_inv ⊗ x"
      by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric] l_inv)
    with x xG show "x ⊗ \<one> = x" by simp
  qed
  have inv_ex:
    "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. y ⊗ x = \<one> & x ⊗ y = \<one>"
  proof -
    fix x
    assume x: "x ∈ carrier G"
    with l_inv_ex obtain y where y: "y ∈ carrier G"
      and l_inv: "y ⊗ x = \<one>" by fast
    from x y have "y ⊗ (x ⊗ y) = y ⊗ \<one>"
      by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric] l_inv r_one)
    with x y have r_inv: "x ⊗ y = \<one>"
      by simp
    from x y show "∃y ∈ carrier G. y ⊗ x = \<one> & x ⊗ y = \<one>"
      by (fast intro: l_inv r_inv)
  qed
  then have carrier_subset_Units: "carrier G <= Units G"
    by (unfold Units_def) fast
  show ?thesis by default (auto simp: r_one m_assoc carrier_subset_Units)
qed

lemma (in monoid) group_l_invI:
  assumes l_inv_ex:
    "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. y ⊗ x = \<one>"
  shows "group G"
  by (rule groupI) (auto intro: m_assoc l_inv_ex)

lemma (in group) Units_eq [simp]:
  "Units G = carrier G"
proof
  show "Units G <= carrier G" by fast
next
  show "carrier G <= Units G" by (rule Units)
qed

lemma (in group) inv_closed [intro, simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> inv x ∈ carrier G"
  using Units_inv_closed by simp

lemma (in group) l_inv_ex [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. y ⊗ x = \<one>"
  using Units_l_inv_ex by simp

lemma (in group) r_inv_ex [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. x ⊗ y = \<one>"
  using Units_r_inv_ex by simp

lemma (in group) l_inv [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> inv x ⊗ x = \<one>"
  using Units_l_inv by simp


subsection {* Cancellation Laws and Basic Properties *}

lemma (in group) l_cancel [simp]:
  "[| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
   (x ⊗ y = x ⊗ z) = (y = z)"
  using Units_l_inv by simp

lemma (in group) r_inv [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x ⊗ inv x = \<one>"
proof -
  assume x: "x ∈ carrier G"
  then have "inv x ⊗ (x ⊗ inv x) = inv x ⊗ \<one>"
    by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric])
  with x show ?thesis by (simp del: r_one)
qed

lemma (in group) r_cancel [simp]:
  "[| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
   (y ⊗ x = z ⊗ x) = (y = z)"
proof
  assume eq: "y ⊗ x = z ⊗ x"
    and G: "x ∈ carrier G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "z ∈ carrier G"
  then have "y ⊗ (x ⊗ inv x) = z ⊗ (x ⊗ inv x)"
    by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric] del: r_inv Units_r_inv)
  with G show "y = z" by simp
next
  assume eq: "y = z"
    and G: "x ∈ carrier G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "z ∈ carrier G"
  then show "y ⊗ x = z ⊗ x" by simp
qed

lemma (in group) inv_one [simp]:
  "inv \<one> = \<one>"
proof -
  have "inv \<one> = \<one> ⊗ (inv \<one>)" by (simp del: r_inv Units_r_inv)
  moreover have "... = \<one>" by simp
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma (in group) inv_inv [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> inv (inv x) = x"
  using Units_inv_inv by simp

lemma (in group) inv_inj:
  "inj_on (m_inv G) (carrier G)"
  using inv_inj_on_Units by simp

lemma (in group) inv_mult_group:
  "[| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> inv (x ⊗ y) = inv y ⊗ inv x"
proof -
  assume G: "x ∈ carrier G"  "y ∈ carrier G"
  then have "inv (x ⊗ y) ⊗ (x ⊗ y) = (inv y ⊗ inv x) ⊗ (x ⊗ y)"
    by (simp add: m_assoc) (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric])
  with G show ?thesis by (simp del: l_inv Units_l_inv)
qed

lemma (in group) inv_comm:
  "[| x ⊗ y = \<one>; x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> y ⊗ x = \<one>"
  by (rule Units_inv_comm) auto

lemma (in group) inv_equality:
     "[|y ⊗ x = \<one>; x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G|] ==> inv x = y"
apply (simp add: m_inv_def)
apply (rule the_equality)
 apply (simp add: inv_comm [of y x])
apply (rule r_cancel [THEN iffD1], auto)
done

(* Contributed by Joachim Breitner *)
lemma (in group) inv_solve_left:
  "[| a ∈ carrier G; b ∈ carrier G; c ∈ carrier G |] ==> a = inv b ⊗ c <-> c = b ⊗ a"
  by (metis inv_equality l_inv_ex l_one m_assoc r_inv)
lemma (in group) inv_solve_right:
  "[| a ∈ carrier G; b ∈ carrier G; c ∈ carrier G |] ==> a = b ⊗ inv c <-> b = a ⊗ c"
  by (metis inv_equality l_inv_ex l_one m_assoc r_inv)

text {* Power *}

lemma (in group) int_pow_def2:
  "a (^) (z::int) = (if z < 0 then inv (a (^) (nat (-z))) else a (^) (nat z))"
  by (simp add: int_pow_def nat_pow_def Let_def)

lemma (in group) int_pow_0 [simp]:
  "x (^) (0::int) = \<one>"
  by (simp add: int_pow_def2)

lemma (in group) int_pow_one [simp]:
  "\<one> (^) (z::int) = \<one>"
  by (simp add: int_pow_def2)

(* The following are contributed by Joachim Breitner *)

lemma (in group) int_pow_closed [intro, simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x (^) (i::int) ∈ carrier G"
  by (simp add: int_pow_def2)

lemma (in group) int_pow_1 [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x (^) (1::int) = x"
  by (simp add: int_pow_def2)

lemma (in group) int_pow_neg:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x (^) (-i::int) = inv (x (^) i)"
  by (simp add: int_pow_def2)

lemma (in group) int_pow_mult:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x (^) (i + j::int) = x (^) i ⊗ x (^) j"
proof -
  have [simp]: "-i - j = -j - i" by simp
  assume "x : carrier G" then
  show ?thesis
    by (auto simp add: int_pow_def2 inv_solve_left inv_solve_right nat_add_distrib [symmetric] nat_pow_mult )
qed

 
subsection {* Subgroups *}

locale subgroup =
  fixes H and G (structure)
  assumes subset: "H ⊆ carrier G"
    and m_closed [intro, simp]: "[|x ∈ H; y ∈ H|] ==> x ⊗ y ∈ H"
    and one_closed [simp]: "\<one> ∈ H"
    and m_inv_closed [intro,simp]: "x ∈ H ==> inv x ∈ H"

lemma (in subgroup) is_subgroup:
  "subgroup H G" by (rule subgroup_axioms)

declare (in subgroup) group.intro [intro]

lemma (in subgroup) mem_carrier [simp]:
  "x ∈ H ==> x ∈ carrier G"
  using subset by blast

lemma subgroup_imp_subset:
  "subgroup H G ==> H ⊆ carrier G"
  by (rule subgroup.subset)

lemma (in subgroup) subgroup_is_group [intro]:
  assumes "group G"
  shows "group (G(|carrier := H|)),)"
proof -
  interpret group G by fact
  show ?thesis
    apply (rule monoid.group_l_invI)
    apply (unfold_locales) [1]
    apply (auto intro: m_assoc l_inv mem_carrier)
    done
qed

text {*
  Since @{term H} is nonempty, it contains some element @{term x}.  Since
  it is closed under inverse, it contains @{text "inv x"}.  Since
  it is closed under product, it contains @{text "x ⊗ inv x = \<one>"}.
*}

lemma (in group) one_in_subset:
  "[| H ⊆ carrier G; H ≠ {}; ∀a ∈ H. inv a ∈ H; ∀a∈H. ∀b∈H. a ⊗ b ∈ H |]
   ==> \<one> ∈ H"
by force

text {* A characterization of subgroups: closed, non-empty subset. *}

lemma (in group) subgroupI:
  assumes subset: "H ⊆ carrier G" and non_empty: "H ≠ {}"
    and inv: "!!a. a ∈ H ==> inv a ∈ H"
    and mult: "!!a b. [|a ∈ H; b ∈ H|] ==> a ⊗ b ∈ H"
  shows "subgroup H G"
proof (simp add: subgroup_def assms)
  show "\<one> ∈ H" by (rule one_in_subset) (auto simp only: assms)
qed

declare monoid.one_closed [iff] group.inv_closed [simp]
  monoid.l_one [simp] monoid.r_one [simp] group.inv_inv [simp]

lemma subgroup_nonempty:
  "~ subgroup {} G"
  by (blast dest: subgroup.one_closed)

lemma (in subgroup) finite_imp_card_positive:
  "finite (carrier G) ==> 0 < card H"
proof (rule classical)
  assume "finite (carrier G)" and a: "~ 0 < card H"
  then have "finite H" by (blast intro: finite_subset [OF subset])
  with is_subgroup a have "subgroup {} G" by simp
  with subgroup_nonempty show ?thesis by contradiction
qed

(*
lemma (in monoid) Units_subgroup:
  "subgroup (Units G) G"
*)


subsection {* Direct Products *}

definition
  DirProd :: "_ => _ => ('a × 'b) monoid" (infixr "××" 80) where
  "G ×× H =
    (|carrier = carrier G × carrier H,
     mult = (λ(g, h) (g', h'). (g ⊗G g', h ⊗H h')),
     one = (\<one>G, \<one>H)|)),"

lemma DirProd_monoid:
  assumes "monoid G" and "monoid H"
  shows "monoid (G ×× H)"
proof -
  interpret G: monoid G by fact
  interpret H: monoid H by fact
  from assms
  show ?thesis by (unfold monoid_def DirProd_def, auto) 
qed


text{*Does not use the previous result because it's easier just to use auto.*}
lemma DirProd_group:
  assumes "group G" and "group H"
  shows "group (G ×× H)"
proof -
  interpret G: group G by fact
  interpret H: group H by fact
  show ?thesis by (rule groupI)
     (auto intro: G.m_assoc H.m_assoc G.l_inv H.l_inv
           simp add: DirProd_def)
qed

lemma carrier_DirProd [simp]:
     "carrier (G ×× H) = carrier G × carrier H"
  by (simp add: DirProd_def)

lemma one_DirProd [simp]:
     "\<one>G ×× H = (\<one>G, \<one>H)"
  by (simp add: DirProd_def)

lemma mult_DirProd [simp]:
     "(g, h) ⊗(G ×× H) (g', h') = (g ⊗G g', h ⊗H h')"
  by (simp add: DirProd_def)

lemma inv_DirProd [simp]:
  assumes "group G" and "group H"
  assumes g: "g ∈ carrier G"
      and h: "h ∈ carrier H"
  shows "m_inv (G ×× H) (g, h) = (invG g, invH h)"
proof -
  interpret G: group G by fact
  interpret H: group H by fact
  interpret Prod: group "G ×× H"
    by (auto intro: DirProd_group group.intro group.axioms assms)
  show ?thesis by (simp add: Prod.inv_equality g h)
qed


subsection {* Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms *}

definition
  hom :: "_ => _ => ('a => 'b) set" where
  "hom G H =
    {h. h ∈ carrier G -> carrier H &
      (∀x ∈ carrier G. ∀y ∈ carrier G. h (x ⊗G y) = h x ⊗H h y)}"

lemma (in group) hom_compose:
  "[|h ∈ hom G H; i ∈ hom H I|] ==> compose (carrier G) i h ∈ hom G I"
by (fastforce simp add: hom_def compose_def)

definition
  iso :: "_ => _ => ('a => 'b) set" (infixr "≅" 60)
  where "G ≅ H = {h. h ∈ hom G H & bij_betw h (carrier G) (carrier H)}"

lemma iso_refl: "(%x. x) ∈ G ≅ G"
by (simp add: iso_def hom_def inj_on_def bij_betw_def Pi_def)

lemma (in group) iso_sym:
     "h ∈ G ≅ H ==> inv_into (carrier G) h ∈ H ≅ G"
apply (simp add: iso_def bij_betw_inv_into) 
apply (subgoal_tac "inv_into (carrier G) h ∈ carrier H -> carrier G") 
 prefer 2 apply (simp add: bij_betw_imp_funcset [OF bij_betw_inv_into]) 
apply (simp add: hom_def bij_betw_def inv_into_f_eq f_inv_into_f Pi_def)
done

lemma (in group) iso_trans: 
     "[|h ∈ G ≅ H; i ∈ H ≅ I|] ==> (compose (carrier G) i h) ∈ G ≅ I"
by (auto simp add: iso_def hom_compose bij_betw_compose)

lemma DirProd_commute_iso:
  shows "(λ(x,y). (y,x)) ∈ (G ×× H) ≅ (H ×× G)"
by (auto simp add: iso_def hom_def inj_on_def bij_betw_def)

lemma DirProd_assoc_iso:
  shows "(λ(x,y,z). (x,(y,z))) ∈ (G ×× H ×× I) ≅ (G ×× (H ×× I))"
by (auto simp add: iso_def hom_def inj_on_def bij_betw_def)


text{*Basis for homomorphism proofs: we assume two groups @{term G} and
  @{term H}, with a homomorphism @{term h} between them*}
locale group_hom = G: group G + H: group H for G (structure) and H (structure) +
  fixes h
  assumes homh: "h ∈ hom G H"

lemma (in group_hom) hom_mult [simp]:
  "[| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> h (x ⊗G y) = h x ⊗H h y"
proof -
  assume "x ∈ carrier G" "y ∈ carrier G"
  with homh [unfolded hom_def] show ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma (in group_hom) hom_closed [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> h x ∈ carrier H"
proof -
  assume "x ∈ carrier G"
  with homh [unfolded hom_def] show ?thesis by auto
qed

lemma (in group_hom) one_closed [simp]:
  "h \<one> ∈ carrier H"
  by simp

lemma (in group_hom) hom_one [simp]:
  "h \<one> = \<one>H"
proof -
  have "h \<one> ⊗H \<one>H = h \<one> ⊗H h \<one>"
    by (simp add: hom_mult [symmetric] del: hom_mult)
  then show ?thesis by (simp del: r_one)
qed

lemma (in group_hom) inv_closed [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> h (inv x) ∈ carrier H"
  by simp

lemma (in group_hom) hom_inv [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> h (inv x) = invH (h x)"
proof -
  assume x: "x ∈ carrier G"
  then have "h x ⊗H h (inv x) = \<one>H"
    by (simp add: hom_mult [symmetric] del: hom_mult)
  also from x have "... = h x ⊗H invH (h x)"
    by (simp add: hom_mult [symmetric] del: hom_mult)
  finally have "h x ⊗H h (inv x) = h x ⊗H invH (h x)" .
  with x show ?thesis by (simp del: H.r_inv H.Units_r_inv)
qed

(* Contributed by Joachim Breitner *)
lemma (in group) int_pow_is_hom:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> (op(^) x) ∈ hom (| carrier = UNIV, mult = op +, one = 0::int |)), G "
  unfolding hom_def by (simp add: int_pow_mult)


subsection {* Commutative Structures *}

text {*
  Naming convention: multiplicative structures that are commutative
  are called \emph{commutative}, additive structures are called
  \emph{Abelian}.
*}

locale comm_monoid = monoid +
  assumes m_comm: "[|x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G|] ==> x ⊗ y = y ⊗ x"

lemma (in comm_monoid) m_lcomm:
  "[|x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G|] ==>
   x ⊗ (y ⊗ z) = y ⊗ (x ⊗ z)"
proof -
  assume xyz: "x ∈ carrier G"  "y ∈ carrier G"  "z ∈ carrier G"
  from xyz have "x ⊗ (y ⊗ z) = (x ⊗ y) ⊗ z" by (simp add: m_assoc)
  also from xyz have "... = (y ⊗ x) ⊗ z" by (simp add: m_comm)
  also from xyz have "... = y ⊗ (x ⊗ z)" by (simp add: m_assoc)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemmas (in comm_monoid) m_ac = m_assoc m_comm m_lcomm

lemma comm_monoidI:
  fixes G (structure)
  assumes m_closed:
      "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> x ⊗ y ∈ carrier G"
    and one_closed: "\<one> ∈ carrier G"
    and m_assoc:
      "!!x y z. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
      (x ⊗ y) ⊗ z = x ⊗ (y ⊗ z)"
    and l_one: "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> \<one> ⊗ x = x"
    and m_comm:
      "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> x ⊗ y = y ⊗ x"
  shows "comm_monoid G"
  using l_one
    by (auto intro!: comm_monoid.intro comm_monoid_axioms.intro monoid.intro 
             intro: assms simp: m_closed one_closed m_comm)

lemma (in monoid) monoid_comm_monoidI:
  assumes m_comm:
      "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> x ⊗ y = y ⊗ x"
  shows "comm_monoid G"
  by (rule comm_monoidI) (auto intro: m_assoc m_comm)

(*lemma (in comm_monoid) r_one [simp]:
  "x ∈ carrier G ==> x ⊗ \<one> = x"
proof -
  assume G: "x ∈ carrier G"
  then have "x ⊗ \<one> = \<one> ⊗ x" by (simp add: m_comm)
  also from G have "... = x" by simp
  finally show ?thesis .
qed*)

lemma (in comm_monoid) nat_pow_distr:
  "[| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==>
  (x ⊗ y) (^) (n::nat) = x (^) n ⊗ y (^) n"
  by (induct n) (simp, simp add: m_ac)

locale comm_group = comm_monoid + group

lemma (in group) group_comm_groupI:
  assumes m_comm: "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==>
      x ⊗ y = y ⊗ x"
  shows "comm_group G"
  by default (simp_all add: m_comm)

lemma comm_groupI:
  fixes G (structure)
  assumes m_closed:
      "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> x ⊗ y ∈ carrier G"
    and one_closed: "\<one> ∈ carrier G"
    and m_assoc:
      "!!x y z. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G; z ∈ carrier G |] ==>
      (x ⊗ y) ⊗ z = x ⊗ (y ⊗ z)"
    and m_comm:
      "!!x y. [| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> x ⊗ y = y ⊗ x"
    and l_one: "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> \<one> ⊗ x = x"
    and l_inv_ex: "!!x. x ∈ carrier G ==> ∃y ∈ carrier G. y ⊗ x = \<one>"
  shows "comm_group G"
  by (fast intro: group.group_comm_groupI groupI assms)

lemma (in comm_group) inv_mult:
  "[| x ∈ carrier G; y ∈ carrier G |] ==> inv (x ⊗ y) = inv x ⊗ inv y"
  by (simp add: m_ac inv_mult_group)


subsection {* The Lattice of Subgroups of a Group *}

text_raw {* \label{sec:subgroup-lattice} *}

theorem (in group) subgroups_partial_order:
  "partial_order (|carrier = {H. subgroup H G}, eq = op =, le = op ⊆|)),"
  by default simp_all

lemma (in group) subgroup_self:
  "subgroup (carrier G) G"
  by (rule subgroupI) auto

lemma (in group) subgroup_imp_group:
  "subgroup H G ==> group (G(|carrier := H|)),)"
  by (erule subgroup.subgroup_is_group) (rule group_axioms)

lemma (in group) is_monoid [intro, simp]:
  "monoid G"
  by (auto intro: monoid.intro m_assoc) 

lemma (in group) subgroup_inv_equality:
  "[| subgroup H G; x ∈ H |] ==> m_inv (G (|carrier := H|)),) x = inv x"
apply (rule_tac inv_equality [THEN sym])
  apply (rule group.l_inv [OF subgroup_imp_group, simplified], assumption+)
 apply (rule subsetD [OF subgroup.subset], assumption+)
apply (rule subsetD [OF subgroup.subset], assumption)
apply (rule_tac group.inv_closed [OF subgroup_imp_group, simplified], assumption+)
done

theorem (in group) subgroups_Inter:
  assumes subgr: "(!!H. H ∈ A ==> subgroup H G)"
    and not_empty: "A ~= {}"
  shows "subgroup (\<Inter>A) G"
proof (rule subgroupI)
  from subgr [THEN subgroup.subset] and not_empty
  show "\<Inter>A ⊆ carrier G" by blast
next
  from subgr [THEN subgroup.one_closed]
  show "\<Inter>A ~= {}" by blast
next
  fix x assume "x ∈ \<Inter>A"
  with subgr [THEN subgroup.m_inv_closed]
  show "inv x ∈ \<Inter>A" by blast
next
  fix x y assume "x ∈ \<Inter>A" "y ∈ \<Inter>A"
  with subgr [THEN subgroup.m_closed]
  show "x ⊗ y ∈ \<Inter>A" by blast
qed

theorem (in group) subgroups_complete_lattice:
  "complete_lattice (|carrier = {H. subgroup H G}, eq = op =, le = op ⊆|)),"
    (is "complete_lattice ?L")
proof (rule partial_order.complete_lattice_criterion1)
  show "partial_order ?L" by (rule subgroups_partial_order)
next
  have "greatest ?L (carrier G) (carrier ?L)"
    by (unfold greatest_def) (simp add: subgroup.subset subgroup_self)
  then show "∃G. greatest ?L G (carrier ?L)" ..
next
  fix A
  assume L: "A ⊆ carrier ?L" and non_empty: "A ~= {}"
  then have Int_subgroup: "subgroup (\<Inter>A) G"
    by (fastforce intro: subgroups_Inter)
  have "greatest ?L (\<Inter>A) (Lower ?L A)" (is "greatest _ ?Int _")
  proof (rule greatest_LowerI)
    fix H
    assume H: "H ∈ A"
    with L have subgroupH: "subgroup H G" by auto
    from subgroupH have groupH: "group (G (|carrier := H|)),)" (is "group ?H")
      by (rule subgroup_imp_group)
    from groupH have monoidH: "monoid ?H"
      by (rule group.is_monoid)
    from H have Int_subset: "?Int ⊆ H" by fastforce
    then show "le ?L ?Int H" by simp
  next
    fix H
    assume H: "H ∈ Lower ?L A"
    with L Int_subgroup show "le ?L H ?Int"
      by (fastforce simp: Lower_def intro: Inter_greatest)
  next
    show "A ⊆ carrier ?L" by (rule L)
  next
    show "?Int ∈ carrier ?L" by simp (rule Int_subgroup)
  qed
  then show "∃I. greatest ?L I (Lower ?L A)" ..
qed

end