Theory Nominal

theory Nominal
imports Infinite_Set
theory Nominal 
imports Main "~~/src/HOL/Library/Infinite_Set"
keywords
  "atom_decl" "nominal_datatype" "equivariance" :: thy_decl and
  "nominal_primrec" "nominal_inductive" "nominal_inductive2" :: thy_goal and
  "avoids"
begin

section {* Permutations *}
(*======================*)

type_synonym 
  'x prm = "('x × 'x) list"

(* polymorphic constants for permutation and swapping *)
consts 
  perm :: "'x prm => 'a => 'a"     (infixr "•" 80)
  swap :: "('x × 'x) => 'x => 'x"

(* a "private" copy of the option type used in the abstraction function *)
datatype 'a noption = nSome 'a | nNone

(* a "private" copy of the product type used in the nominal induct method *)
datatype ('a, 'b) nprod = nPair 'a 'b

(* an auxiliary constant for the decision procedure involving *) 
(* permutations (to avoid loops when using perm-compositions)  *)
definition
  "perm_aux pi x = pi•x"

(* overloaded permutation operations *)
overloading
  perm_fun     "perm :: 'x prm => ('a=>'b) => ('a=>'b)"   (unchecked)
  perm_bool    "perm :: 'x prm => bool => bool"           (unchecked)
  perm_set     "perm :: 'x prm => 'a set => 'a set"           (unchecked)
  perm_unit    "perm :: 'x prm => unit => unit"           (unchecked)
  perm_prod    "perm :: 'x prm => ('a×'b) => ('a×'b)"    (unchecked)
  perm_list    "perm :: 'x prm => 'a list => 'a list"     (unchecked)
  perm_option  "perm :: 'x prm => 'a option => 'a option" (unchecked)
  perm_char    "perm :: 'x prm => char => char"           (unchecked)
  perm_nat     "perm :: 'x prm => nat => nat"             (unchecked)
  perm_int     "perm :: 'x prm => int => int"             (unchecked)

  perm_noption  "perm :: 'x prm => 'a noption => 'a noption"   (unchecked)
  perm_nprod    "perm :: 'x prm => ('a, 'b) nprod => ('a, 'b) nprod" (unchecked)
begin

definition perm_fun :: "'x prm => ('a => 'b) => 'a => 'b" where
  "perm_fun pi f = (λx. pi • f (rev pi • x))"

definition perm_bool :: "'x prm => bool => bool" where
  "perm_bool pi b = b"

definition perm_set :: "'x prm => 'a set => 'a set" where
  "perm_set pi X = {pi • x | x. x ∈ X}"

primrec perm_unit :: "'x prm => unit => unit"  where 
  "perm_unit pi () = ()"
  
primrec perm_prod :: "'x prm => ('a×'b) => ('a×'b)" where
  "perm_prod pi (x, y) = (pi•x, pi•y)"

primrec perm_list :: "'x prm => 'a list => 'a list" where
  nil_eqvt:  "perm_list pi []     = []"
| cons_eqvt: "perm_list pi (x#xs) = (pi•x)#(pi•xs)"

primrec perm_option :: "'x prm => 'a option => 'a option" where
  some_eqvt:  "perm_option pi (Some x) = Some (pi•x)"
| none_eqvt:  "perm_option pi None     = None"

definition perm_char :: "'x prm => char => char" where
  "perm_char pi c = c"

definition perm_nat :: "'x prm => nat => nat" where
  "perm_nat pi i = i"

definition perm_int :: "'x prm => int => int" where
  "perm_int pi i = i"

primrec perm_noption :: "'x prm => 'a noption => 'a noption" where
  nsome_eqvt:  "perm_noption pi (nSome x) = nSome (pi•x)"
| nnone_eqvt:  "perm_noption pi nNone     = nNone"

primrec perm_nprod :: "'x prm => ('a, 'b) nprod => ('a, 'b) nprod" where
  "perm_nprod pi (nPair x y) = nPair (pi•x) (pi•y)"

end

(* permutations on booleans *)
lemmas perm_bool = perm_bool_def

lemma true_eqvt [simp]:
  "pi • True <-> True"
  by (simp add: perm_bool_def)

lemma false_eqvt [simp]:
  "pi • False <-> False"
  by (simp add: perm_bool_def)

lemma perm_boolI:
  assumes a: "P"
  shows "pi•P"
  using a by (simp add: perm_bool)

lemma perm_boolE:
  assumes a: "pi•P"
  shows "P"
  using a by (simp add: perm_bool)

lemma if_eqvt:
  fixes pi::"'a prm"
  shows "pi•(if b then c1 else c2) = (if (pi•b) then (pi•c1) else (pi•c2))"
  by (simp add: perm_fun_def)

lemma imp_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(A-->B) = ((pi•A)-->(pi•B))"
  by (simp add: perm_bool)

lemma conj_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(A∧B) = ((pi•A)∧(pi•B))"
  by (simp add: perm_bool)

lemma disj_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(A∨B) = ((pi•A)∨(pi•B))"
  by (simp add: perm_bool)

lemma neg_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(¬ A) = (¬ (pi•A))"
  by (simp add: perm_bool)

(* permutation on sets *)
lemma empty_eqvt:
  shows "pi•{} = {}"
  by (simp add: perm_set_def)

lemma union_eqvt:
  shows "(pi•(X∪Y)) = (pi•X) ∪ (pi•Y)"
  by (auto simp add: perm_set_def)

lemma insert_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(insert x X) = insert (pi•x) (pi•X)"
  by (auto simp add: perm_set_def)

(* permutations on products *)
lemma fst_eqvt:
  "pi•(fst x) = fst (pi•x)"
 by (cases x) simp

lemma snd_eqvt:
  "pi•(snd x) = snd (pi•x)"
 by (cases x) simp

(* permutation on lists *)
lemma append_eqvt:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   l1 :: "'a list"
  and   l2 :: "'a list"
  shows "pi•(l1@l2) = (pi•l1)@(pi•l2)"
  by (induct l1) auto

lemma rev_eqvt:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   l  :: "'a list"
  shows "pi•(rev l) = rev (pi•l)"
  by (induct l) (simp_all add: append_eqvt)

lemma set_eqvt:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   xs :: "'a list"
  shows "pi•(set xs) = set (pi•xs)"
by (induct xs) (auto simp add: empty_eqvt insert_eqvt)

(* permutation on characters and strings *)
lemma perm_string:
  fixes s::"string"
  shows "pi•s = s"
  by (induct s)(auto simp add: perm_char_def)


section {* permutation equality *}
(*==============================*)

definition prm_eq :: "'x prm => 'x prm => bool" (" _ \<triangleq> _ " [80,80] 80) where
  "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2 <-> (∀a::'x. pi1•a = pi2•a)"

section {* Support, Freshness and Supports*}
(*========================================*)
definition supp :: "'a => ('x set)" where  
   "supp x = {a . (infinite {b . [(a,b)]•x ≠ x})}"

definition fresh :: "'x => 'a => bool" ("_ \<sharp> _" [80,80] 80) where
   "a \<sharp> x <-> a ∉ supp x"

definition supports :: "'x set => 'a => bool" (infixl "supports" 80) where
   "S supports x <-> (∀a b. (a∉S ∧ b∉S --> [(a,b)]•x=x))"

(* lemmas about supp *)
lemma supp_fresh_iff: 
  fixes x :: "'a"
  shows "(supp x) = {a::'x. ¬a\<sharp>x}"
  by (simp add: fresh_def)

lemma supp_unit:
  shows "supp () = {}"
  by (simp add: supp_def)

lemma supp_set_empty:
  shows "supp {} = {}"
  by (force simp add: supp_def empty_eqvt)

lemma supp_prod: 
  fixes x :: "'a"
  and   y :: "'b"
  shows "(supp (x,y)) = (supp x)∪(supp y)"
  by  (force simp add: supp_def Collect_imp_eq Collect_neg_eq)

lemma supp_nprod: 
  fixes x :: "'a"
  and   y :: "'b"
  shows "(supp (nPair x y)) = (supp x)∪(supp y)"
  by  (force simp add: supp_def Collect_imp_eq Collect_neg_eq)

lemma supp_list_nil:
  shows "supp [] = {}"
  by (simp add: supp_def)

lemma supp_list_cons:
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   xs :: "'a list"
  shows "supp (x#xs) = (supp x)∪(supp xs)"
  by (auto simp add: supp_def Collect_imp_eq Collect_neg_eq)

lemma supp_list_append:
  fixes xs :: "'a list"
  and   ys :: "'a list"
  shows "supp (xs@ys) = (supp xs)∪(supp ys)"
  by (induct xs) (auto simp add: supp_list_nil supp_list_cons)

lemma supp_list_rev:
  fixes xs :: "'a list"
  shows "supp (rev xs) = (supp xs)"
  by (induct xs, auto simp add: supp_list_append supp_list_cons supp_list_nil)

lemma supp_bool:
  fixes x  :: "bool"
  shows "supp x = {}"
  by (cases "x") (simp_all add: supp_def)

lemma supp_some:
  fixes x :: "'a"
  shows "supp (Some x) = (supp x)"
  by (simp add: supp_def)

lemma supp_none:
  fixes x :: "'a"
  shows "supp (None) = {}"
  by (simp add: supp_def)

lemma supp_int:
  fixes i::"int"
  shows "supp (i) = {}"
  by (simp add: supp_def perm_int_def)

lemma supp_nat:
  fixes n::"nat"
  shows "(supp n) = {}"
  by (simp add: supp_def perm_nat_def)

lemma supp_char:
  fixes c::"char"
  shows "(supp c) = {}"
  by (simp add: supp_def perm_char_def)
  
lemma supp_string:
  fixes s::"string"
  shows "(supp s) = {}"
  by (simp add: supp_def perm_string)

(* lemmas about freshness *)
lemma fresh_set_empty:
  shows "a\<sharp>{}"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_set_empty)

lemma fresh_unit:
  shows "a\<sharp>()"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_unit)

lemma fresh_prod:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  and   y :: "'b"
  shows "a\<sharp>(x,y) = (a\<sharp>x ∧ a\<sharp>y)"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_prod)

lemma fresh_list_nil:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  shows "a\<sharp>[]"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_list_nil) 

lemma fresh_list_cons:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  and   xs :: "'a list"
  shows "a\<sharp>(x#xs) = (a\<sharp>x ∧ a\<sharp>xs)"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_list_cons)

lemma fresh_list_append:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   xs :: "'a list"
  and   ys :: "'a list"
  shows "a\<sharp>(xs@ys) = (a\<sharp>xs ∧ a\<sharp>ys)"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_list_append)

lemma fresh_list_rev:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   xs :: "'a list"
  shows "a\<sharp>(rev xs) = a\<sharp>xs"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_list_rev)

lemma fresh_none:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  shows "a\<sharp>None"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_none)

lemma fresh_some:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  shows "a\<sharp>(Some x) = a\<sharp>x"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_some)

lemma fresh_int:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   i :: "int"
  shows "a\<sharp>i"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_int)

lemma fresh_nat:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   n :: "nat"
  shows "a\<sharp>n"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_nat)

lemma fresh_char:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   c :: "char"
  shows "a\<sharp>c"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_char)

lemma fresh_string:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   s :: "string"
  shows "a\<sharp>s"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_string)

lemma fresh_bool:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "bool"
  shows "a\<sharp>b"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_bool)

text {* Normalization of freshness results; cf.\ @{text nominal_induct} *}
lemma fresh_unit_elim: 
  shows "(a\<sharp>() ==> PROP C) ≡ PROP C"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_unit)

lemma fresh_prod_elim: 
  shows "(a\<sharp>(x,y) ==> PROP C) ≡ (a\<sharp>x ==> a\<sharp>y ==> PROP C)"
  by rule (simp_all add: fresh_prod)

(* this rule needs to be added before the fresh_prodD is *)
(* added to the simplifier with mksimps                  *) 
lemma [simp]:
  shows "a\<sharp>x1 ==> a\<sharp>x2 ==> a\<sharp>(x1,x2)"
  by (simp add: fresh_prod)

lemma fresh_prodD:
  shows "a\<sharp>(x,y) ==> a\<sharp>x"
  and   "a\<sharp>(x,y) ==> a\<sharp>y"
  by (simp_all add: fresh_prod)

ML {*
  val mksimps_pairs = (@{const_name Nominal.fresh}, @{thms fresh_prodD}) :: mksimps_pairs;
*}
declaration {* fn _ =>
  Simplifier.map_ss (Simplifier.set_mksimps (mksimps mksimps_pairs))
*}

section {* Abstract Properties for Permutations and  Atoms *}
(*=========================================================*)

(* properties for being a permutation type *)
definition
  "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x) ≡ 
     (∀(x::'a). ([]::'x prm)•x = x) ∧ 
     (∀(pi1::'x prm) (pi2::'x prm) (x::'a). (pi1@pi2)•x = pi1•(pi2•x)) ∧ 
     (∀(pi1::'x prm) (pi2::'x prm) (x::'a). pi1 \<triangleq> pi2 --> pi1•x = pi2•x)"

(* properties for being an atom type *)
definition
  "at TYPE('x) ≡ 
     (∀(x::'x). ([]::'x prm)•x = x) ∧
     (∀(a::'x) (b::'x) (pi::'x prm) (x::'x). ((a,b)#(pi::'x prm))•x = swap (a,b) (pi•x)) ∧ 
     (∀(a::'x) (b::'x) (c::'x). swap (a,b) c = (if a=c then b else (if b=c then a else c))) ∧ 
     (infinite (UNIV::'x set))"

(* property of two atom-types being disjoint *)
definition
  "disjoint TYPE('x) TYPE('y) ≡ 
       (∀(pi::'x prm)(x::'y). pi•x = x) ∧ 
       (∀(pi::'y prm)(x::'x). pi•x = x)"

(* composition property of two permutation on a type 'a *)
definition
  "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y) ≡ 
      (∀(pi2::'y prm) (pi1::'x prm) (x::'a) . pi1•(pi2•x) = (pi1•pi2)•(pi1•x))" 

(* property of having finite support *)
definition
  "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x) ≡ ∀(x::'a). finite ((supp x)::'x set)"

section {* Lemmas about the atom-type properties*}
(*==============================================*)

lemma at1: 
  fixes x::"'x"
  assumes a: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "([]::'x prm)•x = x"
  using a by (simp add: at_def)

lemma at2: 
  fixes a ::"'x"
  and   b ::"'x"
  and   x ::"'x"
  and   pi::"'x prm"
  assumes a: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "((a,b)#pi)•x = swap (a,b) (pi•x)"
  using a by (simp only: at_def)

lemma at3: 
  fixes a ::"'x"
  and   b ::"'x"
  and   c ::"'x"
  assumes a: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "swap (a,b) c = (if a=c then b else (if b=c then a else c))"
  using a by (simp only: at_def)

(* rules to calculate simple permutations *)
lemmas at_calc = at2 at1 at3

lemma at_swap_simps:
  fixes a ::"'x"
  and   b ::"'x"
  assumes a: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "[(a,b)]•a = b"
  and   "[(a,b)]•b = a"
  and   "[|a≠c; b≠c|] ==> [(a,b)]•c = c"
  using a by (simp_all add: at_calc)

lemma at4: 
  assumes a: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "infinite (UNIV::'x set)"
  using a by (simp add: at_def)

lemma at_append:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   c   :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)" 
  shows "(pi1@pi2)•c = pi1•(pi2•c)"
proof (induct pi1)
  case Nil show ?case by (simp add: at1[OF at])
next
  case (Cons x xs)
  have "(xs@pi2)•c  =  xs•(pi2•c)" by fact
  also have "(x#xs)@pi2 = x#(xs@pi2)" by simp
  ultimately show ?case by (cases "x", simp add:  at2[OF at])
qed
 
lemma at_swap:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'x"
  and   c :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)" 
  shows "swap (a,b) (swap (a,b) c) = c"
  by (auto simp add: at3[OF at])

lemma at_rev_pi:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   c  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(rev pi)•(pi•c) = c"
proof(induct pi)
  case Nil show ?case by (simp add: at1[OF at])
next
  case (Cons x xs) thus ?case 
    by (cases "x", simp add: at2[OF at] at_append[OF at] at1[OF at] at_swap[OF at])
qed

lemma at_pi_rev:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•((rev pi)•x) = x"
  by (rule at_rev_pi[OF at, of "rev pi" _,simplified])

lemma at_bij1: 
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'x"
  and   y  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "(pi•x) = y"
  shows   "x=(rev pi)•y"
proof -
  from a have "y=(pi•x)" by (rule sym)
  thus ?thesis by (simp only: at_rev_pi[OF at])
qed

lemma at_bij2: 
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'x"
  and   y  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "((rev pi)•x) = y"
  shows   "x=pi•y"
proof -
  from a have "y=((rev pi)•x)" by (rule sym)
  thus ?thesis by (simp only: at_pi_rev[OF at])
qed

lemma at_bij:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'x"
  and   y  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•x = pi•y) = (x=y)"
proof 
  assume "pi•x = pi•y" 
  hence  "x=(rev pi)•(pi•y)" by (rule at_bij1[OF at]) 
  thus "x=y" by (simp only: at_rev_pi[OF at])
next
  assume "x=y"
  thus "pi•x = pi•y" by simp
qed

lemma at_supp:
  fixes x :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "supp x = {x}"
by(auto simp: supp_def Collect_conj_eq Collect_imp_eq at_calc[OF at] at4[OF at])

lemma at_fresh:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(a\<sharp>b) = (a≠b)" 
  by (simp add: at_supp[OF at] fresh_def)

lemma at_prm_fresh1:
  fixes c :: "'x"
  and   pi:: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "c\<sharp>pi" 
  shows "∀(a,b)∈set pi. c≠a ∧ c≠b"
using a by (induct pi) (auto simp add: fresh_list_cons fresh_prod at_fresh[OF at])

lemma at_prm_fresh2:
  fixes c :: "'x"
  and   pi:: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "∀(a,b)∈set pi. c≠a ∧ c≠b" 
  shows "pi•c = c"
using a  by(induct pi) (auto simp add: at1[OF at] at2[OF at] at3[OF at])

lemma at_prm_fresh:
  fixes c :: "'x"
  and   pi:: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "c\<sharp>pi" 
  shows "pi•c = c"
by (rule at_prm_fresh2[OF at], rule at_prm_fresh1[OF at, OF a])

lemma at_prm_rev_eq:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "((rev pi1) \<triangleq> (rev pi2)) = (pi1 \<triangleq> pi2)"
proof (simp add: prm_eq_def, auto)
  fix x
  assume "∀x::'x. (rev pi1)•x = (rev pi2)•x"
  hence "(rev (pi1::'x prm))•(pi2•(x::'x)) = (rev (pi2::'x prm))•(pi2•x)" by simp
  hence "(rev (pi1::'x prm))•((pi2::'x prm)•x) = (x::'x)" by (simp add: at_rev_pi[OF at])
  hence "(pi2::'x prm)•x = (pi1::'x prm)•x" by (simp add: at_bij2[OF at])
  thus "pi1•x  =  pi2•x" by simp
next
  fix x
  assume "∀x::'x. pi1•x = pi2•x"
  hence "(pi1::'x prm)•((rev pi2)•x) = (pi2::'x prm)•((rev pi2)•(x::'x))" by simp
  hence "(pi1::'x prm)•((rev pi2)•(x::'x)) = x" by (simp add: at_pi_rev[OF at])
  hence "(rev pi2)•x = (rev pi1)•(x::'x)" by (simp add: at_bij1[OF at])
  thus "(rev pi1)•x = (rev pi2)•(x::'x)" by simp
qed

lemma at_prm_eq_append:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi3 :: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2"
  shows "(pi3@pi1) \<triangleq> (pi3@pi2)"
using a by (simp add: prm_eq_def at_append[OF at] at_bij[OF at])

lemma at_prm_eq_append':
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi3 :: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2"
  shows "(pi1@pi3) \<triangleq> (pi2@pi3)"
using a by (simp add: prm_eq_def at_append[OF at])

lemma at_prm_eq_trans:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi3 :: "'x prm"
  assumes a1: "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2"
  and     a2: "pi2 \<triangleq> pi3"  
  shows "pi1 \<triangleq> pi3"
using a1 a2 by (auto simp add: prm_eq_def)
  
lemma at_prm_eq_refl:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  shows "pi \<triangleq> pi"
by (simp add: prm_eq_def)

lemma at_prm_rev_eq1:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2 ==> (rev pi1) \<triangleq> (rev pi2)"
  by (simp add: at_prm_rev_eq[OF at])

lemma at_ds1:
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "[(a,a)] \<triangleq> []"
  by (force simp add: prm_eq_def at_calc[OF at])

lemma at_ds2: 
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "([(a,b)]@pi) \<triangleq> (pi@[((rev pi)•a,(rev pi)•b)])"
  by (force simp add: prm_eq_def at_append[OF at] at_bij[OF at] at_pi_rev[OF at] 
      at_rev_pi[OF at] at_calc[OF at])

lemma at_ds3: 
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  and   c  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "distinct [a,b,c]"
  shows "[(a,c),(b,c),(a,c)] \<triangleq> [(a,b)]"
  using a by (force simp add: prm_eq_def at_calc[OF at])

lemma at_ds4: 
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  and   pi  :: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi@[(a,(rev pi)•b)]) \<triangleq> ([(pi•a,b)]@pi)"
  by (force simp add: prm_eq_def at_append[OF at] at_calc[OF at] at_bij[OF at] 
      at_pi_rev[OF at] at_rev_pi[OF at])

lemma at_ds5: 
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "[(a,b)] \<triangleq> [(b,a)]"
  by (force simp add: prm_eq_def at_calc[OF at])

lemma at_ds5': 
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "[(a,b),(b,a)] \<triangleq> []"
  by (force simp add: prm_eq_def at_calc[OF at])

lemma at_ds6: 
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  and   c  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "distinct [a,b,c]"
  shows "[(a,c),(a,b)] \<triangleq> [(b,c),(a,c)]"
  using a by (force simp add: prm_eq_def at_calc[OF at])

lemma at_ds7:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "((rev pi)@pi) \<triangleq> []"
  by (simp add: prm_eq_def at1[OF at] at_append[OF at] at_rev_pi[OF at])

lemma at_ds8_aux:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  and   c  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(swap (a,b) c) = swap (pi•a,pi•b) (pi•c)"
  by (force simp add: at_calc[OF at] at_bij[OF at])

lemma at_ds8: 
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi1@pi2) \<triangleq> ((pi1•pi2)@pi1)"
apply(induct_tac pi2)
apply(simp add: prm_eq_def)
apply(auto simp add: prm_eq_def)
apply(simp add: at2[OF at])
apply(drule_tac x="aa" in spec)
apply(drule sym)
apply(simp)
apply(simp add: at_append[OF at])
apply(simp add: at2[OF at])
apply(simp add: at_ds8_aux[OF at])
done

lemma at_ds9: 
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows " ((rev pi2)@(rev pi1)) \<triangleq> ((rev pi1)@(rev (pi1•pi2)))"
apply(induct_tac pi2)
apply(simp add: prm_eq_def)
apply(auto simp add: prm_eq_def)
apply(simp add: at_append[OF at])
apply(simp add: at2[OF at] at1[OF at])
apply(drule_tac x="swap(pi1•a,pi1•b) aa" in spec)
apply(drule sym)
apply(simp)
apply(simp add: at_ds8_aux[OF at])
apply(simp add: at_rev_pi[OF at])
done

lemma at_ds10:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "b\<sharp>(rev pi)"
  shows "([(pi•a,b)]@pi) \<triangleq> (pi@[(a,b)])"
using a
apply -
apply(rule at_prm_eq_trans)
apply(rule at_ds2[OF at])
apply(simp add: at_prm_fresh[OF at] at_rev_pi[OF at])
apply(rule at_prm_eq_refl)
done

--"there always exists an atom that is not being in a finite set"
lemma ex_in_inf:
  fixes   A::"'x set"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "finite A"
  obtains c::"'x" where "c∉A"
proof -
  from  fs at4[OF at] have "infinite ((UNIV::'x set) - A)" 
    by (simp add: Diff_infinite_finite)
  hence "((UNIV::'x set) - A) ≠ ({}::'x set)" by (force simp only:)
  then obtain c::"'x" where "c∈((UNIV::'x set) - A)" by force
  then have "c∉A" by simp
  then show ?thesis ..
qed

text {* there always exists a fresh name for an object with finite support *}
lemma at_exists_fresh': 
  fixes  x :: "'a"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  shows "∃c::'x. c\<sharp>x"
  by (auto simp add: fresh_def intro: ex_in_inf[OF at, OF fs])

lemma at_exists_fresh: 
  fixes  x :: "'a"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  obtains c::"'x" where  "c\<sharp>x"
  by (auto intro: ex_in_inf[OF at, OF fs] simp add: fresh_def)

lemma at_finite_select: 
  fixes S::"'a set"
  assumes a: "at TYPE('a)"
  and     b: "finite S" 
  shows "∃x. x ∉ S" 
  using a b
  apply(drule_tac S="UNIV::'a set" in Diff_infinite_finite)
  apply(simp add: at_def)
  apply(subgoal_tac "UNIV - S ≠ {}")
  apply(simp only: ex_in_conv [symmetric])
  apply(blast)
  apply(rule notI)
  apply(simp)
  done

lemma at_different:
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "∃(b::'x). a≠b"
proof -
  have "infinite (UNIV::'x set)" by (rule at4[OF at])
  hence inf2: "infinite (UNIV-{a})" by (rule infinite_remove)
  have "(UNIV-{a}) ≠ ({}::'x set)" 
  proof (rule_tac ccontr, drule_tac notnotD)
    assume "UNIV-{a} = ({}::'x set)"
    with inf2 have "infinite ({}::'x set)" by simp
    then show "False" by auto
  qed
  hence "∃(b::'x). b∈(UNIV-{a})" by blast
  then obtain b::"'x" where mem2: "b∈(UNIV-{a})" by blast
  from mem2 have "a≠b" by blast
  then show "∃(b::'x). a≠b" by blast
qed

--"the at-props imply the pt-props"
lemma at_pt_inst:
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('x)"
apply(auto simp only: pt_def)
apply(simp only: at1[OF at])
apply(simp only: at_append[OF at]) 
apply(simp only: prm_eq_def)
done

section {* finite support properties *}
(*===================================*)

lemma fs1:
  fixes x :: "'a"
  assumes a: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  using a by (simp add: fs_def)

lemma fs_at_inst:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "fs TYPE('x) TYPE('x)"
apply(simp add: fs_def) 
apply(simp add: at_supp[OF at])
done

lemma fs_unit_inst:
  shows "fs TYPE(unit) TYPE('x)"
apply(simp add: fs_def)
apply(simp add: supp_unit)
done

lemma fs_prod_inst:
  assumes fsa: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     fsb: "fs TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  shows "fs TYPE('a×'b) TYPE('x)"
apply(unfold fs_def)
apply(auto simp add: supp_prod)
apply(rule fs1[OF fsa])
apply(rule fs1[OF fsb])
done

lemma fs_nprod_inst:
  assumes fsa: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     fsb: "fs TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  shows "fs TYPE(('a,'b) nprod) TYPE('x)"
apply(unfold fs_def, rule allI)
apply(case_tac x)
apply(auto simp add: supp_nprod)
apply(rule fs1[OF fsa])
apply(rule fs1[OF fsb])
done

lemma fs_list_inst:
  assumes fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "fs TYPE('a list) TYPE('x)"
apply(simp add: fs_def, rule allI)
apply(induct_tac x)
apply(simp add: supp_list_nil)
apply(simp add: supp_list_cons)
apply(rule fs1[OF fs])
done

lemma fs_option_inst:
  assumes fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "fs TYPE('a option) TYPE('x)"
apply(simp add: fs_def, rule allI)
apply(case_tac x)
apply(simp add: supp_none)
apply(simp add: supp_some)
apply(rule fs1[OF fs])
done

section {* Lemmas about the permutation properties *}
(*=================================================*)

lemma pt1:
  fixes x::"'a"
  assumes a: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "([]::'x prm)•x = x"
  using a by (simp add: pt_def)

lemma pt2: 
  fixes pi1::"'x prm"
  and   pi2::"'x prm"
  and   x  ::"'a"
  assumes a: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi1@pi2)•x = pi1•(pi2•x)"
  using a by (simp add: pt_def)

lemma pt3:
  fixes pi1::"'x prm"
  and   pi2::"'x prm"
  and   x  ::"'a"
  assumes a: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2 ==> pi1•x = pi2•x"
  using a by (simp add: pt_def)

lemma pt3_rev:
  fixes pi1::"'x prm"
  and   pi2::"'x prm"
  and   x  ::"'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2 ==> (rev pi1)•x = (rev pi2)•x"
  by (rule pt3[OF pt], simp add: at_prm_rev_eq[OF at])

section {* composition properties *}
(* ============================== *)
lemma cp1:
  fixes pi1::"'x prm"
  and   pi2::"'y prm"
  and   x  ::"'a"
  assumes cp: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "pi1•(pi2•x) = (pi1•pi2)•(pi1•x)"
  using cp by (simp add: cp_def)

lemma cp_pt_inst:
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('x)"
apply(auto simp add: cp_def pt2[OF pt,symmetric])
apply(rule pt3[OF pt])
apply(rule at_ds8[OF at])
done

section {* disjointness properties *}
(*=================================*)
lemma dj_perm_forget:
  fixes pi::"'y prm"
  and   x ::"'x"
  assumes dj: "disjoint TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "pi•x=x" 
  using dj by (simp_all add: disjoint_def)

lemma dj_perm_set_forget:
  fixes pi::"'y prm"
  and   x ::"'x set"
  assumes dj: "disjoint TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "pi•x=x" 
  using dj by (simp_all add: perm_set_def disjoint_def)

lemma dj_perm_perm_forget:
  fixes pi1::"'x prm"
  and   pi2::"'y prm"
  assumes dj: "disjoint TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "pi2•pi1=pi1"
  using dj by (induct pi1, auto simp add: disjoint_def)

lemma dj_cp:
  fixes pi1::"'x prm"
  and   pi2::"'y prm"
  and   x  ::"'a"
  assumes cp: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     dj: "disjoint TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi1•(pi2•x) = (pi2)•(pi1•x)"
  by (simp add: cp1[OF cp] dj_perm_perm_forget[OF dj])

lemma dj_supp:
  fixes a::"'x"
  assumes dj: "disjoint TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "(supp a) = ({}::'y set)"
apply(simp add: supp_def dj_perm_forget[OF dj])
done

lemma at_fresh_ineq:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'y"
  assumes dj: "disjoint TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  shows "a\<sharp>b" 
  by (simp add: fresh_def dj_supp[OF dj])

section {* permutation type instances *}
(* ===================================*)

lemma pt_fun_inst:
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  shows  "pt TYPE('a=>'b) TYPE('x)"
apply(auto simp only: pt_def)
apply(simp_all add: perm_fun_def)
apply(simp add: pt1[OF pta] pt1[OF ptb])
apply(simp add: pt2[OF pta] pt2[OF ptb])
apply(subgoal_tac "(rev pi1) \<triangleq> (rev pi2)")(*A*)
apply(simp add: pt3[OF pta] pt3[OF ptb])
(*A*)
apply(simp add: at_prm_rev_eq[OF at])
done

lemma pt_bool_inst:
  shows  "pt TYPE(bool) TYPE('x)"
  by (simp add: pt_def perm_bool_def)

lemma pt_set_inst:
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows  "pt TYPE('a set) TYPE('x)"
apply(simp add: pt_def)
apply(simp_all add: perm_set_def)
apply(simp add: pt1[OF pt])
apply(force simp add: pt2[OF pt] pt3[OF pt])
done

lemma pt_unit_inst:
  shows "pt TYPE(unit) TYPE('x)"
  by (simp add: pt_def)

lemma pt_prod_inst:
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  shows  "pt TYPE('a × 'b) TYPE('x)"
  apply(auto simp add: pt_def)
  apply(rule pt1[OF pta])
  apply(rule pt1[OF ptb])
  apply(rule pt2[OF pta])
  apply(rule pt2[OF ptb])
  apply(rule pt3[OF pta],assumption)
  apply(rule pt3[OF ptb],assumption)
  done

lemma pt_list_nil: 
  fixes xs :: "'a list"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE ('x)"
  shows "([]::'x prm)•xs = xs" 
apply(induct_tac xs)
apply(simp_all add: pt1[OF pt])
done

lemma pt_list_append: 
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   xs  :: "'a list"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE ('x)"
  shows "(pi1@pi2)•xs = pi1•(pi2•xs)"
apply(induct_tac xs)
apply(simp_all add: pt2[OF pt])
done

lemma pt_list_prm_eq: 
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   xs  :: "'a list"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE ('x)"
  shows "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2  ==> pi1•xs = pi2•xs"
apply(induct_tac xs)
apply(simp_all add: prm_eq_def pt3[OF pt])
done

lemma pt_list_inst:
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows  "pt TYPE('a list) TYPE('x)"
apply(auto simp only: pt_def)
apply(rule pt_list_nil[OF pt])
apply(rule pt_list_append[OF pt])
apply(rule pt_list_prm_eq[OF pt],assumption)
done

lemma pt_option_inst:
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows  "pt TYPE('a option) TYPE('x)"
apply(auto simp only: pt_def)
apply(case_tac "x")
apply(simp_all add: pt1[OF pta])
apply(case_tac "x")
apply(simp_all add: pt2[OF pta])
apply(case_tac "x")
apply(simp_all add: pt3[OF pta])
done

lemma pt_noption_inst:
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows  "pt TYPE('a noption) TYPE('x)"
apply(auto simp only: pt_def)
apply(case_tac "x")
apply(simp_all add: pt1[OF pta])
apply(case_tac "x")
apply(simp_all add: pt2[OF pta])
apply(case_tac "x")
apply(simp_all add: pt3[OF pta])
done

lemma pt_nprod_inst:
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  shows  "pt TYPE(('a,'b) nprod) TYPE('x)"
  apply(auto simp add: pt_def)
  apply(case_tac x)
  apply(simp add: pt1[OF pta] pt1[OF ptb])
  apply(case_tac x)
  apply(simp add: pt2[OF pta] pt2[OF ptb])
  apply(case_tac x)
  apply(simp add: pt3[OF pta] pt3[OF ptb])
  done

section {* further lemmas for permutation types *}
(*==============================================*)

lemma pt_rev_pi:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(rev pi)•(pi•x) = x"
proof -
  have "((rev pi)@pi) \<triangleq> ([]::'x prm)" by (simp add: at_ds7[OF at])
  hence "((rev pi)@pi)•(x::'a) = ([]::'x prm)•x" by (simp add: pt3[OF pt]) 
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: pt1[OF pt] pt2[OF pt])
qed

lemma pt_pi_rev:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•((rev pi)•x) = x"
  by (simp add: pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at,of "rev pi" "x",simplified])

lemma pt_bij1: 
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "(pi•x) = y"
  shows   "x=(rev pi)•y"
proof -
  from a have "y=(pi•x)" by (rule sym)
  thus ?thesis by (simp only: pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at])
qed

lemma pt_bij2: 
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "x = (rev pi)•y"
  shows   "(pi•x)=y"
  using a by (simp add: pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_bij:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•x = pi•y) = (x=y)"
proof 
  assume "pi•x = pi•y" 
  hence  "x=(rev pi)•(pi•y)" by (rule pt_bij1[OF pt, OF at]) 
  thus "x=y" by (simp only: pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at])
next
  assume "x=y"
  thus "pi•x = pi•y" by simp
qed

lemma pt_eq_eqvt:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(x=y) = (pi•x = pi•y)"
  using pt at
  by (auto simp add: pt_bij perm_bool)

lemma pt_bij3:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  assumes a:  "x=y"
  shows "(pi•x = pi•y)"
  using a by simp 

lemma pt_bij4:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "pi•x = pi•y"
  shows "x = y"
  using a by (simp add: pt_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_swap_bij:
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "[(a,b)]•([(a,b)]•x) = x"
  by (rule pt_bij2[OF pt, OF at], simp)

lemma pt_swap_bij':
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "[(a,b)]•([(b,a)]•x) = x"
apply(simp add: pt2[OF pt,symmetric])
apply(rule trans)
apply(rule pt3[OF pt])
apply(rule at_ds5'[OF at])
apply(rule pt1[OF pt])
done

lemma pt_swap_bij'':
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "[(a,a)]•x = x"
apply(rule trans)
apply(rule pt3[OF pt])
apply(rule at_ds1[OF at])
apply(rule pt1[OF pt])
done

lemma supp_singleton:
  shows "supp {x} = supp x"
  by (force simp add: supp_def perm_set_def)

lemma fresh_singleton:
  shows "a\<sharp>{x} = a\<sharp>x"
  by (simp add: fresh_def supp_singleton)

lemma pt_set_bij1:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "((pi•x)∈X) = (x∈((rev pi)•X))"
  by (force simp add: perm_set_def pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at] pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_set_bij1a:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(x∈(pi•X)) = (((rev pi)•x)∈X)"
  by (force simp add: perm_set_def pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at] pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_set_bij:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "((pi•x)∈(pi•X)) = (x∈X)"
  by (simp add: perm_set_def pt_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_in_eqvt:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(x∈X)=((pi•x)∈(pi•X))"
using assms
by (auto simp add:  pt_set_bij perm_bool)

lemma pt_set_bij2:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "x∈X"
  shows "(pi•x)∈(pi•X)"
  using a by (simp add: pt_set_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_set_bij2a:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "x∈((rev pi)•X)"
  shows "(pi•x)∈X"
  using a by (simp add: pt_set_bij1[OF pt, OF at])

(* FIXME: is this lemma needed anywhere? *)
lemma pt_set_bij3:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  shows "pi•(x∈X) = (x∈X)"
by (simp add: perm_bool)

lemma pt_subseteq_eqvt:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   Y  :: "'a set"
  and   X  :: "'a set"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•(X⊆Y)) = ((pi•X)⊆(pi•Y))"
by (auto simp add: perm_set_def perm_bool pt_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_set_diff_eqvt:
  fixes X::"'a set"
  and   Y::"'a set"
  and   pi::"'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(X - Y) = (pi•X) - (pi•Y)"
  by (auto simp add: perm_set_def pt_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_Collect_eqvt:
  fixes pi::"'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•{x::'a. P x} = {x. P ((rev pi)•x)}"
apply(auto simp add: perm_set_def pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at])
apply(rule_tac x="(rev pi)•x" in exI)
apply(simp add: pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])
done

-- "some helper lemmas for the pt_perm_supp_ineq lemma"
lemma Collect_permI: 
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes a: "∀x. (P1 x = P2 x)" 
  shows "{pi•x| x. P1 x} = {pi•x| x. P2 x}"
  using a by force

lemma Infinite_cong:
  assumes a: "X = Y"
  shows "infinite X = infinite Y"
  using a by (simp)

lemma pt_set_eq_ineq:
  fixes pi :: "'y prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('y)"
  shows "{pi•x| x::'x. P x} = {x::'x. P ((rev pi)•x)}"
  by (force simp only: pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at] pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_inject_on_ineq:
  fixes X  :: "'y set"
  and   pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "inj_on (perm pi) X"
proof (unfold inj_on_def, intro strip)
  fix x::"'y" and y::"'y"
  assume "pi•x = pi•y"
  thus "x=y" by (simp add: pt_bij[OF pt, OF at])
qed

lemma pt_set_finite_ineq: 
  fixes X  :: "'x set"
  and   pi :: "'y prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('y)"
  shows "finite (pi•X) = finite X"
proof -
  have image: "(pi•X) = (perm pi ` X)" by (force simp only: perm_set_def)
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule iffI)
    assume "finite (pi•X)"
    hence "finite (perm pi ` X)" using image by (simp)
    thus "finite X" using pt_inject_on_ineq[OF pt, OF at] by (rule finite_imageD)
  next
    assume "finite X"
    hence "finite (perm pi ` X)" by (rule finite_imageI)
    thus "finite (pi•X)" using image by (simp)
  qed
qed

lemma pt_set_infinite_ineq: 
  fixes X  :: "'x set"
  and   pi :: "'y prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('y)"
  shows "infinite (pi•X) = infinite X"
using pt at by (simp add: pt_set_finite_ineq)

lemma pt_perm_supp_ineq:
  fixes  pi  :: "'x prm"
  and    x   :: "'a"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "(pi•((supp x)::'y set)) = supp (pi•x)" (is "?LHS = ?RHS")
proof -
  have "?LHS = {pi•a | a. infinite {b. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x}}" by (simp add: supp_def perm_set_def)
  also have "… = {pi•a | a. infinite {pi•b | b. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x}}" 
  proof (rule Collect_permI, rule allI, rule iffI)
    fix a
    assume "infinite {b::'y. [(a,b)]•x  ≠ x}"
    hence "infinite (pi•{b::'y. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x})" by (simp add: pt_set_infinite_ineq[OF ptb, OF at])
    thus "infinite {pi•b |b::'y. [(a,b)]•x  ≠ x}" by (simp add: perm_set_def)
  next
    fix a
    assume "infinite {pi•b |b::'y. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x}"
    hence "infinite (pi•{b::'y. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x})" by (simp add: perm_set_def)
    thus "infinite {b::'y. [(a,b)]•x  ≠ x}" 
      by (simp add: pt_set_infinite_ineq[OF ptb, OF at])
  qed
  also have "… = {a. infinite {b::'y. [((rev pi)•a,(rev pi)•b)]•x ≠ x}}" 
    by (simp add: pt_set_eq_ineq[OF ptb, OF at])
  also have "… = {a. infinite {b. pi•([((rev pi)•a,(rev pi)•b)]•x) ≠ (pi•x)}}"
    by (simp add: pt_bij[OF pta, OF at])
  also have "… = {a. infinite {b. [(a,b)]•(pi•x) ≠ (pi•x)}}"
  proof (rule Collect_cong, rule Infinite_cong, rule Collect_cong)
    fix a::"'y" and b::"'y"
    have "pi•(([((rev pi)•a,(rev pi)•b)])•x) = [(a,b)]•(pi•x)"
      by (simp add: cp1[OF cp] pt_pi_rev[OF ptb, OF at])
    thus "(pi•([((rev pi)•a,(rev pi)•b)]•x) ≠  pi•x) = ([(a,b)]•(pi•x) ≠ pi•x)" by simp
  qed
  finally show "?LHS = ?RHS" by (simp add: supp_def) 
qed

lemma pt_perm_supp:
  fixes  pi  :: "'x prm"
  and    x   :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•((supp x)::'x set)) = supp (pi•x)"
apply(rule pt_perm_supp_ineq)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at_pt_inst)
apply(rule at)+
apply(rule cp_pt_inst)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at)
done

lemma pt_supp_finite_pi:
  fixes  pi  :: "'x prm"
  and    x   :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     f: "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  shows "finite ((supp (pi•x))::'x set)"
apply(simp add: pt_perm_supp[OF pt, OF at, symmetric])
apply(simp add: pt_set_finite_ineq[OF at_pt_inst[OF at], OF at])
apply(rule f)
done

lemma pt_fresh_left_ineq:  
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'y"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "a\<sharp>(pi•x) = ((rev pi)•a)\<sharp>x"
apply(simp add: fresh_def)
apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1[OF ptb, OF at])
apply(simp add: pt_perm_supp_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
done

lemma pt_fresh_right_ineq:  
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'y"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "(pi•a)\<sharp>x = a\<sharp>((rev pi)•x)"
apply(simp add: fresh_def)
apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1[OF ptb, OF at])
apply(simp add: pt_perm_supp_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
done

lemma pt_fresh_bij_ineq:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'y"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "(pi•a)\<sharp>(pi•x) = a\<sharp>x"
apply(simp add: pt_fresh_left_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
apply(simp add: pt_rev_pi[OF ptb, OF at])
done

lemma pt_fresh_left:  
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "a\<sharp>(pi•x) = ((rev pi)•a)\<sharp>x"
apply(rule pt_fresh_left_ineq)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at_pt_inst)
apply(rule at)+
apply(rule cp_pt_inst)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at)
done

lemma pt_fresh_right:  
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•a)\<sharp>x = a\<sharp>((rev pi)•x)"
apply(rule pt_fresh_right_ineq)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at_pt_inst)
apply(rule at)+
apply(rule cp_pt_inst)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at)
done

lemma pt_fresh_bij:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•a)\<sharp>(pi•x) = a\<sharp>x"
apply(rule pt_fresh_bij_ineq)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at_pt_inst)
apply(rule at)+
apply(rule cp_pt_inst)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at)
done

lemma pt_fresh_bij1:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "a\<sharp>x"
  shows "(pi•a)\<sharp>(pi•x)"
using a by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_fresh_bij2:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:  "(pi•a)\<sharp>(pi•x)"
  shows  "a\<sharp>x"
using a by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_fresh_eqvt:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(a\<sharp>x) = (pi•a)\<sharp>(pi•x)"
  by (simp add: perm_bool pt_fresh_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_perm_fresh1:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  and     a1: "¬(a\<sharp>x)"
  and     a2: "b\<sharp>x"
  shows "[(a,b)]•x ≠ x"
proof
  assume neg: "[(a,b)]•x = x"
  from a1 have a1':"a∈(supp x)" by (simp add: fresh_def) 
  from a2 have a2':"b∉(supp x)" by (simp add: fresh_def) 
  from a1' a2' have a3: "a≠b" by force
  from a1' have "([(a,b)]•a)∈([(a,b)]•(supp x))" 
    by (simp only: pt_set_bij[OF at_pt_inst[OF at], OF at])
  hence "b∈([(a,b)]•(supp x))" by (simp add: at_calc[OF at])
  hence "b∈(supp ([(a,b)]•x))" by (simp add: pt_perm_supp[OF pt,OF at])
  with a2' neg show False by simp
qed

(* the next two lemmas are needed in the proof *)
(* of the structural induction principle       *)
lemma pt_fresh_aux:
  fixes a::"'x"
  and   b::"'x"
  and   c::"'x"
  and   x::"'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  assumes a1: "c≠a" and  a2: "a\<sharp>x" and a3: "c\<sharp>x"
  shows "c\<sharp>([(a,b)]•x)"
using a1 a2 a3 by (simp_all add: pt_fresh_left[OF pt, OF at] at_calc[OF at])

lemma pt_fresh_perm_app:
  fixes pi :: "'x prm" 
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   x  :: "'y"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     h1: "a\<sharp>pi"
  and     h2: "a\<sharp>x"
  shows "a\<sharp>(pi•x)"
using assms
proof -
  have "a\<sharp>(rev pi)"using h1 by (simp add: fresh_list_rev)
  then have "(rev pi)•a = a" by (simp add: at_prm_fresh[OF at])
  then have "((rev pi)•a)\<sharp>x" using h2 by simp
  thus "a\<sharp>(pi•x)"  by (simp add: pt_fresh_right[OF pt, OF at])
qed

lemma pt_fresh_perm_app_ineq:
  fixes pi::"'x prm"
  and   c::"'y"
  and   x::"'a"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     dj:  "disjoint TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  assumes a: "c\<sharp>x"
  shows "c\<sharp>(pi•x)"
using a by (simp add: pt_fresh_left_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp] dj_perm_forget[OF dj])

lemma pt_fresh_eqvt_ineq:
  fixes pi::"'x prm"
  and   c::"'y"
  and   x::"'a"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     dj:  "disjoint TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(c\<sharp>x) = (pi•c)\<sharp>(pi•x)"
by (simp add: pt_fresh_left_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp] dj_perm_forget[OF dj] perm_bool)

--"the co-set of a finite set is infinte"
lemma finite_infinite:
  assumes a: "finite {b::'x. P b}"
  and     b: "infinite (UNIV::'x set)"        
  shows "infinite {b. ¬P b}"
proof -
  from a b have "infinite (UNIV - {b::'x. P b})" by (simp add: Diff_infinite_finite)
  moreover 
  have "{b::'x. ¬P b} = UNIV - {b::'x. P b}" by auto
  ultimately show "infinite {b::'x. ¬P b}" by simp
qed 

lemma pt_fresh_fresh:
  fixes   x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x"
  and     b :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  and     a1: "a\<sharp>x" and a2: "b\<sharp>x" 
  shows "[(a,b)]•x=x"
proof (cases "a=b")
  assume "a=b"
  hence "[(a,b)] \<triangleq> []" by (simp add: at_ds1[OF at])
  hence "[(a,b)]•x=([]::'x prm)•x" by (rule pt3[OF pt])
  thus ?thesis by (simp only: pt1[OF pt])
next
  assume c2: "a≠b"
  from a1 have f1: "finite {c. [(a,c)]•x ≠ x}" by (simp add: fresh_def supp_def)
  from a2 have f2: "finite {c. [(b,c)]•x ≠ x}" by (simp add: fresh_def supp_def)
  from f1 and f2 have f3: "finite {c. perm [(a,c)] x ≠ x ∨ perm [(b,c)] x ≠ x}" 
    by (force simp only: Collect_disj_eq)
  have "infinite {c. [(a,c)]•x = x ∧ [(b,c)]•x = x}" 
    by (simp add: finite_infinite[OF f3,OF at4[OF at], simplified])
  hence "infinite ({c. [(a,c)]•x = x ∧ [(b,c)]•x = x}-{a,b})" 
    by (force dest: Diff_infinite_finite)
  hence "({c. [(a,c)]•x = x ∧ [(b,c)]•x = x}-{a,b}) ≠ {}"
    by (metis finite_set set_empty2)
  hence "∃c. c∈({c. [(a,c)]•x = x ∧ [(b,c)]•x = x}-{a,b})" by (force)
  then obtain c 
    where eq1: "[(a,c)]•x = x" 
      and eq2: "[(b,c)]•x = x" 
      and ineq: "a≠c ∧ b≠c"
    by (force)
  hence "[(a,c)]•([(b,c)]•([(a,c)]•x)) = x" by simp 
  hence eq3: "[(a,c),(b,c),(a,c)]•x = x" by (simp add: pt2[OF pt,symmetric])
  from c2 ineq have "[(a,c),(b,c),(a,c)] \<triangleq> [(a,b)]" by (simp add: at_ds3[OF at])
  hence "[(a,c),(b,c),(a,c)]•x = [(a,b)]•x" by (rule pt3[OF pt])
  thus ?thesis using eq3 by simp
qed

lemma pt_pi_fresh_fresh:
  fixes   x :: "'a"
  and     pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  and     a:  "∀(a,b)∈set pi. a\<sharp>x ∧ b\<sharp>x" 
  shows "pi•x=x"
using a
proof (induct pi)
  case Nil
  show "([]::'x prm)•x = x" by (rule pt1[OF pt])
next
  case (Cons ab pi)
  have a: "∀(a,b)∈set (ab#pi). a\<sharp>x ∧ b\<sharp>x" by fact
  have ih: "(∀(a,b)∈set pi. a\<sharp>x ∧ b\<sharp>x) ==> pi•x=x" by fact
  obtain a b where e: "ab=(a,b)" by (cases ab) (auto)
  from a have a': "a\<sharp>x" "b\<sharp>x" using e by auto
  have "(ab#pi)•x = ([(a,b)]@pi)•x" using e by simp
  also have "… = [(a,b)]•(pi•x)" by (simp only: pt2[OF pt])
  also have "… = [(a,b)]•x" using ih a by simp
  also have "… = x" using a' by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at])
  finally show "(ab#pi)•x = x" by simp
qed

lemma pt_perm_compose:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi2•(pi1•x) = (pi2•pi1)•(pi2•x)" 
proof -
  have "(pi2@pi1) \<triangleq> ((pi2•pi1)@pi2)" by (rule at_ds8 [OF at])
  hence "(pi2@pi1)•x = ((pi2•pi1)@pi2)•x" by (rule pt3[OF pt])
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: pt2[OF pt])
qed

lemma pt_perm_compose':
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi2•pi1)•x = pi2•(pi1•((rev pi2)•x))" 
proof -
  have "pi2•(pi1•((rev pi2)•x)) = (pi2•pi1)•(pi2•((rev pi2)•x))"
    by (rule pt_perm_compose[OF pt, OF at])
  also have "… = (pi2•pi1)•x" by (simp add: pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])
  finally have "pi2•(pi1•((rev pi2)•x)) = (pi2•pi1)•x" by simp
  thus ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma pt_perm_compose_rev:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(rev pi2)•((rev pi1)•x) = (rev pi1)•(rev (pi1•pi2)•x)" 
proof -
  have "((rev pi2)@(rev pi1)) \<triangleq> ((rev pi1)@(rev (pi1•pi2)))" by (rule at_ds9[OF at])
  hence "((rev pi2)@(rev pi1))•x = ((rev pi1)@(rev (pi1•pi2)))•x" by (rule pt3[OF pt])
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: pt2[OF pt])
qed

section {* equivariance for some connectives *}
lemma pt_all_eqvt:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(∀(x::'a). P x) = (∀(x::'a). pi•(P ((rev pi)•x)))"
apply(auto simp add: perm_bool perm_fun_def)
apply(drule_tac x="pi•x" in spec)
apply(simp add: pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at])
done

lemma pt_ex_eqvt:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(∃(x::'a). P x) = (∃(x::'a). pi•(P ((rev pi)•x)))"
apply(auto simp add: perm_bool perm_fun_def)
apply(rule_tac x="pi•x" in exI) 
apply(simp add: pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at])
done

lemma pt_ex1_eqvt:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows  "(pi•(∃!x. P (x::'a))) = (∃!x. pi•(P (rev pi•x)))"
unfolding Ex1_def
by (simp add: pt_ex_eqvt[OF pt at] conj_eqvt pt_all_eqvt[OF pt at] 
              imp_eqvt pt_eq_eqvt[OF pt at] pt_pi_rev[OF pt at])

lemma pt_the_eqvt:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     unique: "∃!x. P x"
  shows "pi•(THE(x::'a). P x) = (THE(x::'a). pi•(P ((rev pi)•x)))"
  apply(rule the1_equality [symmetric])
  apply(simp add: pt_ex1_eqvt[OF pt at,symmetric])
  apply(simp add: perm_bool unique)
  apply(simp add: perm_bool pt_rev_pi [OF pt at])
  apply(rule theI'[OF unique])
  done

section {* facts about supports *}
(*==============================*)

lemma supports_subset:
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   S1 :: "'x set"
  and   S2 :: "'x set"
  assumes  a: "S1 supports x"
  and      b: "S1 ⊆ S2"
  shows "S2 supports x"
  using a b
  by (force simp add: supports_def)

lemma supp_is_subset:
  fixes S :: "'x set"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes a1: "S supports x"
  and     a2: "finite S"
  shows "(supp x)⊆S"
proof (rule ccontr)
  assume "¬(supp x ⊆ S)"
  hence "∃a. a∈(supp x) ∧ a∉S" by force
  then obtain a where b1: "a∈supp x" and b2: "a∉S" by force
  from a1 b2 have "∀b. (b∉S --> ([(a,b)]•x = x))" by (unfold supports_def, force)
  hence "{b. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x}⊆S" by force
  with a2 have "finite {b. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x}" by (simp add: finite_subset)
  hence "a∉(supp x)" by (unfold supp_def, auto)
  with b1 show False by simp
qed

lemma supp_supports:
  fixes x :: "'a"
  assumes  pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and      at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  shows "((supp x)::'x set) supports x"
proof (unfold supports_def, intro strip)
  fix a b
  assume "(a::'x)∉(supp x) ∧ (b::'x)∉(supp x)"
  hence "a\<sharp>x" and "b\<sharp>x" by (auto simp add: fresh_def)
  thus "[(a,b)]•x = x" by (rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at])
qed

lemma supports_finite:
  fixes S :: "'x set"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes a1: "S supports x"
  and     a2: "finite S"
  shows "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
proof -
  have "(supp x)⊆S" using a1 a2 by (rule supp_is_subset)
  thus ?thesis using a2 by (simp add: finite_subset)
qed
  
lemma supp_is_inter:
  fixes  x :: "'a"
  assumes  pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and      at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  and      fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "((supp x)::'x set) = (\<Inter> {S. finite S ∧ S supports x})"
proof (rule equalityI)
  show "((supp x)::'x set) ⊆ (\<Inter> {S. finite S ∧ S supports x})"
  proof (clarify)
    fix S c
    assume b: "c∈((supp x)::'x set)" and "finite (S::'x set)" and "S supports x"
    hence  "((supp x)::'x set)⊆S" by (simp add: supp_is_subset) 
    with b show "c∈S" by force
  qed
next
  show "(\<Inter> {S. finite S ∧ S supports x}) ⊆ ((supp x)::'x set)"
  proof (clarify, simp)
    fix c
    assume d: "∀(S::'x set). finite S ∧ S supports x --> c∈S"
    have "((supp x)::'x set) supports x" by (rule supp_supports[OF pt, OF at])
    with d fs1[OF fs] show "c∈supp x" by force
  qed
qed
    
lemma supp_is_least_supports:
  fixes S :: "'x set"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes  pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and      at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  and      a1: "S supports x"
  and      a2: "finite S"
  and      a3: "∀S'. (S' supports x) --> S⊆S'"
  shows "S = (supp x)"
proof (rule equalityI)
  show "((supp x)::'x set)⊆S" using a1 a2 by (rule supp_is_subset)
next
  have "((supp x)::'x set) supports x" by (rule supp_supports[OF pt, OF at])
  with a3 show "S⊆supp x" by force
qed

lemma supports_set:
  fixes S :: "'x set"
  and   X :: "'a set"
  assumes  pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and      at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  and      a: "∀x∈X. (∀(a::'x) (b::'x). a∉S∧b∉S --> ([(a,b)]•x)∈X)"
  shows  "S supports X"
using a
apply(auto simp add: supports_def)
apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1a[OF pt, OF at])
apply(force simp add: pt_swap_bij[OF pt, OF at])
apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1a[OF pt, OF at])
done

lemma supports_fresh:
  fixes S :: "'x set"
  and   a :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes a1: "S supports x"
  and     a2: "finite S"
  and     a3: "a∉S"
  shows "a\<sharp>x"
proof (simp add: fresh_def)
  have "(supp x)⊆S" using a1 a2 by (rule supp_is_subset)
  thus "a∉(supp x)" using a3 by force
qed

lemma at_fin_set_supports:
  fixes X::"'x set"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "X supports X"
proof -
  have "∀a b. a∉X ∧ b∉X --> [(a,b)]•X = X"
    by (auto simp add: perm_set_def at_calc[OF at])
  then show ?thesis by (simp add: supports_def)
qed

lemma infinite_Collection:
  assumes a1:"infinite X"
  and     a2:"∀b∈X. P(b)"
  shows "infinite {b∈X. P(b)}"
  using a1 a2 
  apply auto
  apply (subgoal_tac "infinite (X - {b∈X. P b})")
  apply (simp add: set_diff_eq)
  apply (simp add: Diff_infinite_finite)
  done

lemma at_fin_set_supp:
  fixes X::"'x set" 
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "finite X"
  shows "(supp X) = X"
proof (rule subset_antisym)
  show "(supp X) ⊆ X" using at_fin_set_supports[OF at] using fs by (simp add: supp_is_subset)
next
  have inf: "infinite (UNIV-X)" using at4[OF at] fs by (auto simp add: Diff_infinite_finite)
  { fix a::"'x"
    assume asm: "a∈X"
    hence "∀b∈(UNIV-X). [(a,b)]•X≠X"
      by (auto simp add: perm_set_def at_calc[OF at])
    with inf have "infinite {b∈(UNIV-X). [(a,b)]•X≠X}" by (rule infinite_Collection)
    hence "infinite {b. [(a,b)]•X≠X}" by (rule_tac infinite_super, auto)
    hence "a∈(supp X)" by (simp add: supp_def)
  }
  then show "X⊆(supp X)" by blast
qed

lemma at_fin_set_fresh:
  fixes X::"'x set" 
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "finite X"
  shows "(x \<sharp> X) = (x ∉ X)"
  by (simp add: at_fin_set_supp fresh_def at fs)


section {* Permutations acting on Functions *}
(*==========================================*)

lemma pt_fun_app_eq:
  fixes f  :: "'a=>'b"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(f x) = (pi•f)(pi•x)"
  by (simp add: perm_fun_def pt_rev_pi[OF pt, OF at])


--"sometimes pt_fun_app_eq does too much; this lemma 'corrects it'"
lemma pt_perm:
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  shows "(pi1•perm pi2)(pi1•x) = pi1•(pi2•x)" 
  by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF pt, OF at])


lemma pt_fun_eq:
  fixes f  :: "'a=>'b"
  and   pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•f = f) = (∀ x. pi•(f x) = f (pi•x))" (is "?LHS = ?RHS")
proof
  assume a: "?LHS"
  show "?RHS"
  proof
    fix x
    have "pi•(f x) = (pi•f)(pi•x)" by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF pt, OF at])
    also have "… = f (pi•x)" using a by simp
    finally show "pi•(f x) = f (pi•x)" by simp
  qed
next
  assume b: "?RHS"
  show "?LHS"
  proof (rule ccontr)
    assume "(pi•f) ≠ f"
    hence "∃x. (pi•f) x ≠ f x" by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)
    then obtain x where b1: "(pi•f) x ≠ f x" by force
    from b have "pi•(f ((rev pi)•x)) = f (pi•((rev pi)•x))" by force
    hence "(pi•f)(pi•((rev pi)•x)) = f (pi•((rev pi)•x))" 
      by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF pt, OF at])
    hence "(pi•f) x = f x" by (simp add: pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])
    with b1 show "False" by simp
  qed
qed

-- "two helper lemmas for the equivariance of functions"
lemma pt_swap_eq_aux:
  fixes   y :: "'a"
  and    pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "∀(a::'x) (b::'x). [(a,b)]•y = y"
  shows "pi•y = y"
proof(induct pi)
  case Nil show ?case by (simp add: pt1[OF pt])
next
  case (Cons x xs)
  have ih: "xs•y = y" by fact
  obtain a b where p: "x=(a,b)" by force
  have "((a,b)#xs)•y = ([(a,b)]@xs)•y" by simp
  also have "… = [(a,b)]•(xs•y)" by (simp only: pt2[OF pt])
  finally show ?case using a ih p by simp
qed

lemma pt_swap_eq:
  fixes   y :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "(∀(a::'x) (b::'x). [(a,b)]•y = y) = (∀pi::'x prm. pi•y = y)"
  by (force intro: pt_swap_eq_aux[OF pt])

lemma pt_eqvt_fun1a:
  fixes f     :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a:   "((supp f)::'x set)={}"
  shows "∀(pi::'x prm). pi•f = f" 
proof (intro strip)
  fix pi
  have "∀a b. a∉((supp f)::'x set) ∧ b∉((supp f)::'x set) --> (([(a,b)]•f) = f)" 
    by (intro strip, fold fresh_def, 
      simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt_fun_inst[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at],OF at])
  with a have "∀(a::'x) (b::'x). ([(a,b)]•f) = f" by force
  hence "∀(pi::'x prm). pi•f = f" 
    by (simp add: pt_swap_eq[OF pt_fun_inst[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at]])
  thus "(pi::'x prm)•f = f" by simp
qed

lemma pt_eqvt_fun1b:
  fixes f     :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes a: "∀(pi::'x prm). pi•f = f"
  shows "((supp f)::'x set)={}"
using a by (simp add: supp_def)

lemma pt_eqvt_fun1:
  fixes f     :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(((supp f)::'x set)={}) = (∀(pi::'x prm). pi•f = f)" (is "?LHS = ?RHS")
by (rule iffI, simp add: pt_eqvt_fun1a[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at], simp add: pt_eqvt_fun1b)

lemma pt_eqvt_fun2a:
  fixes f     :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  assumes a: "((supp f)::'x set)={}"
  shows "∀(pi::'x prm) (x::'a). pi•(f x) = f(pi•x)" 
proof (intro strip)
  fix pi x
  from a have b: "∀(pi::'x prm). pi•f = f" by (simp add: pt_eqvt_fun1[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at]) 
  have "(pi::'x prm)•(f x) = (pi•f)(pi•x)" by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF pta, OF at]) 
  with b show "(pi::'x prm)•(f x) = f (pi•x)" by force 
qed

lemma pt_eqvt_fun2b:
  fixes f     :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes pt1: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     pt2: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  assumes a: "∀(pi::'x prm) (x::'a). pi•(f x) = f(pi•x)"
  shows "((supp f)::'x set)={}"
proof -
  from a have "∀(pi::'x prm). pi•f = f" by (simp add: pt_fun_eq[OF pt1, OF at, symmetric])
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: supp_def)
qed

lemma pt_eqvt_fun2:
  fixes f     :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(((supp f)::'x set)={}) = (∀(pi::'x prm) (x::'a). pi•(f x) = f(pi•x))" 
by (rule iffI, 
    simp add: pt_eqvt_fun2a[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at], 
    simp add: pt_eqvt_fun2b[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at])

lemma pt_supp_fun_subset:
  fixes f :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1: "finite ((supp f)::'x set)"
  and     f2: "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  shows "supp (f x) ⊆ (((supp f)∪(supp x))::'x set)"
proof -
  have s1: "((supp f)∪((supp x)::'x set)) supports (f x)"
  proof (simp add: supports_def, fold fresh_def, auto)
    fix a::"'x" and b::"'x"
    assume "a\<sharp>f" and "b\<sharp>f"
    hence a1: "[(a,b)]•f = f" 
      by (rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt_fun_inst[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at], OF at])
    assume "a\<sharp>x" and "b\<sharp>x"
    hence a2: "[(a,b)]•x = x" by (rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF pta, OF at])
    from a1 a2 show "[(a,b)]•(f x) = (f x)" by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF pta, OF at])
  qed
  from f1 f2 have "finite ((supp f)∪((supp x)::'x set))" by force
  with s1 show ?thesis by (rule supp_is_subset)
qed
      
lemma pt_empty_supp_fun_subset:
  fixes f :: "'a=>'b"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('b) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     e:   "(supp f)=({}::'x set)"
  shows "supp (f x) ⊆ ((supp x)::'x set)"
proof (unfold supp_def, auto)
  fix a::"'x"
  assume a1: "finite {b. [(a, b)]•x ≠ x}"
  assume "infinite {b. [(a, b)]•(f x) ≠ f x}"
  hence a2: "infinite {b. f ([(a, b)]•x) ≠ f x}" using e
    by (simp add: pt_eqvt_fun2[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at])
  have a3: "{b. f ([(a,b)]•x) ≠ f x}⊆{b. [(a,b)]•x ≠ x}" by force
  from a1 a2 a3 show False by (force dest: finite_subset)
qed

section {* Facts about the support of finite sets of finitely supported things *}
(*=============================================================================*)

definition X_to_Un_supp :: "('a set) => 'x set" where
  "X_to_Un_supp X ≡ \<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set)"

lemma UNION_f_eqvt:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  and   f::"'a => 'x set"
  and   pi::"'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(\<Union>x∈X. f x) = (\<Union>x∈(pi•X). (pi•f) x)"
proof -
  have pt_x: "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('x)" by (force intro: at_pt_inst at)
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule equalityI)
    case goal1
    show "pi•(\<Union>x∈X. f x) ⊆ (\<Union>x∈(pi•X). (pi•f) x)"
      apply(auto simp add: perm_set_def)
      apply(rule_tac x="pi•xb" in exI)
      apply(rule conjI)
      apply(rule_tac x="xb" in exI)
      apply(simp)
      apply(subgoal_tac "(pi•f) (pi•xb) = pi•(f xb)")(*A*)
      apply(simp)
      apply(rule pt_set_bij2[OF pt_x, OF at])
      apply(assumption)
      (*A*)
      apply(rule sym)
      apply(rule pt_fun_app_eq[OF pt, OF at])
      done
  next
    case goal2
    show "(\<Union>x∈(pi•X). (pi•f) x) ⊆ pi•(\<Union>x∈X. f x)"
      apply(auto simp add: perm_set_def)
      apply(rule_tac x="(rev pi)•x" in exI)
      apply(rule conjI)
      apply(simp add: pt_pi_rev[OF pt_x, OF at])
      apply(rule_tac x="xb" in bexI)
      apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1[OF pt_x, OF at])
      apply(simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF pt, OF at])
      apply(assumption)
      done
  qed
qed

lemma X_to_Un_supp_eqvt:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  and   pi::"'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(X_to_Un_supp X) = ((X_to_Un_supp (pi•X))::'x set)"
  apply(simp add: X_to_Un_supp_def)
  apply(simp add: UNION_f_eqvt[OF pt, OF at] perm_fun_def)
  apply(simp add: pt_perm_supp[OF pt, OF at])
  apply(simp add: pt_pi_rev[OF pt, OF at])
  done

lemma Union_supports_set:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(\<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set)) supports X"
  apply(simp add: supports_def fresh_def[symmetric])
  apply(rule allI)+
  apply(rule impI)
  apply(erule conjE)
  apply(simp add: perm_set_def)
  apply(auto)
  apply(subgoal_tac "[(a,b)]•xa = xa")(*A*)
  apply(simp)
  apply(rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at])
  apply(force)
  apply(force)
  apply(rule_tac x="x" in exI)
  apply(simp)
  apply(rule sym)
  apply(rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at])
  apply(force)+
  done

lemma Union_of_fin_supp_sets:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  assumes fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     fi: "finite X"   
  shows "finite (\<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set))"
using fi by (induct, auto simp add: fs1[OF fs])

lemma Union_included_in_supp:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     fi: "finite X"
  shows "(\<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set)) ⊆ supp X"
proof -
  have "supp ((X_to_Un_supp X)::'x set) ⊆ ((supp X)::'x set)"  
    apply(rule pt_empty_supp_fun_subset)
    apply(force intro: pt_set_inst at_pt_inst pt at)+
    apply(rule pt_eqvt_fun2b)
    apply(force intro: pt_set_inst at_pt_inst pt at)+
    apply(rule allI)+
    apply(rule X_to_Un_supp_eqvt[OF pt, OF at])
    done
  hence "supp (\<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set)) ⊆ ((supp X)::'x set)" by (simp add: X_to_Un_supp_def)
  moreover
  have "supp (\<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set)) = (\<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set))"
    apply(rule at_fin_set_supp[OF at])
    apply(rule Union_of_fin_supp_sets[OF fs, OF fi])
    done
  ultimately show ?thesis by force
qed

lemma supp_of_fin_sets:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     fi: "finite X"
  shows "(supp X) = (\<Union>x∈X. ((supp x)::'x set))"
apply(rule equalityI)
apply(rule supp_is_subset)
apply(rule Union_supports_set[OF pt, OF at])
apply(rule Union_of_fin_supp_sets[OF fs, OF fi])
apply(rule Union_included_in_supp[OF pt, OF at, OF fs, OF fi])
done

lemma supp_fin_union:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  and   Y::"('a set)"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1: "finite X"
  and     f2: "finite Y"
  shows "(supp (X∪Y)) = (supp X)∪((supp Y)::'x set)"
using f1 f2 by (force simp add: supp_of_fin_sets[OF pt, OF at, OF fs])

lemma supp_fin_insert:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  and   x::"'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     f:  "finite X"
  shows "(supp (insert x X)) = (supp x)∪((supp X)::'x set)"
proof -
  have "(supp (insert x X)) = ((supp ({x}∪(X::'a set)))::'x set)" by simp
  also have "… = (supp {x})∪(supp X)"
    by (rule supp_fin_union[OF pt, OF at, OF fs], simp_all add: f)
  finally show "(supp (insert x X)) = (supp x)∪((supp X)::'x set)" 
    by (simp add: supp_singleton)
qed

lemma fresh_fin_union:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  and   Y::"('a set)"
  and   a::"'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1: "finite X"
  and     f2: "finite Y"
  shows "a\<sharp>(X∪Y) = (a\<sharp>X ∧ a\<sharp>Y)"
apply(simp add: fresh_def)
apply(simp add: supp_fin_union[OF pt, OF at, OF fs, OF f1, OF f2])
done

lemma fresh_fin_insert:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  and   x::"'a"
  and   a::"'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     f:  "finite X"
  shows "a\<sharp>(insert x X) = (a\<sharp>x ∧ a\<sharp>X)"
apply(simp add: fresh_def)
apply(simp add: supp_fin_insert[OF pt, OF at, OF fs, OF f])
done

lemma fresh_fin_insert1:
  fixes X::"('a set)"
  and   x::"'a"
  and   a::"'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)" 
  and     f:  "finite X"
  and     a1:  "a\<sharp>x"
  and     a2:  "a\<sharp>X"
  shows "a\<sharp>(insert x X)"
  using a1 a2
  by (simp add: fresh_fin_insert[OF pt, OF at, OF fs, OF f])

lemma pt_list_set_supp:
  fixes xs :: "'a list"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "supp (set xs) = ((supp xs)::'x set)"
proof -
  have "supp (set xs) = (\<Union>x∈(set xs). ((supp x)::'x set))"
    by (rule supp_of_fin_sets[OF pt, OF at, OF fs], rule finite_set)
  also have "(\<Union>x∈(set xs). ((supp x)::'x set)) = (supp xs)"
  proof(induct xs)
    case Nil show ?case by (simp add: supp_list_nil)
  next
    case (Cons h t) thus ?case by (simp add: supp_list_cons)
  qed
  finally show ?thesis by simp
qed
    
lemma pt_list_set_fresh:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   xs :: "'a list"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     fs: "fs TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  shows "a\<sharp>(set xs) = a\<sharp>xs"
by (simp add: fresh_def pt_list_set_supp[OF pt, OF at, OF fs])


section {* generalisation of freshness to lists and sets of atoms *}
(*================================================================*)
 
consts
  fresh_star :: "'b => 'a => bool" ("_ \<sharp>* _" [100,100] 100)

defs (overloaded)
  fresh_star_set: "xs\<sharp>*c ≡ ∀x∈xs. x\<sharp>c"

defs (overloaded)
  fresh_star_list: "xs\<sharp>*c ≡ ∀x∈set xs. x\<sharp>c"

lemmas fresh_star_def = fresh_star_list fresh_star_set

lemma fresh_star_prod_set:
  fixes xs::"'a set"
  shows "xs\<sharp>*(a,b) = (xs\<sharp>*a ∧ xs\<sharp>*b)"
by (auto simp add: fresh_star_def fresh_prod)

lemma fresh_star_prod_list:
  fixes xs::"'a list"
  shows "xs\<sharp>*(a,b) = (xs\<sharp>*a ∧ xs\<sharp>*b)"
  by (auto simp add: fresh_star_def fresh_prod)

lemmas fresh_star_prod = fresh_star_prod_list fresh_star_prod_set

lemma fresh_star_set_eq: "set xs \<sharp>* c = xs \<sharp>* c"
  by (simp add: fresh_star_def)

lemma fresh_star_Un_elim:
  "((S ∪ T) \<sharp>* c ==> PROP C) ≡ (S \<sharp>* c ==> T \<sharp>* c ==> PROP C)"
  apply rule
  apply (simp_all add: fresh_star_def)
  apply (erule meta_mp)
  apply blast
  done

lemma fresh_star_insert_elim:
  "(insert x S \<sharp>* c ==> PROP C) ≡ (x \<sharp> c ==> S \<sharp>* c ==> PROP C)"
  by rule (simp_all add: fresh_star_def)

lemma fresh_star_empty_elim:
  "({} \<sharp>* c ==> PROP C) ≡ PROP C"
  by (simp add: fresh_star_def)

text {* Normalization of freshness results; see \ @{text nominal_induct} *}

lemma fresh_star_unit_elim: 
  shows "((a::'a set)\<sharp>*() ==> PROP C) ≡ PROP C"
  and "((b::'a list)\<sharp>*() ==> PROP C) ≡ PROP C"
  by (simp_all add: fresh_star_def fresh_def supp_unit)

lemma fresh_star_prod_elim: 
  shows "((a::'a set)\<sharp>*(x,y) ==> PROP C) ≡ (a\<sharp>*x ==> a\<sharp>*y ==> PROP C)"
  and "((b::'a list)\<sharp>*(x,y) ==> PROP C) ≡ (b\<sharp>*x ==> b\<sharp>*y ==> PROP C)"
  by (rule, simp_all add: fresh_star_prod)+


lemma pt_fresh_star_bij_ineq:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'y set"
  and     b :: "'y list"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "(pi•a)\<sharp>*(pi•x) = a\<sharp>*x"
  and   "(pi•b)\<sharp>*(pi•x) = b\<sharp>*x"
apply(unfold fresh_star_def)
apply(auto)
apply(drule_tac x="pi•xa" in bspec)
apply(erule pt_set_bij2[OF ptb, OF at])
apply(simp add: fresh_star_def pt_fresh_bij_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
apply(drule_tac x="(rev pi)•xa" in bspec)
apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1[OF ptb, OF at])
apply(simp add: pt_fresh_left_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
apply(drule_tac x="pi•xa" in bspec)
apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1[OF ptb, OF at])
apply(simp add: set_eqvt pt_rev_pi[OF pt_list_inst[OF ptb], OF at])
apply(simp add: pt_fresh_bij_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
apply(drule_tac x="(rev pi)•xa" in bspec)
apply(simp add: pt_set_bij1[OF ptb, OF at] set_eqvt)
apply(simp add: pt_fresh_left_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
done

lemma pt_fresh_star_bij:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x set"
  and     b :: "'x list"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•a)\<sharp>*(pi•x) = a\<sharp>*x"
  and   "(pi•b)\<sharp>*(pi•x) = b\<sharp>*x"
apply(rule pt_fresh_star_bij_ineq(1))
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at_pt_inst)
apply(rule at)+
apply(rule cp_pt_inst)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at)
apply(rule pt_fresh_star_bij_ineq(2))
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at_pt_inst)
apply(rule at)+
apply(rule cp_pt_inst)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at)
done

lemma pt_fresh_star_eqvt:
  fixes  pi :: "'x prm"
  and     x :: "'a"
  and     a :: "'x set"
  and     b :: "'x list"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(a\<sharp>*x) = (pi•a)\<sharp>*(pi•x)"
  and   "pi•(b\<sharp>*x) = (pi•b)\<sharp>*(pi•x)"
  by (simp_all add: perm_bool pt_fresh_star_bij[OF pt, OF at])

lemma pt_fresh_star_eqvt_ineq:
  fixes pi::"'x prm"
  and   a::"'y set"
  and   b::"'y list"
  and   x::"'a"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     dj:  "disjoint TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•(a\<sharp>*x) = (pi•a)\<sharp>*(pi•x)"
  and   "pi•(b\<sharp>*x) = (pi•b)\<sharp>*(pi•x)"
  by (simp_all add: pt_fresh_star_bij_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp] dj_perm_forget[OF dj] perm_bool)

lemma pt_freshs_freshs:
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  and pi: "set (pi::'x prm) ⊆ Xs × Ys"
  and Xs: "Xs \<sharp>* (x::'a)"
  and Ys: "Ys \<sharp>* x"
  shows "pi•x = x"
  using pi
proof (induct pi)
  case Nil
  show ?case by (simp add: pt1 [OF pt])
next
  case (Cons p pi)
  obtain a b where p: "p = (a, b)" by (cases p)
  with Cons Xs Ys have "a \<sharp> x" "b \<sharp> x"
    by (simp_all add: fresh_star_def)
  with Cons p show ?case
    by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh [OF pt at]
      pt2 [OF pt, of "[(a, b)]" pi, simplified])
qed

lemma pt_fresh_star_pi: 
  fixes x::"'a"
  and   pi::"'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "((supp x)::'x set)\<sharp>* pi"
  shows "pi•x = x"
using a
apply(induct pi)
apply(auto simp add: fresh_star_def fresh_list_cons fresh_prod pt1[OF pt])
apply(subgoal_tac "((a,b)#pi)•x = ([(a,b)]@pi)•x")
apply(simp only: pt2[OF pt])
apply(rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt at])
apply(simp add: fresh_def at_supp[OF at])
apply(blast)
apply(simp add: fresh_def at_supp[OF at])
apply(blast)
apply(simp add: pt2[OF pt])
done

section {* Infrastructure lemmas for strong rule inductions *}
(*==========================================================*)

text {* 
  For every set of atoms, there is another set of atoms
  avoiding a finitely supported c and there is a permutation
  which 'translates' between both sets.
*}

lemma at_set_avoiding_aux:
  fixes Xs::"'a set"
  and   As::"'a set"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('a)"
  and     b: "Xs ⊆ As"
  and     c: "finite As"
  and     d: "finite ((supp c)::'a set)"
  shows "∃(pi::'a prm). (pi•Xs)\<sharp>*c ∧ (pi•Xs) ∩ As = {} ∧ set pi ⊆ Xs × (pi•Xs)"
proof -
  from b c have "finite Xs" by (simp add: finite_subset)
  then show ?thesis using b 
  proof (induct)
    case empty
    have "({}::'a set)\<sharp>*c" by (simp add: fresh_star_def)
    moreover
    have "({}::'a set) ∩ As = {}" by simp
    moreover
    have "set ([]::'a prm) ⊆ {} × {}" by simp
    ultimately show ?case by (simp add: empty_eqvt)
  next
    case (insert x Xs)
    then have ih: "∃pi. (pi•Xs)\<sharp>*c ∧ (pi•Xs) ∩ As = {} ∧ set pi ⊆ Xs × (pi•Xs)" by simp
    then obtain pi where a1: "(pi•Xs)\<sharp>*c" and a2: "(pi•Xs) ∩ As = {}" and 
      a4: "set pi ⊆ Xs × (pi•Xs)" by blast
    have b: "x∉Xs" by fact
    have d1: "finite As" by fact
    have d2: "finite Xs" by fact
    have d3: "({x} ∪ Xs) ⊆ As" using insert(4) by simp
    from d d1 d2
    obtain y::"'a" where fr: "y\<sharp>(c,pi•Xs,As)" 
      apply(rule_tac at_exists_fresh[OF at, where x="(c,pi•Xs,As)"])
      apply(auto simp add: supp_prod at_supp[OF at] at_fin_set_supp[OF at]
        pt_supp_finite_pi[OF pt_set_inst[OF at_pt_inst[OF at]] at])
      done
    have "({y}∪(pi•Xs))\<sharp>*c" using a1 fr by (simp add: fresh_star_def)
    moreover
    have "({y}∪(pi•Xs))∩As = {}" using a2 d1 fr 
      by (simp add: fresh_prod at_fin_set_fresh[OF at])
    moreover
    have "pi•x=x" using a4 b a2 d3 
      by (rule_tac at_prm_fresh2[OF at]) (auto)
    then have "set ((pi•x,y)#pi) ⊆ ({x} ∪ Xs) × ({y}∪(pi•Xs))" using a4 by auto
    moreover
    have "(((pi•x,y)#pi)•({x} ∪ Xs)) = {y}∪(pi•Xs)"
    proof -
      have eq: "[(pi•x,y)]•(pi•Xs) = (pi•Xs)" 
      proof -
        have "(pi•x)\<sharp>(pi•Xs)" using b d2 
          by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij [OF pt_set_inst [OF at_pt_inst [OF at]], OF at]
            at_fin_set_fresh [OF at])
        moreover
        have "y\<sharp>(pi•Xs)" using fr by simp
        ultimately show "[(pi•x,y)]•(pi•Xs) = (pi•Xs)" 
          by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt_set_inst
            [OF at_pt_inst[OF at]], OF at])
      qed
      have "(((pi•x,y)#pi)•({x}∪Xs)) = ([(pi•x,y)]•(pi•({x}∪Xs)))"
        by (simp add: pt2[symmetric, OF pt_set_inst [OF at_pt_inst[OF at]]])
      also have "… = {y}∪([(pi•x,y)]•(pi•Xs))" 
        by (simp only: union_eqvt perm_set_def at_calc[OF at])(auto)
      finally show "(((pi•x,y)#pi)•({x} ∪ Xs)) = {y}∪(pi•Xs)" using eq by simp
    qed
    ultimately 
    show ?case by (rule_tac x="(pi•x,y)#pi" in exI) (auto)
  qed
qed

lemma at_set_avoiding:
  fixes Xs::"'a set"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('a)"
  and     a: "finite Xs"
  and     b: "finite ((supp c)::'a set)"
  obtains pi::"'a prm" where "(pi•Xs)\<sharp>*c" and "set pi ⊆ Xs × (pi•Xs)"
using a b at_set_avoiding_aux[OF at, where Xs="Xs" and As="Xs" and c="c"]
by (blast)

section {* composition instances *}
(* ============================= *)

lemma cp_list_inst:
  assumes c1: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "cp TYPE ('a list) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
using c1
apply(simp add: cp_def)
apply(auto)
apply(induct_tac x)
apply(auto)
done

lemma cp_set_inst:
  assumes c1: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "cp TYPE ('a set) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
using c1
apply(simp add: cp_def)
apply(auto)
apply(auto simp add: perm_set_def)
apply(rule_tac x="pi2•xc" in exI)
apply(auto)
done

lemma cp_option_inst:
  assumes c1: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "cp TYPE ('a option) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
using c1
apply(simp add: cp_def)
apply(auto)
apply(case_tac x)
apply(auto)
done

lemma cp_noption_inst:
  assumes c1: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "cp TYPE ('a noption) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
using c1
apply(simp add: cp_def)
apply(auto)
apply(case_tac x)
apply(auto)
done

lemma cp_unit_inst:
  shows "cp TYPE (unit) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
apply(simp add: cp_def)
done

lemma cp_bool_inst:
  shows "cp TYPE (bool) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
apply(simp add: cp_def)
apply(rule allI)+
apply(induct_tac x)
apply(simp_all)
done

lemma cp_prod_inst:
  assumes c1: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     c2: "cp TYPE ('b) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "cp TYPE ('a×'b) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
using c1 c2
apply(simp add: cp_def)
done

lemma cp_fun_inst:
  assumes c1: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     c2: "cp TYPE ('b) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     pt: "pt TYPE ('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE ('x)"
  shows "cp TYPE ('a=>'b) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
using c1 c2
apply(auto simp add: cp_def perm_fun_def fun_eq_iff)
apply(simp add: rev_eqvt[symmetric])
apply(simp add: pt_rev_pi[OF pt_list_inst[OF pt_prod_inst[OF pt, OF pt]], OF at])
done


section {* Andy's freshness lemma *}
(*================================*)

lemma freshness_lemma:
  fixes h :: "'x=>'a"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1:  "finite ((supp h)::'x set)"
  and     a: "∃a::'x. a\<sharp>(h,h a)"
  shows  "∃fr::'a. ∀a::'x. a\<sharp>h --> (h a) = fr"
proof -
  have ptb: "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('x)" by (simp add: at_pt_inst[OF at]) 
  have ptc: "pt TYPE('x=>'a) TYPE('x)" by (simp add: pt_fun_inst[OF ptb, OF pta, OF at]) 
  from a obtain a0 where a1: "a0\<sharp>h" and a2: "a0\<sharp>(h a0)" by (force simp add: fresh_prod)
  show ?thesis
  proof
    let ?fr = "h (a0::'x)"
    show "∀(a::'x). (a\<sharp>h --> ((h a) = ?fr))" 
    proof (intro strip)
      fix a
      assume a3: "(a::'x)\<sharp>h"
      show "h (a::'x) = h a0"
      proof (cases "a=a0")
        case True thus "h (a::'x) = h a0" by simp
      next
        case False 
        assume "a≠a0"
        hence c1: "a∉((supp a0)::'x set)" by  (simp add: fresh_def[symmetric] at_fresh[OF at])
        have c2: "a∉((supp h)::'x set)" using a3 by (simp add: fresh_def)
        from c1 c2 have c3: "a∉((supp h)∪((supp a0)::'x set))" by force
        have f2: "finite ((supp a0)::'x set)" by (simp add: at_supp[OF at])
        from f1 f2 have "((supp (h a0))::'x set)⊆((supp h)∪(supp a0))"
          by (simp add: pt_supp_fun_subset[OF ptb, OF pta, OF at])
        hence "a∉((supp (h a0))::'x set)" using c3 by force
        hence "a\<sharp>(h a0)" by (simp add: fresh_def) 
        with a2 have d1: "[(a0,a)]•(h a0) = (h a0)" by (rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF pta, OF at])
        from a1 a3 have d2: "[(a0,a)]•h = h" by (rule pt_fresh_fresh[OF ptc, OF at])
        from d1 have "h a0 = [(a0,a)]•(h a0)" by simp
        also have "…= ([(a0,a)]•h)([(a0,a)]•a0)" by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF ptb, OF at])
        also have "… = h ([(a0,a)]•a0)" using d2 by simp
        also have "… = h a" by (simp add: at_calc[OF at])
        finally show "h a = h a0" by simp
      qed
    qed
  qed
qed

lemma freshness_lemma_unique:
  fixes h :: "'x=>'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1: "finite ((supp h)::'x set)"
  and     a: "∃(a::'x). a\<sharp>(h,h a)"
  shows  "∃!(fr::'a). ∀(a::'x). a\<sharp>h --> (h a) = fr"
proof (rule ex_ex1I)
  from pt at f1 a show "∃fr::'a. ∀a::'x. a\<sharp>h --> h a = fr" by (simp add: freshness_lemma)
next
  fix fr1 fr2
  assume b1: "∀a::'x. a\<sharp>h --> h a = fr1"
  assume b2: "∀a::'x. a\<sharp>h --> h a = fr2"
  from a obtain a where "(a::'x)\<sharp>h" by (force simp add: fresh_prod) 
  with b1 b2 have "h a = fr1 ∧ h a = fr2" by force
  thus "fr1 = fr2" by force
qed

-- "packaging the freshness lemma into a function"
definition fresh_fun :: "('x=>'a)=>'a" where
  "fresh_fun (h) ≡ THE fr. (∀(a::'x). a\<sharp>h --> (h a) = fr)"

lemma fresh_fun_app:
  fixes h :: "'x=>'a"
  and   a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1: "finite ((supp h)::'x set)"
  and     a: "∃(a::'x). a\<sharp>(h,h a)"
  and     b: "a\<sharp>h"
  shows "(fresh_fun h) = (h a)"
proof (unfold fresh_fun_def, rule the_equality)
  show "∀(a'::'x). a'\<sharp>h --> h a' = h a"
  proof (intro strip)
    fix a'::"'x"
    assume c: "a'\<sharp>h"
    from pt at f1 a have "∃(fr::'a). ∀(a::'x). a\<sharp>h --> (h a) = fr" by (rule freshness_lemma)
    with b c show "h a' = h a" by force
  qed
next
  fix fr::"'a"
  assume "∀a. a\<sharp>h --> h a = fr"
  with b show "fr = h a" by force
qed

lemma fresh_fun_app':
  fixes h :: "'x=>'a"
  and   a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1: "finite ((supp h)::'x set)"
  and     a: "a\<sharp>h" "a\<sharp>h a"
  shows "(fresh_fun h) = (h a)"
apply(rule fresh_fun_app[OF pt, OF at, OF f1])
apply(auto simp add: fresh_prod intro: a)
done

lemma fresh_fun_equiv_ineq:
  fixes h :: "'y=>'a"
  and   pi:: "'x prm"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb':"pt TYPE('a) TYPE('y)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     at': "at TYPE('y)"
  and     cpa: "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     cpb: "cp TYPE('y) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     f1: "finite ((supp h)::'y set)"
  and     a1: "∃(a::'y). a\<sharp>(h,h a)"
  shows "pi•(fresh_fun h) = fresh_fun(pi•h)" (is "?LHS = ?RHS")
proof -
  have ptd: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('y)" by (simp add: at_pt_inst[OF at']) 
  have ptc: "pt TYPE('y=>'a) TYPE('x)" by (simp add: pt_fun_inst[OF ptb, OF pta, OF at]) 
  have cpc: "cp TYPE('y=>'a) TYPE ('x) TYPE ('y)" by (rule cp_fun_inst[OF cpb cpa ptb at])
  have f2: "finite ((supp (pi•h))::'y set)"
  proof -
    from f1 have "finite (pi•((supp h)::'y set))"
      by (simp add: pt_set_finite_ineq[OF ptb, OF at])
    thus ?thesis
      by (simp add: pt_perm_supp_ineq[OF ptc, OF ptb, OF at, OF cpc])
  qed
  from a1 obtain a' where c0: "a'\<sharp>(h,h a')" by force
  hence c1: "a'\<sharp>h" and c2: "a'\<sharp>(h a')" by (simp_all add: fresh_prod)
  have c3: "(pi•a')\<sharp>(pi•h)" using c1
  by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij_ineq[OF ptc, OF ptb, OF at, OF cpc])
  have c4: "(pi•a')\<sharp>(pi•h) (pi•a')"
  proof -
    from c2 have "(pi•a')\<sharp>(pi•(h a'))"
      by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at,OF cpa])
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF ptb, OF at])
  qed
  have a2: "∃(a::'y). a\<sharp>(pi•h,(pi•h) a)" using c3 c4 by (force simp add: fresh_prod)
  have d1: "?LHS = pi•(h a')" using c1 a1 by (simp add: fresh_fun_app[OF ptb', OF at', OF f1])
  have d2: "?RHS = (pi•h) (pi•a')" using c3 a2 
    by (simp add: fresh_fun_app[OF ptb', OF at', OF f2])
  show ?thesis using d1 d2 by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF ptb, OF at])
qed

lemma fresh_fun_equiv:
  fixes h :: "'x=>'a"
  and   pi:: "'x prm"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1:  "finite ((supp h)::'x set)"
  and     a1: "∃(a::'x). a\<sharp>(h,h a)"
  shows "pi•(fresh_fun h) = fresh_fun(pi•h)" (is "?LHS = ?RHS")
proof -
  have ptb: "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('x)" by (simp add: at_pt_inst[OF at]) 
  have ptc: "pt TYPE('x=>'a) TYPE('x)" by (simp add: pt_fun_inst[OF ptb, OF pta, OF at]) 
  have f2: "finite ((supp (pi•h))::'x set)"
  proof -
    from f1 have "finite (pi•((supp h)::'x set))" by (simp add: pt_set_finite_ineq[OF ptb, OF at])
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: pt_perm_supp[OF ptc, OF at])
  qed
  from a1 obtain a' where c0: "a'\<sharp>(h,h a')" by force
  hence c1: "a'\<sharp>h" and c2: "a'\<sharp>(h a')" by (simp_all add: fresh_prod)
  have c3: "(pi•a')\<sharp>(pi•h)" using c1 by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij[OF ptc, OF at])
  have c4: "(pi•a')\<sharp>(pi•h) (pi•a')"
  proof -
    from c2 have "(pi•a')\<sharp>(pi•(h a'))" by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij[OF pta, OF at])
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF ptb, OF at])
  qed
  have a2: "∃(a::'x). a\<sharp>(pi•h,(pi•h) a)" using c3 c4 by (force simp add: fresh_prod)
  have d1: "?LHS = pi•(h a')" using c1 a1 by (simp add: fresh_fun_app[OF pta, OF at, OF f1])
  have d2: "?RHS = (pi•h) (pi•a')" using c3 a2 by (simp add: fresh_fun_app[OF pta, OF at, OF f2])
  show ?thesis using d1 d2 by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF ptb, OF at])
qed

lemma fresh_fun_supports:
  fixes h :: "'x=>'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)" 
  and     f1: "finite ((supp h)::'x set)"
  and     a: "∃(a::'x). a\<sharp>(h,h a)"
  shows "((supp h)::'x set) supports (fresh_fun h)"
  apply(simp add: supports_def fresh_def[symmetric])
  apply(auto)
  apply(simp add: fresh_fun_equiv[OF pt, OF at, OF f1, OF a])
  apply(simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt_fun_inst[OF at_pt_inst[OF at], OF pt], OF at, OF at])
  done
  
section {* Abstraction function *}
(*==============================*)

lemma pt_abs_fun_inst:
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pt TYPE('x=>('a noption)) TYPE('x)"
  by (rule pt_fun_inst[OF at_pt_inst[OF at],OF pt_noption_inst[OF pt],OF at])

definition abs_fun :: "'x=>'a=>('x=>('a noption))" ("[_]._" [100,100] 100) where 
  "[a].x ≡ (λb. (if b=a then nSome(x) else (if b\<sharp>x then nSome([(a,b)]•x) else nNone)))"

(* FIXME: should be called perm_if and placed close to the definition of permutations on bools *)
lemma abs_fun_if: 
  fixes pi :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  and   c  :: "bool"
  shows "pi•(if c then x else y) = (if c then (pi•x) else (pi•y))"   
  by force

lemma abs_fun_pi_ineq:
  fixes a  :: "'y"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "pi•([a].x) = [(pi•a)].(pi•x)"
  apply(simp add: abs_fun_def perm_fun_def abs_fun_if)
  apply(simp only: fun_eq_iff)
  apply(rule allI)
  apply(subgoal_tac "(((rev pi)•(xa::'y)) = (a::'y)) = (xa = pi•a)")(*A*)
  apply(subgoal_tac "(((rev pi)•xa)\<sharp>x) = (xa\<sharp>(pi•x))")(*B*)
  apply(subgoal_tac "pi•([(a,(rev pi)•xa)]•x) = [(pi•a,xa)]•(pi•x)")(*C*)
  apply(simp)
(*C*)
  apply(simp add: cp1[OF cp])
  apply(simp add: pt_pi_rev[OF ptb, OF at])
(*B*)
  apply(simp add: pt_fresh_left_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
(*A*)
  apply(rule iffI)
  apply(rule pt_bij2[OF ptb, OF at, THEN sym])
  apply(simp)
  apply(rule pt_bij2[OF ptb, OF at])
  apply(simp)
done

lemma abs_fun_pi:
  fixes a  :: "'x"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi•([a].x) = [(pi•a)].(pi•x)"
apply(rule abs_fun_pi_ineq)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at_pt_inst)
apply(rule at)+
apply(rule cp_pt_inst)
apply(rule pt)
apply(rule at)
done

lemma abs_fun_eq1: 
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  shows "([a].x = [a].y) = (x = y)"
apply(auto simp add: abs_fun_def)
apply(auto simp add: fun_eq_iff)
apply(drule_tac x="a" in spec)
apply(simp)
done

lemma abs_fun_eq2:
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
      and at: "at TYPE('x)"
      and a1: "a≠b" 
      and a2: "[a].x = [b].y" 
  shows "x=[(a,b)]•y ∧ a\<sharp>y"
proof -
  from a2 have "∀c::'x. ([a].x) c = ([b].y) c" by (force simp add: fun_eq_iff)
  hence "([a].x) a = ([b].y) a" by simp
  hence a3: "nSome(x) = ([b].y) a" by (simp add: abs_fun_def)
  show "x=[(a,b)]•y ∧ a\<sharp>y"
  proof (cases "a\<sharp>y")
    assume a4: "a\<sharp>y"
    hence "x=[(b,a)]•y" using a3 a1 by (simp add: abs_fun_def)
    moreover
    have "[(a,b)]•y = [(b,a)]•y" by (rule pt3[OF pt], rule at_ds5[OF at])
    ultimately show ?thesis using a4 by simp
  next
    assume "¬a\<sharp>y"
    hence "nSome(x) = nNone" using a1 a3 by (simp add: abs_fun_def)
    hence False by simp
    thus ?thesis by simp
  qed
qed

lemma abs_fun_eq3: 
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  and   a   :: "'x"
  and   b   :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
      and at: "at TYPE('x)"
      and a1: "a≠b" 
      and a2: "x=[(a,b)]•y" 
      and a3: "a\<sharp>y" 
  shows "[a].x =[b].y"
proof -
  show ?thesis 
  proof (simp only: abs_fun_def fun_eq_iff, intro strip)
    fix c::"'x"
    let ?LHS = "if c=a then nSome(x) else if c\<sharp>x then nSome([(a,c)]•x) else nNone"
    and ?RHS = "if c=b then nSome(y) else if c\<sharp>y then nSome([(b,c)]•y) else nNone"
    show "?LHS=?RHS"
    proof -
      have "(c=a) ∨ (c=b) ∨ (c≠a ∧ c≠b)" by blast
      moreover  --"case c=a"
      { have "nSome(x) = nSome([(a,b)]•y)" using a2 by simp
        also have "… = nSome([(b,a)]•y)" by (simp, rule pt3[OF pt], rule at_ds5[OF at])
        finally have "nSome(x) = nSome([(b,a)]•y)" by simp
        moreover
        assume "c=a"
        ultimately have "?LHS=?RHS" using a1 a3 by simp
      }
      moreover  -- "case c=b"
      { have a4: "y=[(a,b)]•x" using a2 by (simp only: pt_swap_bij[OF pt, OF at])
        hence "a\<sharp>([(a,b)]•x)" using a3 by simp
        hence "b\<sharp>x" by (simp add: at_calc[OF at] pt_fresh_left[OF pt, OF at])
        moreover
        assume "c=b"
        ultimately have "?LHS=?RHS" using a1 a4 by simp
      }
      moreover  -- "case c≠a ∧ c≠b"
      { assume a5: "c≠a ∧ c≠b"
        moreover 
        have "c\<sharp>x = c\<sharp>y" using a2 a5 by (force simp add: at_calc[OF at] pt_fresh_left[OF pt, OF at])
        moreover 
        have "c\<sharp>y --> [(a,c)]•x = [(b,c)]•y" 
        proof (intro strip)
          assume a6: "c\<sharp>y"
          have "[(a,c),(b,c),(a,c)] \<triangleq> [(a,b)]" using a1 a5 by (force intro: at_ds3[OF at])
          hence "[(a,c)]•([(b,c)]•([(a,c)]•y)) = [(a,b)]•y" 
            by (simp add: pt2[OF pt, symmetric] pt3[OF pt])
          hence "[(a,c)]•([(b,c)]•y) = [(a,b)]•y" using a3 a6 
            by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at])
          hence "[(a,c)]•([(b,c)]•y) = x" using a2 by simp
          hence "[(b,c)]•y = [(a,c)]•x" by (drule_tac pt_bij1[OF pt, OF at], simp)
          thus "[(a,c)]•x = [(b,c)]•y" by simp
        qed
        ultimately have "?LHS=?RHS" by simp
      }
      ultimately show "?LHS = ?RHS" by blast
    qed
  qed
qed
        
(* alpha equivalence *)
lemma abs_fun_eq: 
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
      and at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "([a].x = [b].y) = ((a=b ∧ x=y)∨(a≠b ∧ x=[(a,b)]•y ∧ a\<sharp>y))"
proof (rule iffI)
  assume b: "[a].x = [b].y"
  show "(a=b ∧ x=y)∨(a≠b ∧ x=[(a,b)]•y ∧ a\<sharp>y)"
  proof (cases "a=b")
    case True with b show ?thesis by (simp add: abs_fun_eq1)
  next
    case False with b show ?thesis by (simp add: abs_fun_eq2[OF pt, OF at])
  qed
next
  assume "(a=b ∧ x=y)∨(a≠b ∧ x=[(a,b)]•y ∧ a\<sharp>y)"
  thus "[a].x = [b].y"
  proof
    assume "a=b ∧ x=y" thus ?thesis by simp
  next
    assume "a≠b ∧ x=[(a,b)]•y ∧ a\<sharp>y" 
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: abs_fun_eq3[OF pt, OF at])
  qed
qed

(* symmetric version of alpha-equivalence *)
lemma abs_fun_eq': 
  fixes x  :: "'a"
  and   y  :: "'a"
  and   a  :: "'x"
  and   b  :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
      and at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "([a].x = [b].y) = ((a=b ∧ x=y)∨(a≠b ∧ [(b,a)]•x=y ∧ b\<sharp>x))"
by (auto simp add: abs_fun_eq[OF pt, OF at] pt_swap_bij'[OF pt, OF at] 
                   pt_fresh_left[OF pt, OF at] 
                   at_calc[OF at])

(* alpha_equivalence with a fresh name *)
lemma abs_fun_fresh: 
  fixes x :: "'a"
  and   y :: "'a"
  and   c :: "'x"
  and   a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
      and at: "at TYPE('x)"
      and fr: "c≠a" "c≠b" "c\<sharp>x" "c\<sharp>y" 
  shows "([a].x = [b].y) = ([(a,c)]•x = [(b,c)]•y)"
proof (rule iffI)
  assume eq0: "[a].x = [b].y"
  show "[(a,c)]•x = [(b,c)]•y"
  proof (cases "a=b")
    case True then show ?thesis using eq0 by (simp add: pt_bij[OF pt, OF at] abs_fun_eq[OF pt, OF at])
  next
    case False 
    have ineq: "a≠b" by fact
    with eq0 have eq: "x=[(a,b)]•y" and fr': "a\<sharp>y" by (simp_all add: abs_fun_eq[OF pt, OF at])
    from eq have "[(a,c)]•x = [(a,c)]•[(a,b)]•y" by (simp add: pt_bij[OF pt, OF at])
    also have "… = ([(a,c)]•[(a,b)])•([(a,c)]•y)" by (rule pt_perm_compose[OF pt, OF at])
    also have "… = [(c,b)]•y" using ineq fr fr' 
      by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at] at_calc[OF at])
    also have "… = [(b,c)]•y" by (rule pt3[OF pt], rule at_ds5[OF at])
    finally show ?thesis by simp
  qed
next
  assume eq: "[(a,c)]•x = [(b,c)]•y"
  thus "[a].x = [b].y"
  proof (cases "a=b")
    case True then show ?thesis using eq by (simp add: pt_bij[OF pt, OF at] abs_fun_eq[OF pt, OF at])
  next
    case False
    have ineq: "a≠b" by fact
    from fr have "([(a,c)]•c)\<sharp>([(a,c)]•x)" by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij[OF pt, OF at])
    hence "a\<sharp>([(b,c)]•y)" using eq fr by (simp add: at_calc[OF at])
    hence fr0: "a\<sharp>y" using ineq fr by (simp add: pt_fresh_left[OF pt, OF at] at_calc[OF at])
    from eq have "x = (rev [(a,c)])•([(b,c)]•y)" by (rule pt_bij1[OF pt, OF at])
    also have "… = [(a,c)]•([(b,c)]•y)" by simp
    also have "… = ([(a,c)]•[(b,c)])•([(a,c)]•y)" by (rule pt_perm_compose[OF pt, OF at])
    also have "… = [(b,a)]•y" using ineq fr fr0  
      by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at] at_calc[OF at])
    also have "… = [(a,b)]•y" by (rule pt3[OF pt], rule at_ds5[OF at])
    finally show ?thesis using ineq fr0 by (simp add: abs_fun_eq[OF pt, OF at])
  qed
qed

lemma abs_fun_fresh': 
  fixes x :: "'a"
  and   y :: "'a"
  and   c :: "'x"
  and   a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
      and at: "at TYPE('x)"
      and as: "[a].x = [b].y"
      and fr: "c≠a" "c≠b" "c\<sharp>x" "c\<sharp>y" 
  shows "x = [(a,c)]•[(b,c)]•y"
using as fr
apply(drule_tac sym)
apply(simp add: abs_fun_fresh[OF pt, OF at] pt_swap_bij[OF pt, OF at])
done

lemma abs_fun_supp_approx:
  fixes x :: "'a"
  and   a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "((supp ([a].x))::'x set) ⊆ (supp (x,a))"
proof 
  fix c
  assume "c∈((supp ([a].x))::'x set)"
  hence "infinite {b. [(c,b)]•([a].x) ≠ [a].x}" by (simp add: supp_def)
  hence "infinite {b. [([(c,b)]•a)].([(c,b)]•x) ≠ [a].x}" by (simp add: abs_fun_pi[OF pt, OF at])
  moreover
  have "{b. [([(c,b)]•a)].([(c,b)]•x) ≠ [a].x} ⊆ {b. ([(c,b)]•x,[(c,b)]•a) ≠ (x, a)}" by force
  ultimately have "infinite {b. ([(c,b)]•x,[(c,b)]•a) ≠ (x, a)}" by (simp add: infinite_super)
  thus "c∈(supp (x,a))" by (simp add: supp_def)
qed

lemma abs_fun_finite_supp:
  fixes x :: "'a"
  and   a :: "'x"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     f:  "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  shows "finite ((supp ([a].x))::'x set)"
proof -
  from f have "finite ((supp (x,a))::'x set)" by (simp add: supp_prod at_supp[OF at])
  moreover
  have "((supp ([a].x))::'x set) ⊆ (supp (x,a))" by (rule abs_fun_supp_approx[OF pt, OF at])
  ultimately show ?thesis by (simp add: finite_subset)
qed

lemma fresh_abs_funI1:
  fixes  x :: "'a"
  and    a :: "'x"
  and    b :: "'x"
  assumes pt:  "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:   "at TYPE('x)"
  and f:  "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  and a1: "b\<sharp>x" 
  and a2: "a≠b"
  shows "b\<sharp>([a].x)"
  proof -
    have "∃c::'x. c\<sharp>(b,a,x,[a].x)" 
    proof (rule at_exists_fresh'[OF at], auto simp add: supp_prod at_supp[OF at] f)
      show "finite ((supp ([a].x))::'x set)" using f
        by (simp add: abs_fun_finite_supp[OF pt, OF at])        
    qed
    then obtain c where fr1: "c≠b"
                  and   fr2: "c≠a"
                  and   fr3: "c\<sharp>x"
                  and   fr4: "c\<sharp>([a].x)"
                  by (force simp add: fresh_prod at_fresh[OF at])
    have e: "[(c,b)]•([a].x) = [a].([(c,b)]•x)" using a2 fr1 fr2 
      by (force simp add: abs_fun_pi[OF pt, OF at] at_calc[OF at])
    from fr4 have "([(c,b)]•c)\<sharp> ([(c,b)]•([a].x))"
      by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij[OF pt_abs_fun_inst[OF pt, OF at], OF at])
    hence "b\<sharp>([a].([(c,b)]•x))" using fr1 fr2 e  
      by (simp add: at_calc[OF at])
    thus ?thesis using a1 fr3 
      by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt, OF at])
qed

lemma fresh_abs_funE:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes pt:  "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     f:  "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  and     a1: "b\<sharp>([a].x)" 
  and     a2: "b≠a" 
  shows "b\<sharp>x"
proof -
  have "∃c::'x. c\<sharp>(b,a,x,[a].x)"
  proof (rule at_exists_fresh'[OF at], auto simp add: supp_prod at_supp[OF at] f)
    show "finite ((supp ([a].x))::'x set)" using f
      by (simp add: abs_fun_finite_supp[OF pt, OF at])  
  qed
  then obtain c where fr1: "b≠c"
                and   fr2: "c≠a"
                and   fr3: "c\<sharp>x"
                and   fr4: "c\<sharp>([a].x)" by (force simp add: fresh_prod at_fresh[OF at])
  have "[a].x = [(b,c)]•([a].x)" using a1 fr4 
    by (simp add: pt_fresh_fresh[OF pt_abs_fun_inst[OF pt, OF at], OF at])
  hence "[a].x = [a].([(b,c)]•x)" using fr2 a2 
    by (force simp add: abs_fun_pi[OF pt, OF at] at_calc[OF at])
  hence b: "([(b,c)]•x) = x" by (simp add: abs_fun_eq1)
  from fr3 have "([(b,c)]•c)\<sharp>([(b,c)]•x)" 
    by (simp add: pt_fresh_bij[OF pt, OF at]) 
  thus ?thesis using b fr1 by (simp add: at_calc[OF at])
qed

lemma fresh_abs_funI2:
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     f: "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  shows "a\<sharp>([a].x)"
proof -
  have "∃c::'x. c\<sharp>(a,x)"
    by  (rule at_exists_fresh'[OF at], auto simp add: supp_prod at_supp[OF at] f) 
  then obtain c where fr1: "a≠c" and fr1_sym: "c≠a" 
                and   fr2: "c\<sharp>x" by (force simp add: fresh_prod at_fresh[OF at])
  have "c\<sharp>([a].x)" using f fr1 fr2 by (simp add: fresh_abs_funI1[OF pt, OF at])
  hence "([(c,a)]•c)\<sharp>([(c,a)]•([a].x))" using fr1  
    by (simp only: pt_fresh_bij[OF pt_abs_fun_inst[OF pt, OF at], OF at])
  hence a: "a\<sharp>([c].([(c,a)]•x))" using fr1_sym 
    by (simp add: abs_fun_pi[OF pt, OF at] at_calc[OF at])
  have "[c].([(c,a)]•x) = ([a].x)" using fr1_sym fr2 
    by (simp add: abs_fun_eq[OF pt, OF at])
  thus ?thesis using a by simp
qed

lemma fresh_abs_fun_iff: 
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   b :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     f: "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  shows "(b\<sharp>([a].x)) = (b=a ∨ b\<sharp>x)" 
  by (auto  dest: fresh_abs_funE[OF pt, OF at,OF f] 
           intro: fresh_abs_funI1[OF pt, OF at,OF f] 
                  fresh_abs_funI2[OF pt, OF at,OF f])

lemma abs_fun_supp: 
  fixes a :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     f: "finite ((supp x)::'x set)"
  shows "supp ([a].x) = (supp x)-{a}"
 by (force simp add: supp_fresh_iff fresh_abs_fun_iff[OF pt, OF at, OF f])

(* maybe needs to be better stated as supp intersection supp *)
lemma abs_fun_supp_ineq: 
  fixes a :: "'y"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     dj:  "disjoint TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  shows "((supp ([a].x))::'x set) = (supp x)"
apply(auto simp add: supp_def)
apply(auto simp add: abs_fun_pi_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp])
apply(auto simp add: dj_perm_forget[OF dj])
apply(auto simp add: abs_fun_eq1) 
done

lemma fresh_abs_fun_iff_ineq: 
  fixes a :: "'y"
  and   b :: "'x"
  and   x :: "'a"
  assumes pta: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     ptb: "pt TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  and     at:  "at TYPE('x)"
  and     cp:  "cp TYPE('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  and     dj:  "disjoint TYPE('y) TYPE('x)"
  shows "b\<sharp>([a].x) = b\<sharp>x" 
  by (simp add: fresh_def abs_fun_supp_ineq[OF pta, OF ptb, OF at, OF cp, OF dj])

section {* abstraction type for the parsing in nominal datatype *}
(*==============================================================*)

inductive_set ABS_set :: "('x=>('a noption)) set"
  where
  ABS_in: "(abs_fun a x)∈ABS_set"

definition "ABS = ABS_set"

typedef ('x,'a) ABS ("«_»_" [1000,1000] 1000) =
    "ABS::('x=>('a noption)) set"
  morphisms Rep_ABS Abs_ABS
  unfolding ABS_def
proof 
  fix x::"'a" and a::"'x"
  show "(abs_fun a x)∈ ABS_set" by (rule ABS_in)
qed


section {* lemmas for deciding permutation equations *}
(*===================================================*)

lemma perm_aux_fold:
  shows "perm_aux pi x = pi•x" by (simp only: perm_aux_def)

lemma pt_perm_compose_aux:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "pi2•(pi1•x) = perm_aux (pi2•pi1) (pi2•x)" 
proof -
  have "(pi2@pi1) \<triangleq> ((pi2•pi1)@pi2)" by (rule at_ds8[OF at])
  hence "(pi2@pi1)•x = ((pi2•pi1)@pi2)•x" by (rule pt3[OF pt])
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: pt2[OF pt] perm_aux_def)
qed  

lemma cp1_aux:
  fixes pi1::"'x prm"
  and   pi2::"'y prm"
  and   x  ::"'a"
  assumes cp: "cp TYPE ('a) TYPE('x) TYPE('y)"
  shows "pi1•(pi2•x) = perm_aux (pi1•pi2) (pi1•x)"
  using cp by (simp add: cp_def perm_aux_def)

lemma perm_eq_app:
  fixes f  :: "'a=>'b"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   pi :: "'x prm"
  assumes pt: "pt TYPE('a) TYPE('x)"
  and     at: "at TYPE('x)"
  shows "(pi•(f x)=y) = ((pi•f)(pi•x)=y)"
  by (simp add: pt_fun_app_eq[OF pt, OF at])

lemma perm_eq_lam:
  fixes f  :: "'a=>'b"
  and   x  :: "'a"
  and   pi :: "'x prm"
  shows "((pi•(λx. f x))=y) = ((λx. (pi•(f ((rev pi)•x))))=y)"
  by (simp add: perm_fun_def)

section {* test *}
lemma at_prm_eq_compose:
  fixes pi1 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi2 :: "'x prm"
  and   pi3 :: "'x prm"
  assumes at: "at TYPE('x)"
  and     a: "pi1 \<triangleq> pi2"
  shows "(pi3•pi1) \<triangleq> (pi3•pi2)"
proof -
  have pt: "pt TYPE('x) TYPE('x)" by (rule at_pt_inst[OF at])
  have pt_prm: "pt TYPE('x prm) TYPE('x)" 
    by (rule pt_list_inst[OF pt_prod_inst[OF pt, OF pt]])  
  from a show ?thesis
    apply -
    apply(auto simp add: prm_eq_def)
    apply(rule_tac pi="rev pi3" in pt_bij4[OF pt, OF at])
    apply(rule trans)
    apply(rule pt_perm_compose[OF pt, OF at])
    apply(simp add: pt_rev_pi[OF pt_prm, OF at])
    apply(rule sym)
    apply(rule trans)
    apply(rule pt_perm_compose[OF pt, OF at])
    apply(simp add: pt_rev_pi[OF pt_prm, OF at])
    done
qed

(************************)
(* Various eqvt-lemmas  *)

lemma Zero_nat_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(0::nat) = 0" 
by (auto simp add: perm_nat_def)

lemma One_nat_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(1::nat) = 1"
by (simp add: perm_nat_def)

lemma Suc_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(Suc x) = Suc (pi•x)" 
by (auto simp add: perm_nat_def)

lemma numeral_nat_eqvt: 
 shows "pi•((numeral n)::nat) = numeral n" 
by (simp add: perm_nat_def perm_int_def)

lemma max_nat_eqvt:
  fixes x::"nat"
  shows "pi•(max x y) = max (pi•x) (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_nat_def) 

lemma min_nat_eqvt:
  fixes x::"nat"
  shows "pi•(min x y) = min (pi•x) (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_nat_def) 

lemma plus_nat_eqvt:
  fixes x::"nat"
  shows "pi•(x + y) = (pi•x) + (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_nat_def) 

lemma minus_nat_eqvt:
  fixes x::"nat"
  shows "pi•(x - y) = (pi•x) - (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_nat_def) 

lemma mult_nat_eqvt:
  fixes x::"nat"
  shows "pi•(x * y) = (pi•x) * (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_nat_def) 

lemma div_nat_eqvt:
  fixes x::"nat"
  shows "pi•(x div y) = (pi•x) div (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_nat_def) 

lemma Zero_int_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(0::int) = 0" 
by (auto simp add: perm_int_def)

lemma One_int_eqvt:
  shows "pi•(1::int) = 1"
by (simp add: perm_int_def)

lemma numeral_int_eqvt: 
 shows "pi•((numeral n)::int) = numeral n" 
by (simp add: perm_int_def perm_int_def)

lemma neg_numeral_int_eqvt:
 shows "pi•((- numeral n)::int) = - numeral n"
by (simp add: perm_int_def perm_int_def)

lemma max_int_eqvt:
  fixes x::"int"
  shows "pi•(max (x::int) y) = max (pi•x) (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_int_def) 

lemma min_int_eqvt:
  fixes x::"int"
  shows "pi•(min x y) = min (pi•x) (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_int_def) 

lemma plus_int_eqvt:
  fixes x::"int"
  shows "pi•(x + y) = (pi•x) + (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_int_def) 

lemma minus_int_eqvt:
  fixes x::"int"
  shows "pi•(x - y) = (pi•x) - (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_int_def) 

lemma mult_int_eqvt:
  fixes x::"int"
  shows "pi•(x * y) = (pi•x) * (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_int_def) 

lemma div_int_eqvt:
  fixes x::"int"
  shows "pi•(x div y) = (pi•x) div (pi•y)" 
by (simp add:perm_int_def) 

(*******************************************************)
(* Setup of the theorem attributes eqvt and eqvt_force *)
ML_file "nominal_thmdecls.ML"
setup "NominalThmDecls.setup"

lemmas [eqvt] = 
  (* connectives *)
  if_eqvt imp_eqvt disj_eqvt conj_eqvt neg_eqvt 
  true_eqvt false_eqvt
  imp_eqvt [folded induct_implies_def]
  
  (* datatypes *)
  perm_unit.simps
  perm_list.simps append_eqvt
  perm_prod.simps
  fst_eqvt snd_eqvt
  perm_option.simps

  (* nats *)
  Suc_eqvt Zero_nat_eqvt One_nat_eqvt min_nat_eqvt max_nat_eqvt
  plus_nat_eqvt minus_nat_eqvt mult_nat_eqvt div_nat_eqvt
  
  (* ints *)
  Zero_int_eqvt One_int_eqvt min_int_eqvt max_int_eqvt
  plus_int_eqvt minus_int_eqvt mult_int_eqvt div_int_eqvt
  
  (* sets *)
  union_eqvt empty_eqvt insert_eqvt set_eqvt
  
 
(* the lemmas numeral_nat_eqvt numeral_int_eqvt do not conform with the *)
(* usual form of an eqvt-lemma, but they are needed for analysing       *)
(* permutations on nats and ints *)
lemmas [eqvt_force] = numeral_nat_eqvt numeral_int_eqvt neg_numeral_int_eqvt

(***************************************)
(* setup for the individial atom-kinds *)
(* and nominal datatypes               *)
ML_file "nominal_atoms.ML"

(************************************************************)
(* various tactics for analysing permutations, supports etc *)
ML_file "nominal_permeq.ML"

method_setup perm_simp =
  {* NominalPermeq.perm_simp_meth *}
  {* simp rules and simprocs for analysing permutations *}

method_setup perm_simp_debug =
  {* NominalPermeq.perm_simp_meth_debug *}
  {* simp rules and simprocs for analysing permutations including debugging facilities *}

method_setup perm_extend_simp =
  {* NominalPermeq.perm_extend_simp_meth *}
  {* tactic for deciding equalities involving permutations *}

method_setup perm_extend_simp_debug =
  {* NominalPermeq.perm_extend_simp_meth_debug *}
  {* tactic for deciding equalities involving permutations including debugging facilities *}

method_setup supports_simp =
  {* NominalPermeq.supports_meth *}
  {* tactic for deciding whether something supports something else *}

method_setup supports_simp_debug =
  {* NominalPermeq.supports_meth_debug *}
  {* tactic for deciding whether something supports something else including debugging facilities *}

method_setup finite_guess =
  {* NominalPermeq.finite_guess_meth *}
  {* tactic for deciding whether something has finite support *}

method_setup finite_guess_debug =
  {* NominalPermeq.finite_guess_meth_debug *}
  {* tactic for deciding whether something has finite support including debugging facilities *}

method_setup fresh_guess =
  {* NominalPermeq.fresh_guess_meth *}
  {* tactic for deciding whether an atom is fresh for something*}

method_setup fresh_guess_debug =
  {* NominalPermeq.fresh_guess_meth_debug *}
  {* tactic for deciding whether an atom is fresh for something including debugging facilities *}

(*****************************************************************)
(* tactics for generating fresh names and simplifying fresh_funs *)
ML_file "nominal_fresh_fun.ML"

method_setup generate_fresh = {*
  Args.type_name {proper = true, strict = true} >>
    (fn s => fn ctxt => SIMPLE_METHOD (generate_fresh_tac ctxt s))
*} "generate a name fresh for all the variables in the goal"

method_setup fresh_fun_simp = {*
  Scan.lift (Args.parens (Args.$$$ "no_asm") >> K true || Scan.succeed false) >>
    (fn b => fn ctxt => SIMPLE_METHOD' (fresh_fun_tac ctxt b))
*} "delete one inner occurence of fresh_fun"


(************************************************)
(* main file for constructing nominal datatypes *)
lemma allE_Nil: assumes "∀x. P x" obtains "P []"
  using assms ..

ML_file "nominal_datatype.ML"

(******************************************************)
(* primitive recursive functions on nominal datatypes *)
ML_file "nominal_primrec.ML"

(****************************************************)
(* inductive definition involving nominal datatypes *)
ML_file "nominal_inductive.ML"
ML_file "nominal_inductive2.ML"

(*****************************************)
(* setup for induction principles method *)
ML_file "nominal_induct.ML"
method_setup nominal_induct =
  {* NominalInduct.nominal_induct_method *}
  {* nominal induction *}

end