Theory Set_Algebras

theory Set_Algebras
imports Main
(*  Title:      HOL/Library/Set_Algebras.thy
    Author:     Jeremy Avigad and Kevin Donnelly; Florian Haftmann, TUM
*)

header {* Algebraic operations on sets *}

theory Set_Algebras
imports Main
begin

text {*
  This library lifts operations like addition and multiplication to
  sets.  It was designed to support asymptotic calculations. See the
  comments at the top of theory @{text BigO}.
*}

instantiation set :: (plus) plus
begin

definition plus_set :: "'a::plus set => 'a set => 'a set" where
  set_plus_def: "A + B = {c. ∃a∈A. ∃b∈B. c = a + b}"

instance ..

end

instantiation set :: (times) times
begin

definition times_set :: "'a::times set => 'a set => 'a set" where
  set_times_def: "A * B = {c. ∃a∈A. ∃b∈B. c = a * b}"

instance ..

end

instantiation set :: (zero) zero
begin

definition
  set_zero[simp]: "(0::'a::zero set) = {0}"

instance ..

end

instantiation set :: (one) one
begin

definition
  set_one[simp]: "(1::'a::one set) = {1}"

instance ..

end

definition elt_set_plus :: "'a::plus => 'a set => 'a set"  (infixl "+o" 70) where
  "a +o B = {c. ∃b∈B. c = a + b}"

definition elt_set_times :: "'a::times => 'a set => 'a set"  (infixl "*o" 80) where
  "a *o B = {c. ∃b∈B. c = a * b}"

abbreviation (input) elt_set_eq :: "'a => 'a set => bool"  (infix "=o" 50) where
  "x =o A ≡ x ∈ A"

instance set :: (semigroup_add) semigroup_add
  by default (force simp add: set_plus_def add.assoc)

instance set :: (ab_semigroup_add) ab_semigroup_add
  by default (force simp add: set_plus_def add.commute)

instance set :: (monoid_add) monoid_add
  by default (simp_all add: set_plus_def)

instance set :: (comm_monoid_add) comm_monoid_add
  by default (simp_all add: set_plus_def)

instance set :: (semigroup_mult) semigroup_mult
  by default (force simp add: set_times_def mult.assoc)

instance set :: (ab_semigroup_mult) ab_semigroup_mult
  by default (force simp add: set_times_def mult.commute)

instance set :: (monoid_mult) monoid_mult
  by default (simp_all add: set_times_def)

instance set :: (comm_monoid_mult) comm_monoid_mult
  by default (simp_all add: set_times_def)

lemma set_plus_intro [intro]: "a ∈ C ==> b ∈ D ==> a + b ∈ C + D"
  by (auto simp add: set_plus_def)

lemma set_plus_elim:
  assumes "x ∈ A + B"
  obtains a b where "x = a + b" and "a ∈ A" and "b ∈ B"
  using assms unfolding set_plus_def by fast

lemma set_plus_intro2 [intro]: "b ∈ C ==> a + b ∈ a +o C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def)

lemma set_plus_rearrange:
  "((a::'a::comm_monoid_add) +o C) + (b +o D) = (a + b) +o (C + D)"
  apply (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def set_plus_def ac_simps)
   apply (rule_tac x = "ba + bb" in exI)
  apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  apply (rule_tac x = "aa + a" in exI)
  apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

lemma set_plus_rearrange2: "(a::'a::semigroup_add) +o (b +o C) = (a + b) +o C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def add.assoc)

lemma set_plus_rearrange3: "((a::'a::semigroup_add) +o B) + C = a +o (B + C)"
  apply (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def set_plus_def)
   apply (blast intro: ac_simps)
  apply (rule_tac x = "a + aa" in exI)
  apply (rule conjI)
   apply (rule_tac x = "aa" in bexI)
    apply auto
  apply (rule_tac x = "ba" in bexI)
   apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

theorem set_plus_rearrange4: "C + ((a::'a::comm_monoid_add) +o D) = a +o (C + D)"
  apply (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def set_plus_def ac_simps)
   apply (rule_tac x = "aa + ba" in exI)
   apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

theorems set_plus_rearranges = set_plus_rearrange set_plus_rearrange2
  set_plus_rearrange3 set_plus_rearrange4

lemma set_plus_mono [intro!]: "C ⊆ D ==> a +o C ⊆ a +o D"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def)

lemma set_plus_mono2 [intro]: "(C::'a::plus set) ⊆ D ==> E ⊆ F ==> C + E ⊆ D + F"
  by (auto simp add: set_plus_def)

lemma set_plus_mono3 [intro]: "a ∈ C ==> a +o D ⊆ C + D"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def set_plus_def)

lemma set_plus_mono4 [intro]: "(a::'a::comm_monoid_add) ∈ C ==> a +o D ⊆ D + C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def set_plus_def ac_simps)

lemma set_plus_mono5: "a ∈ C ==> B ⊆ D ==> a +o B ⊆ C + D"
  apply (subgoal_tac "a +o B ⊆ a +o D")
   apply (erule order_trans)
   apply (erule set_plus_mono3)
  apply (erule set_plus_mono)
  done

lemma set_plus_mono_b: "C ⊆ D ==> x ∈ a +o C ==> x ∈ a +o D"
  apply (frule set_plus_mono)
  apply auto
  done

lemma set_plus_mono2_b: "C ⊆ D ==> E ⊆ F ==> x ∈ C + E ==> x ∈ D + F"
  apply (frule set_plus_mono2)
   prefer 2
   apply force
  apply assumption
  done

lemma set_plus_mono3_b: "a ∈ C ==> x ∈ a +o D ==> x ∈ C + D"
  apply (frule set_plus_mono3)
  apply auto
  done

lemma set_plus_mono4_b: "(a::'a::comm_monoid_add) : C ==> x ∈ a +o D ==> x ∈ D + C"
  apply (frule set_plus_mono4)
  apply auto
  done

lemma set_zero_plus [simp]: "(0::'a::comm_monoid_add) +o C = C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def)

lemma set_zero_plus2: "(0::'a::comm_monoid_add) ∈ A ==> B ⊆ A + B"
  apply (auto simp add: set_plus_def)
  apply (rule_tac x = 0 in bexI)
   apply (rule_tac x = x in bexI)
    apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

lemma set_plus_imp_minus: "(a::'a::ab_group_add) : b +o C ==> (a - b) ∈ C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def ac_simps)

lemma set_minus_imp_plus: "(a::'a::ab_group_add) - b : C ==> a ∈ b +o C"
  apply (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def ac_simps)
  apply (subgoal_tac "a = (a + - b) + b")
   apply (rule bexI, assumption)
  apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

lemma set_minus_plus: "(a::'a::ab_group_add) - b ∈ C <-> a ∈ b +o C"
  by (rule iffI, rule set_minus_imp_plus, assumption, rule set_plus_imp_minus)

lemma set_times_intro [intro]: "a ∈ C ==> b ∈ D ==> a * b ∈ C * D"
  by (auto simp add: set_times_def)

lemma set_times_elim:
  assumes "x ∈ A * B"
  obtains a b where "x = a * b" and "a ∈ A" and "b ∈ B"
  using assms unfolding set_times_def by fast

lemma set_times_intro2 [intro!]: "b ∈ C ==> a * b ∈ a *o C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def)

lemma set_times_rearrange:
  "((a::'a::comm_monoid_mult) *o C) * (b *o D) = (a * b) *o (C * D)"
  apply (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def set_times_def)
   apply (rule_tac x = "ba * bb" in exI)
   apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  apply (rule_tac x = "aa * a" in exI)
  apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

lemma set_times_rearrange2:
  "(a::'a::semigroup_mult) *o (b *o C) = (a * b) *o C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def mult.assoc)

lemma set_times_rearrange3:
  "((a::'a::semigroup_mult) *o B) * C = a *o (B * C)"
  apply (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def set_times_def)
   apply (blast intro: ac_simps)
  apply (rule_tac x = "a * aa" in exI)
  apply (rule conjI)
   apply (rule_tac x = "aa" in bexI)
    apply auto
  apply (rule_tac x = "ba" in bexI)
   apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

theorem set_times_rearrange4:
  "C * ((a::'a::comm_monoid_mult) *o D) = a *o (C * D)"
  apply (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def set_times_def ac_simps)
   apply (rule_tac x = "aa * ba" in exI)
   apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
  done

theorems set_times_rearranges = set_times_rearrange set_times_rearrange2
  set_times_rearrange3 set_times_rearrange4

lemma set_times_mono [intro]: "C ⊆ D ==> a *o C ⊆ a *o D"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def)

lemma set_times_mono2 [intro]: "(C::'a::times set) ⊆ D ==> E ⊆ F ==> C * E ⊆ D * F"
  by (auto simp add: set_times_def)

lemma set_times_mono3 [intro]: "a ∈ C ==> a *o D ⊆ C * D"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def set_times_def)

lemma set_times_mono4 [intro]: "(a::'a::comm_monoid_mult) : C ==> a *o D ⊆ D * C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def set_times_def ac_simps)

lemma set_times_mono5: "a ∈ C ==> B ⊆ D ==> a *o B ⊆ C * D"
  apply (subgoal_tac "a *o B ⊆ a *o D")
   apply (erule order_trans)
   apply (erule set_times_mono3)
  apply (erule set_times_mono)
  done

lemma set_times_mono_b: "C ⊆ D ==> x ∈ a *o C ==> x ∈ a *o D"
  apply (frule set_times_mono)
  apply auto
  done

lemma set_times_mono2_b: "C ⊆ D ==> E ⊆ F ==> x ∈ C * E ==> x ∈ D * F"
  apply (frule set_times_mono2)
   prefer 2
   apply force
  apply assumption
  done

lemma set_times_mono3_b: "a ∈ C ==> x ∈ a *o D ==> x ∈ C * D"
  apply (frule set_times_mono3)
  apply auto
  done

lemma set_times_mono4_b: "(a::'a::comm_monoid_mult) ∈ C ==> x ∈ a *o D ==> x ∈ D * C"
  apply (frule set_times_mono4)
  apply auto
  done

lemma set_one_times [simp]: "(1::'a::comm_monoid_mult) *o C = C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def)

lemma set_times_plus_distrib:
  "(a::'a::semiring) *o (b +o C) = (a * b) +o (a *o C)"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_plus_def elt_set_times_def ring_distribs)

lemma set_times_plus_distrib2:
  "(a::'a::semiring) *o (B + C) = (a *o B) + (a *o C)"
  apply (auto simp add: set_plus_def elt_set_times_def ring_distribs)
   apply blast
  apply (rule_tac x = "b + bb" in exI)
  apply (auto simp add: ring_distribs)
  done

lemma set_times_plus_distrib3: "((a::'a::semiring) +o C) * D ⊆ a *o D + C * D"
  apply (auto simp add:
    elt_set_plus_def elt_set_times_def set_times_def
    set_plus_def ring_distribs)
  apply auto
  done

theorems set_times_plus_distribs =
  set_times_plus_distrib
  set_times_plus_distrib2

lemma set_neg_intro: "(a::'a::ring_1) ∈ (- 1) *o C ==> - a ∈ C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def)

lemma set_neg_intro2: "(a::'a::ring_1) ∈ C ==> - a ∈ (- 1) *o C"
  by (auto simp add: elt_set_times_def)

lemma set_plus_image: "S + T = (λ(x, y). x + y) ` (S × T)"
  unfolding set_plus_def by (fastforce simp: image_iff)

lemma set_times_image: "S * T = (λ(x, y). x * y) ` (S × T)"
  unfolding set_times_def by (fastforce simp: image_iff)

lemma finite_set_plus: "finite s ==> finite t ==> finite (s + t)"
  unfolding set_plus_image by simp

lemma finite_set_times: "finite s ==> finite t ==> finite (s * t)"
  unfolding set_times_image by simp

lemma set_setsum_alt:
  assumes fin: "finite I"
  shows "setsum S I = {setsum s I |s. ∀i∈I. s i ∈ S i}"
    (is "_ = ?setsum I")
  using fin
proof induct
  case empty
  then show ?case by simp
next
  case (insert x F)
  have "setsum S (insert x F) = S x + ?setsum F"
    using insert.hyps by auto
  also have "… = {s x + setsum s F |s. ∀ i∈insert x F. s i ∈ S i}"
    unfolding set_plus_def
  proof safe
    fix y s
    assume "y ∈ S x" "∀i∈F. s i ∈ S i"
    then show "∃s'. y + setsum s F = s' x + setsum s' F ∧ (∀i∈insert x F. s' i ∈ S i)"
      using insert.hyps
      by (intro exI[of _ "λi. if i ∈ F then s i else y"]) (auto simp add: set_plus_def)
  qed auto
  finally show ?case
    using insert.hyps by auto
qed

lemma setsum_set_cond_linear:
  fixes f :: "'a::comm_monoid_add set => 'b::comm_monoid_add set"
  assumes [intro!]: "!!A B. P A  ==> P B  ==> P (A + B)" "P {0}"
    and f: "!!A B. P A  ==> P B ==> f (A + B) = f A + f B" "f {0} = {0}"
  assumes all: "!!i. i ∈ I ==> P (S i)"
  shows "f (setsum S I) = setsum (f o S) I"
proof (cases "finite I")
  case True
  from this all show ?thesis
  proof induct
    case empty
    then show ?case by (auto intro!: f)
  next
    case (insert x F)
    from `finite F` `!!i. i ∈ insert x F ==> P (S i)` have "P (setsum S F)"
      by induct auto
    with insert show ?case
      by (simp, subst f) auto
  qed
next
  case False
  then show ?thesis by (auto intro!: f)
qed

lemma setsum_set_linear:
  fixes f :: "'a::comm_monoid_add set => 'b::comm_monoid_add set"
  assumes "!!A B. f(A) + f(B) = f(A + B)" "f {0} = {0}"
  shows "f (setsum S I) = setsum (f o S) I"
  using setsum_set_cond_linear[of "λx. True" f I S] assms by auto

lemma set_times_Un_distrib:
  "A * (B ∪ C) = A * B ∪ A * C"
  "(A ∪ B) * C = A * C ∪ B * C"
  by (auto simp: set_times_def)

lemma set_times_UNION_distrib:
  "A * UNION I M = (\<Union>i∈I. A * M i)"
  "UNION I M * A = (\<Union>i∈I. M i * A)"
  by (auto simp: set_times_def)

end