# Theory Path_Connected

theory Path_Connected
imports Convex_Euclidean_Space
```(*  Title:      HOL/Multivariate_Analysis/Path_Connected.thy
Authors:    LC Paulson and Robert Himmelmann (TU Muenchen), based on material from HOL Light
*)

section ‹Continuous paths and path-connected sets›

theory Path_Connected
imports Convex_Euclidean_Space
begin

subsection ‹Paths and Arcs›

definition path :: "(real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ bool"
where "path g ⟷ continuous_on {0..1} g"

definition pathstart :: "(real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ 'a"
where "pathstart g = g 0"

definition pathfinish :: "(real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ 'a"
where "pathfinish g = g 1"

definition path_image :: "(real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ 'a set"
where "path_image g = g ` {0 .. 1}"

definition reversepath :: "(real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ real ⇒ 'a"
where "reversepath g = (λx. g(1 - x))"

definition joinpaths :: "(real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ (real ⇒ 'a) ⇒ real ⇒ 'a"
(infixr "+++" 75)
where "g1 +++ g2 = (λx. if x ≤ 1/2 then g1 (2 * x) else g2 (2 * x - 1))"

definition simple_path :: "(real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ bool"
where "simple_path g ⟷
path g ∧ (∀x∈{0..1}. ∀y∈{0..1}. g x = g y ⟶ x = y ∨ x = 0 ∧ y = 1 ∨ x = 1 ∧ y = 0)"

definition arc :: "(real ⇒ 'a :: topological_space) ⇒ bool"
where "arc g ⟷ path g ∧ inj_on g {0..1}"

subsection‹Invariance theorems›

lemma path_eq: "path p ⟹ (⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ p t = q t) ⟹ path q"
using continuous_on_eq path_def by blast

lemma path_continuous_image: "path g ⟹ continuous_on (path_image g) f ⟹ path(f o g)"
unfolding path_def path_image_def
using continuous_on_compose by blast

lemma path_translation_eq:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a :: real_normed_vector"
shows "path((λx. a + x) o g) = path g"
proof -
have g: "g = (λx. -a + x) o ((λx. a + x) o g)"
by (rule ext) simp
show ?thesis
unfolding path_def
apply safe
apply (subst g)
apply (rule continuous_on_compose)
apply (auto intro: continuous_intros)
done
qed

lemma path_linear_image_eq:
fixes f :: "'a::euclidean_space ⇒ 'b::euclidean_space"
assumes "linear f" "inj f"
shows "path(f o g) = path g"
proof -
from linear_injective_left_inverse [OF assms]
obtain h where h: "linear h" "h ∘ f = id"
by blast
then have g: "g = h o (f o g)"
by (metis comp_assoc id_comp)
show ?thesis
unfolding path_def
using h assms
by (metis g continuous_on_compose linear_continuous_on linear_conv_bounded_linear)
qed

lemma pathstart_translation: "pathstart((λx. a + x) o g) = a + pathstart g"

lemma pathstart_linear_image_eq: "linear f ⟹ pathstart(f o g) = f(pathstart g)"

lemma pathfinish_translation: "pathfinish((λx. a + x) o g) = a + pathfinish g"

lemma pathfinish_linear_image: "linear f ⟹ pathfinish(f o g) = f(pathfinish g)"

lemma path_image_translation: "path_image((λx. a + x) o g) = (λx. a + x) ` (path_image g)"

lemma path_image_linear_image: "linear f ⟹ path_image(f o g) = f ` (path_image g)"

lemma reversepath_translation: "reversepath((λx. a + x) o g) = (λx. a + x) o reversepath g"
by (rule ext) (simp add: reversepath_def)

lemma reversepath_linear_image: "linear f ⟹ reversepath(f o g) = f o reversepath g"
by (rule ext) (simp add: reversepath_def)

lemma joinpaths_translation:
"((λx. a + x) o g1) +++ ((λx. a + x) o g2) = (λx. a + x) o (g1 +++ g2)"
by (rule ext) (simp add: joinpaths_def)

lemma joinpaths_linear_image: "linear f ⟹ (f o g1) +++ (f o g2) = f o (g1 +++ g2)"
by (rule ext) (simp add: joinpaths_def)

lemma simple_path_translation_eq:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::euclidean_space"
shows "simple_path((λx. a + x) o g) = simple_path g"

lemma simple_path_linear_image_eq:
fixes f :: "'a::euclidean_space ⇒ 'b::euclidean_space"
assumes "linear f" "inj f"
shows "simple_path(f o g) = simple_path g"
using assms inj_on_eq_iff [of f]
by (auto simp: path_linear_image_eq simple_path_def path_translation_eq)

lemma arc_translation_eq:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::euclidean_space"
shows "arc((λx. a + x) o g) = arc g"
by (auto simp: arc_def inj_on_def path_translation_eq)

lemma arc_linear_image_eq:
fixes f :: "'a::euclidean_space ⇒ 'b::euclidean_space"
assumes "linear f" "inj f"
shows  "arc(f o g) = arc g"
using assms inj_on_eq_iff [of f]
by (auto simp: arc_def inj_on_def path_linear_image_eq)

lemma arc_imp_simple_path: "arc g ⟹ simple_path g"
by (simp add: arc_def inj_on_def simple_path_def)

lemma arc_imp_path: "arc g ⟹ path g"
using arc_def by blast

lemma simple_path_imp_path: "simple_path g ⟹ path g"
using simple_path_def by blast

lemma simple_path_cases: "simple_path g ⟹ arc g ∨ pathfinish g = pathstart g"
unfolding simple_path_def arc_def inj_on_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def
by (force)

lemma simple_path_imp_arc: "simple_path g ⟹ pathfinish g ≠ pathstart g ⟹ arc g"
using simple_path_cases by auto

lemma arc_distinct_ends: "arc g ⟹ pathfinish g ≠ pathstart g"
unfolding arc_def inj_on_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def
by fastforce

lemma arc_simple_path: "arc g ⟷ simple_path g ∧ pathfinish g ≠ pathstart g"
using arc_distinct_ends arc_imp_simple_path simple_path_cases by blast

lemma simple_path_eq_arc: "pathfinish g ≠ pathstart g ⟹ (simple_path g = arc g)"

lemma path_image_nonempty [simp]: "path_image g ≠ {}"
unfolding path_image_def image_is_empty box_eq_empty
by auto

lemma pathstart_in_path_image[intro]: "pathstart g ∈ path_image g"
unfolding pathstart_def path_image_def
by auto

lemma pathfinish_in_path_image[intro]: "pathfinish g ∈ path_image g"
unfolding pathfinish_def path_image_def
by auto

lemma connected_path_image[intro]: "path g ⟹ connected (path_image g)"
unfolding path_def path_image_def
using connected_continuous_image connected_Icc by blast

lemma compact_path_image[intro]: "path g ⟹ compact (path_image g)"
unfolding path_def path_image_def
using compact_continuous_image connected_Icc by blast

lemma reversepath_reversepath[simp]: "reversepath (reversepath g) = g"
unfolding reversepath_def
by auto

lemma pathstart_reversepath[simp]: "pathstart (reversepath g) = pathfinish g"
unfolding pathstart_def reversepath_def pathfinish_def
by auto

lemma pathfinish_reversepath[simp]: "pathfinish (reversepath g) = pathstart g"
unfolding pathstart_def reversepath_def pathfinish_def
by auto

lemma pathstart_join[simp]: "pathstart (g1 +++ g2) = pathstart g1"
unfolding pathstart_def joinpaths_def pathfinish_def
by auto

lemma pathfinish_join[simp]: "pathfinish (g1 +++ g2) = pathfinish g2"
unfolding pathstart_def joinpaths_def pathfinish_def
by auto

lemma path_image_reversepath[simp]: "path_image (reversepath g) = path_image g"
proof -
have *: "⋀g. path_image (reversepath g) ⊆ path_image g"
unfolding path_image_def subset_eq reversepath_def Ball_def image_iff
by force
show ?thesis
using *[of g] *[of "reversepath g"]
unfolding reversepath_reversepath
by auto
qed

lemma path_reversepath [simp]: "path (reversepath g) ⟷ path g"
proof -
have *: "⋀g. path g ⟹ path (reversepath g)"
unfolding path_def reversepath_def
apply (rule continuous_on_compose[unfolded o_def, of _ "λx. 1 - x"])
apply (intro continuous_intros)
apply (rule continuous_on_subset[of "{0..1}"])
apply assumption
apply auto
done
show ?thesis
using *[of "reversepath g"] *[of g]
unfolding reversepath_reversepath
by (rule iffI)
qed

lemma arc_reversepath:
assumes "arc g" shows "arc(reversepath g)"
proof -
have injg: "inj_on g {0..1}"
using assms
have **: "⋀x y::real. 1-x = 1-y ⟹ x = y"
by simp
show ?thesis
apply (auto simp: arc_def inj_on_def path_reversepath)
apply (rule **)
apply (rule inj_onD [OF injg])
apply (auto simp: reversepath_def)
done
qed

lemma simple_path_reversepath: "simple_path g ⟹ simple_path (reversepath g)"
apply (force simp: reversepath_def)
done

lemmas reversepath_simps =
path_reversepath path_image_reversepath pathstart_reversepath pathfinish_reversepath

lemma path_join[simp]:
assumes "pathfinish g1 = pathstart g2"
shows "path (g1 +++ g2) ⟷ path g1 ∧ path g2"
unfolding path_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def
proof safe
assume cont: "continuous_on {0..1} (g1 +++ g2)"
have g1: "continuous_on {0..1} g1 ⟷ continuous_on {0..1} ((g1 +++ g2) ∘ (λx. x / 2))"
by (intro continuous_on_cong refl) (auto simp: joinpaths_def)
have g2: "continuous_on {0..1} g2 ⟷ continuous_on {0..1} ((g1 +++ g2) ∘ (λx. x / 2 + 1/2))"
using assms
by (intro continuous_on_cong refl) (auto simp: joinpaths_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def)
show "continuous_on {0..1} g1" and "continuous_on {0..1} g2"
unfolding g1 g2
by (auto intro!: continuous_intros continuous_on_subset[OF cont] simp del: o_apply)
next
assume g1g2: "continuous_on {0..1} g1" "continuous_on {0..1} g2"
have 01: "{0 .. 1} = {0..1/2} ∪ {1/2 .. 1::real}"
by auto
{
fix x :: real
assume "0 ≤ x" and "x ≤ 1"
then have "x ∈ (λx. x * 2) ` {0..1 / 2}"
by (intro image_eqI[where x="x/2"]) auto
}
note 1 = this
{
fix x :: real
assume "0 ≤ x" and "x ≤ 1"
then have "x ∈ (λx. x * 2 - 1) ` {1 / 2..1}"
by (intro image_eqI[where x="x/2 + 1/2"]) auto
}
note 2 = this
show "continuous_on {0..1} (g1 +++ g2)"
using assms
unfolding joinpaths_def 01
apply (intro continuous_on_cases closed_atLeastAtMost g1g2[THEN continuous_on_compose2] continuous_intros)
apply (auto simp: field_simps pathfinish_def pathstart_def intro!: 1 2)
done
qed

section ‹Path Images›

lemma bounded_path_image: "path g ⟹ bounded(path_image g)"

lemma closed_path_image:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::t2_space"
shows "path g ⟹ closed(path_image g)"
by (metis compact_path_image compact_imp_closed)

lemma connected_simple_path_image: "simple_path g ⟹ connected(path_image g)"
by (metis connected_path_image simple_path_imp_path)

lemma compact_simple_path_image: "simple_path g ⟹ compact(path_image g)"
by (metis compact_path_image simple_path_imp_path)

lemma bounded_simple_path_image: "simple_path g ⟹ bounded(path_image g)"
by (metis bounded_path_image simple_path_imp_path)

lemma closed_simple_path_image:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::t2_space"
shows "simple_path g ⟹ closed(path_image g)"
by (metis closed_path_image simple_path_imp_path)

lemma connected_arc_image: "arc g ⟹ connected(path_image g)"
by (metis connected_path_image arc_imp_path)

lemma compact_arc_image: "arc g ⟹ compact(path_image g)"
by (metis compact_path_image arc_imp_path)

lemma bounded_arc_image: "arc g ⟹ bounded(path_image g)"
by (metis bounded_path_image arc_imp_path)

lemma closed_arc_image:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::t2_space"
shows "arc g ⟹ closed(path_image g)"
by (metis closed_path_image arc_imp_path)

lemma path_image_join_subset: "path_image (g1 +++ g2) ⊆ path_image g1 ∪ path_image g2"
unfolding path_image_def joinpaths_def
by auto

lemma subset_path_image_join:
assumes "path_image g1 ⊆ s"
and "path_image g2 ⊆ s"
shows "path_image (g1 +++ g2) ⊆ s"
using path_image_join_subset[of g1 g2] and assms
by auto

lemma path_image_join:
"pathfinish g1 = pathstart g2 ⟹ path_image(g1 +++ g2) = path_image g1 ∪ path_image g2"
apply (rule subset_antisym [OF path_image_join_subset])
apply (auto simp: pathfinish_def pathstart_def path_image_def joinpaths_def image_def)
apply (drule sym)
apply (rule_tac x="xa/2" in bexI, auto)
apply (rule ccontr)
apply (drule_tac x="(xa+1)/2" in bspec)
apply (auto simp: field_simps)
apply (drule_tac x="1/2" in bspec, auto)
done

lemma not_in_path_image_join:
assumes "x ∉ path_image g1"
and "x ∉ path_image g2"
shows "x ∉ path_image (g1 +++ g2)"
using assms and path_image_join_subset[of g1 g2]
by auto

lemma pathstart_compose: "pathstart(f o p) = f(pathstart p)"

lemma pathfinish_compose: "pathfinish(f o p) = f(pathfinish p)"

lemma path_image_compose: "path_image (f o p) = f ` (path_image p)"

lemma path_compose_join: "f o (p +++ q) = (f o p) +++ (f o q)"
by (rule ext) (simp add: joinpaths_def)

lemma path_compose_reversepath: "f o reversepath p = reversepath(f o p)"
by (rule ext) (simp add: reversepath_def)

lemma joinpaths_eq:
"(⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ p t = p' t) ⟹
(⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ q t = q' t)
⟹  t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ (p +++ q) t = (p' +++ q') t"
by (auto simp: joinpaths_def)

lemma simple_path_inj_on: "simple_path g ⟹ inj_on g {0<..<1}"
by (auto simp: simple_path_def path_image_def inj_on_def less_eq_real_def Ball_def)

subsection‹Simple paths with the endpoints removed›

lemma simple_path_endless:
"simple_path c ⟹ path_image c - {pathstart c,pathfinish c} = c ` {0<..<1}"
apply (auto simp: simple_path_def path_image_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def Ball_def Bex_def image_def)
apply (metis eq_iff le_less_linear)
apply (metis leD linear)
using less_eq_real_def zero_le_one apply blast
using less_eq_real_def zero_le_one apply blast
done

lemma connected_simple_path_endless:
"simple_path c ⟹ connected(path_image c - {pathstart c,pathfinish c})"
apply (rule connected_continuous_image)
apply (meson continuous_on_subset greaterThanLessThan_subseteq_atLeastAtMost_iff le_numeral_extra(3) le_numeral_extra(4) path_def simple_path_imp_path)
by auto

lemma nonempty_simple_path_endless:
"simple_path c ⟹ path_image c - {pathstart c,pathfinish c} ≠ {}"

subsection‹The operations on paths›

lemma path_image_subset_reversepath: "path_image(reversepath g) ≤ path_image g"
by (auto simp: path_image_def reversepath_def)

lemma path_imp_reversepath: "path g ⟹ path(reversepath g)"
apply (auto simp: path_def reversepath_def)
using continuous_on_compose [of "{0..1}" "λx. 1 - x" g]
apply (auto simp: continuous_on_op_minus)
done

lemma half_bounded_equal: "1 ≤ x * 2 ⟹ x * 2 ≤ 1 ⟷ x = (1/2::real)"
by simp

lemma continuous_on_joinpaths:
assumes "continuous_on {0..1} g1" "continuous_on {0..1} g2" "pathfinish g1 = pathstart g2"
shows "continuous_on {0..1} (g1 +++ g2)"
proof -
have *: "{0..1::real} = {0..1/2} ∪ {1/2..1}"
by auto
have gg: "g2 0 = g1 1"
by (metis assms(3) pathfinish_def pathstart_def)
have 1: "continuous_on {0..1/2} (g1 +++ g2)"
apply (rule continuous_on_eq [of _ "g1 o (λx. 2*x)"])
apply (rule continuous_intros | simp add: joinpaths_def assms)+
done
have "continuous_on {1/2..1} (g2 o (λx. 2*x-1))"
apply (rule continuous_on_subset [of "{1/2..1}"])
apply (rule continuous_intros | simp add: image_affinity_atLeastAtMost_diff assms)+
done
then have 2: "continuous_on {1/2..1} (g1 +++ g2)"
apply (rule continuous_on_eq [of "{1/2..1}" "g2 o (λx. 2*x-1)"])
apply (rule assms continuous_intros | simp add: joinpaths_def mult.commute half_bounded_equal gg)+
done
show ?thesis
apply (subst *)
apply (rule continuous_on_union)
using 1 2
apply auto
done
qed

lemma path_join_imp: "⟦path g1; path g2; pathfinish g1 = pathstart g2⟧ ⟹ path(g1 +++ g2)"

lemma simple_path_join_loop:
assumes "arc g1" "arc g2"
"pathfinish g1 = pathstart g2"  "pathfinish g2 = pathstart g1"
"path_image g1 ∩ path_image g2 ⊆ {pathstart g1, pathstart g2}"
shows "simple_path(g1 +++ g2)"
proof -
have injg1: "inj_on g1 {0..1}"
using assms
have injg2: "inj_on g2 {0..1}"
using assms
have g12: "g1 1 = g2 0"
and g21: "g2 1 = g1 0"
and sb:  "g1 ` {0..1} ∩ g2 ` {0..1} ⊆ {g1 0, g2 0}"
using assms
by (simp_all add: arc_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def path_image_def)
{ fix x and y::real
assume xyI: "x = 1 ⟶ y ≠ 0"
and xy: "x ≤ 1" "0 ≤ y" " y * 2 ≤ 1" "¬ x * 2 ≤ 1" "g2 (2 * x - 1) = g1 (2 * y)"
have g1im: "g1 (2 * y) ∈ g1 ` {0..1} ∩ g2 ` {0..1}"
using xy
apply simp
apply (rule_tac x="2 * x - 1" in image_eqI, auto)
done
have False
using subsetD [OF sb g1im] xy
apply auto
apply (drule inj_onD [OF injg1])
using g21 [symmetric] xyI
apply (auto dest: inj_onD [OF injg2])
done
} note * = this
{ fix x and y::real
assume xy: "y ≤ 1" "0 ≤ x" "¬ y * 2 ≤ 1" "x * 2 ≤ 1" "g1 (2 * x) = g2 (2 * y - 1)"
have g1im: "g1 (2 * x) ∈ g1 ` {0..1} ∩ g2 ` {0..1}"
using xy
apply simp
apply (rule_tac x="2 * x" in image_eqI, auto)
done
have "x = 0 ∧ y = 1"
using subsetD [OF sb g1im] xy
apply auto
apply (force dest: inj_onD [OF injg1])
using  g21 [symmetric]
apply (auto dest: inj_onD [OF injg2])
done
} note ** = this
show ?thesis
using assms
apply (simp add: arc_def simple_path_def path_join, clarify)
apply (simp add: joinpaths_def split: split_if_asm)
apply (force dest: inj_onD [OF injg1])
apply (metis *)
apply (metis **)
apply (force dest: inj_onD [OF injg2])
done
qed

lemma arc_join:
assumes "arc g1" "arc g2"
"pathfinish g1 = pathstart g2"
"path_image g1 ∩ path_image g2 ⊆ {pathstart g2}"
shows "arc(g1 +++ g2)"
proof -
have injg1: "inj_on g1 {0..1}"
using assms
have injg2: "inj_on g2 {0..1}"
using assms
have g11: "g1 1 = g2 0"
and sb:  "g1 ` {0..1} ∩ g2 ` {0..1} ⊆ {g2 0}"
using assms
by (simp_all add: arc_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def path_image_def)
{ fix x and y::real
assume xy: "x ≤ 1" "0 ≤ y" " y * 2 ≤ 1" "¬ x * 2 ≤ 1" "g2 (2 * x - 1) = g1 (2 * y)"
have g1im: "g1 (2 * y) ∈ g1 ` {0..1} ∩ g2 ` {0..1}"
using xy
apply simp
apply (rule_tac x="2 * x - 1" in image_eqI, auto)
done
have False
using subsetD [OF sb g1im] xy
by (auto dest: inj_onD [OF injg2])
} note * = this
show ?thesis
apply (clarsimp simp add: arc_imp_path assms path_join)
apply (simp add: joinpaths_def split: split_if_asm)
apply (force dest: inj_onD [OF injg1])
apply (metis *)
apply (metis *)
apply (force dest: inj_onD [OF injg2])
done
qed

lemma reversepath_joinpaths:
"pathfinish g1 = pathstart g2 ⟹ reversepath(g1 +++ g2) = reversepath g2 +++ reversepath g1"
unfolding reversepath_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def joinpaths_def
by (rule ext) (auto simp: mult.commute)

section‹Choosing a subpath of an existing path›

definition subpath :: "real ⇒ real ⇒ (real ⇒ 'a) ⇒ real ⇒ 'a::real_normed_vector"
where "subpath a b g ≡ λx. g((b - a) * x + a)"

lemma path_image_subpath_gen:
fixes g :: "_ ⇒ 'a::real_normed_vector"
shows "path_image(subpath u v g) = g ` (closed_segment u v)"
apply (simp add: closed_segment_real_eq path_image_def subpath_def)
apply (subst o_def [of g, symmetric])
done

lemma path_image_subpath:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::real_normed_vector"
shows "path_image(subpath u v g) = (if u ≤ v then g ` {u..v} else g ` {v..u})"

lemma path_subpath [simp]:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::real_normed_vector"
assumes "path g" "u ∈ {0..1}" "v ∈ {0..1}"
shows "path(subpath u v g)"
proof -
have "continuous_on {0..1} (g o (λx. ((v-u) * x+ u)))"
apply (rule continuous_intros | simp)+
apply (simp add: image_affinity_atLeastAtMost [where c=u])
using assms
apply (auto simp: path_def continuous_on_subset)
done
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma pathstart_subpath [simp]: "pathstart(subpath u v g) = g(u)"

lemma pathfinish_subpath [simp]: "pathfinish(subpath u v g) = g(v)"

lemma subpath_trivial [simp]: "subpath 0 1 g = g"

lemma subpath_reversepath: "subpath 1 0 g = reversepath g"

lemma reversepath_subpath: "reversepath(subpath u v g) = subpath v u g"
by (simp add: reversepath_def subpath_def algebra_simps)

lemma subpath_translation: "subpath u v ((λx. a + x) o g) = (λx. a + x) o subpath u v g"
by (rule ext) (simp add: subpath_def)

lemma subpath_linear_image: "linear f ⟹ subpath u v (f o g) = f o subpath u v g"
by (rule ext) (simp add: subpath_def)

lemma affine_ineq:
fixes x :: "'a::linordered_idom"
assumes "x ≤ 1" "v ≤ u"
shows "v + x * u ≤ u + x * v"
proof -
have "(1-x)*(u-v) ≥ 0"
using assms by auto
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma sum_le_prod1:
fixes a::real shows "⟦a ≤ 1; b ≤ 1⟧ ⟹ a + b ≤ 1 + a * b"
by (metis add.commute affine_ineq less_eq_real_def mult.right_neutral)

lemma simple_path_subpath_eq:
"simple_path(subpath u v g) ⟷
path(subpath u v g) ∧ u≠v ∧
(∀x y. x ∈ closed_segment u v ∧ y ∈ closed_segment u v ∧ g x = g y
⟶ x = y ∨ x = u ∧ y = v ∨ x = v ∧ y = u)"
(is "?lhs = ?rhs")
proof (rule iffI)
assume ?lhs
then have p: "path (λx. g ((v - u) * x + u))"
and sim: "(⋀x y. ⟦x∈{0..1}; y∈{0..1}; g ((v - u) * x + u) = g ((v - u) * y + u)⟧
⟹ x = y ∨ x = 0 ∧ y = 1 ∨ x = 1 ∧ y = 0)"
by (auto simp: simple_path_def subpath_def)
{ fix x y
assume "x ∈ closed_segment u v" "y ∈ closed_segment u v" "g x = g y"
then have "x = y ∨ x = u ∧ y = v ∨ x = v ∧ y = u"
using sim [of "(x-u)/(v-u)" "(y-u)/(v-u)"] p
by (auto simp: closed_segment_real_eq image_affinity_atLeastAtMost divide_simps
split: split_if_asm)
} moreover
have "path(subpath u v g) ∧ u≠v"
using sim [of "1/3" "2/3"] p
by (auto simp: subpath_def)
ultimately show ?rhs
by metis
next
assume ?rhs
then
have d1: "⋀x y. ⟦g x = g y; u ≤ x; x ≤ v; u ≤ y; y ≤ v⟧ ⟹ x = y ∨ x = u ∧ y = v ∨ x = v ∧ y = u"
and d2: "⋀x y. ⟦g x = g y; v ≤ x; x ≤ u; v ≤ y; y ≤ u⟧ ⟹ x = y ∨ x = u ∧ y = v ∨ x = v ∧ y = u"
and ne: "u < v ∨ v < u"
and psp: "path (subpath u v g)"
by (auto simp: closed_segment_real_eq image_affinity_atLeastAtMost)
have [simp]: "⋀x. u + x * v = v + x * u ⟷ u=v ∨ x=1"
by algebra
show ?lhs using psp ne
unfolding simple_path_def subpath_def
by (fastforce simp add: algebra_simps affine_ineq mult_left_mono crossproduct_eq dest: d1 d2)
qed

lemma arc_subpath_eq:
"arc(subpath u v g) ⟷ path(subpath u v g) ∧ u≠v ∧ inj_on g (closed_segment u v)"
(is "?lhs = ?rhs")
proof (rule iffI)
assume ?lhs
then have p: "path (λx. g ((v - u) * x + u))"
and sim: "(⋀x y. ⟦x∈{0..1}; y∈{0..1}; g ((v - u) * x + u) = g ((v - u) * y + u)⟧
⟹ x = y)"
by (auto simp: arc_def inj_on_def subpath_def)
{ fix x y
assume "x ∈ closed_segment u v" "y ∈ closed_segment u v" "g x = g y"
then have "x = y"
using sim [of "(x-u)/(v-u)" "(y-u)/(v-u)"] p
by (force simp add: inj_on_def closed_segment_real_eq image_affinity_atLeastAtMost divide_simps
split: split_if_asm)
} moreover
have "path(subpath u v g) ∧ u≠v"
using sim [of "1/3" "2/3"] p
by (auto simp: subpath_def)
ultimately show ?rhs
unfolding inj_on_def
by metis
next
assume ?rhs
then
have d1: "⋀x y. ⟦g x = g y; u ≤ x; x ≤ v; u ≤ y; y ≤ v⟧ ⟹ x = y"
and d2: "⋀x y. ⟦g x = g y; v ≤ x; x ≤ u; v ≤ y; y ≤ u⟧ ⟹ x = y"
and ne: "u < v ∨ v < u"
and psp: "path (subpath u v g)"
by (auto simp: inj_on_def closed_segment_real_eq image_affinity_atLeastAtMost)
show ?lhs using psp ne
unfolding arc_def subpath_def inj_on_def
by (auto simp: algebra_simps affine_ineq mult_left_mono crossproduct_eq dest: d1 d2)
qed

lemma simple_path_subpath:
assumes "simple_path g" "u ∈ {0..1}" "v ∈ {0..1}" "u ≠ v"
shows "simple_path(subpath u v g)"
using assms
apply (simp add: simple_path_def closed_segment_real_eq image_affinity_atLeastAtMost, fastforce)
done

lemma arc_simple_path_subpath:
"⟦simple_path g; u ∈ {0..1}; v ∈ {0..1}; g u ≠ g v⟧ ⟹ arc(subpath u v g)"
by (force intro: simple_path_subpath simple_path_imp_arc)

lemma arc_subpath_arc:
"⟦arc g; u ∈ {0..1}; v ∈ {0..1}; u ≠ v⟧ ⟹ arc(subpath u v g)"
by (meson arc_def arc_imp_simple_path arc_simple_path_subpath inj_onD)

lemma arc_simple_path_subpath_interior:
"⟦simple_path g; u ∈ {0..1}; v ∈ {0..1}; u ≠ v; ¦u-v¦ < 1⟧ ⟹ arc(subpath u v g)"
apply (rule arc_simple_path_subpath)
apply (force simp: simple_path_def)+
done

lemma path_image_subpath_subset:
"⟦path g; u ∈ {0..1}; v ∈ {0..1}⟧ ⟹ path_image(subpath u v g) ⊆ path_image g"
apply (simp add: closed_segment_real_eq image_affinity_atLeastAtMost path_image_subpath)
apply (auto simp: path_image_def)
done

lemma join_subpaths_middle: "subpath (0) ((1 / 2)) p +++ subpath ((1 / 2)) 1 p = p"
by (rule ext) (simp add: joinpaths_def subpath_def divide_simps)

subsection‹There is a subpath to the frontier›

lemma subpath_to_frontier_explicit:
fixes S :: "'a::metric_space set"
assumes g: "path g" and "pathfinish g ∉ S"
obtains u where "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1"
"⋀x. 0 ≤ x ∧ x < u ⟹ g x ∈ interior S"
"(g u ∉ interior S)" "(u = 0 ∨ g u ∈ closure S)"
proof -
have gcon: "continuous_on {0..1} g"     using g by (simp add: path_def)
then have com: "compact ({0..1} ∩ {u. g u ∈ closure (- S)})"
apply (simp add: Int_commute [of "{0..1}"] compact_eq_bounded_closed closed_vimage_Int [unfolded vimage_def])
using compact_eq_bounded_closed apply fastforce
done
have "1 ∈ {u. g u ∈ closure (- S)}"
using assms by (simp add: pathfinish_def closure_def)
then have dis: "{0..1} ∩ {u. g u ∈ closure (- S)} ≠ {}"
using atLeastAtMost_iff zero_le_one by blast
then obtain u where "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1" and gu: "g u ∈ closure (- S)"
and umin: "⋀t. ⟦0 ≤ t; t ≤ 1; g t ∈ closure (- S)⟧ ⟹ u ≤ t"
using compact_attains_inf [OF com dis] by fastforce
then have umin': "⋀t. ⟦0 ≤ t; t ≤ 1; t < u⟧ ⟹  g t ∈ S"
using closure_def by fastforce
{ assume "u ≠ 0"
then have "u > 0" using ‹0 ≤ u› by auto
{ fix e::real assume "e > 0"
obtain d where "d>0" and d: "⋀x'. ⟦x' ∈ {0..1}; dist x' u < d⟧ ⟹ dist (g x') (g u) < e"
using continuous_onD [OF gcon _ ‹e > 0›] ‹0 ≤ _› ‹_ ≤ 1› atLeastAtMost_iff by auto
have *: "dist (max 0 (u - d / 2)) u < d"
using ‹0 ≤ u› ‹u ≤ 1› ‹d > 0› by (simp add: dist_real_def)
have "∃y∈S. dist y (g u) < e"
using ‹0 < u› ‹u ≤ 1› ‹d > 0›
by (force intro: d [OF _ *] umin')
}
then have "g u ∈ closure S"
}
then show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac u=u in that)
apply (auto simp: ‹0 ≤ u› ‹u ≤ 1› gu interior_closure umin)
using ‹_ ≤ 1› interior_closure umin apply fastforce
done
qed

lemma subpath_to_frontier_strong:
assumes g: "path g" and "pathfinish g ∉ S"
obtains u where "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1" "g u ∉ interior S"
"u = 0 ∨ (∀x. 0 ≤ x ∧ x < 1 ⟶ subpath 0 u g x ∈ interior S)  ∧  g u ∈ closure S"
proof -
obtain u where "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1"
and gxin: "⋀x. 0 ≤ x ∧ x < u ⟹ g x ∈ interior S"
and gunot: "(g u ∉ interior S)" and u0: "(u = 0 ∨ g u ∈ closure S)"
using subpath_to_frontier_explicit [OF assms] by blast
show ?thesis
apply (rule that [OF ‹0 ≤ u› ‹u ≤ 1›])
using ‹0 ≤ u› u0 by (force simp: subpath_def gxin)
qed

lemma subpath_to_frontier:
assumes g: "path g" and g0: "pathstart g ∈ closure S" and g1: "pathfinish g ∉ S"
obtains u where "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1" "g u ∈ frontier S" "(path_image(subpath 0 u g) - {g u}) ⊆ interior S"
proof -
obtain u where "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1"
and notin: "g u ∉ interior S"
and disj: "u = 0 ∨
(∀x. 0 ≤ x ∧ x < 1 ⟶ subpath 0 u g x ∈ interior S) ∧ g u ∈ closure S"
using subpath_to_frontier_strong [OF g g1] by blast
show ?thesis
apply (rule that [OF ‹0 ≤ u› ‹u ≤ 1›])
apply (metis DiffI disj frontier_def g0 notin pathstart_def)
using ‹0 ≤ u› g0 disj
apply (auto simp: closed_segment_eq_real_ivl pathstart_def pathfinish_def subpath_def)
apply (rename_tac y)
apply (drule_tac x="y/u" in spec)
apply (auto split: split_if_asm)
done
qed

lemma exists_path_subpath_to_frontier:
fixes S :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "path g" "pathstart g ∈ closure S" "pathfinish g ∉ S"
obtains h where "path h" "pathstart h = pathstart g" "path_image h ⊆ path_image g"
"path_image h - {pathfinish h} ⊆ interior S"
"pathfinish h ∈ frontier S"
proof -
obtain u where u: "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1" "g u ∈ frontier S" "(path_image(subpath 0 u g) - {g u}) ⊆ interior S"
using subpath_to_frontier [OF assms] by blast
show ?thesis
apply (rule that [of "subpath 0 u g"])
using assms u
apply (force simp: closed_segment_eq_real_ivl path_image_def)
done
qed

lemma exists_path_subpath_to_frontier_closed:
fixes S :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes S: "closed S" and g: "path g" and g0: "pathstart g ∈ S" and g1: "pathfinish g ∉ S"
obtains h where "path h" "pathstart h = pathstart g" "path_image h ⊆ path_image g ∩ S"
"pathfinish h ∈ frontier S"
proof -
obtain h where h: "path h" "pathstart h = pathstart g" "path_image h ⊆ path_image g"
"path_image h - {pathfinish h} ⊆ interior S"
"pathfinish h ∈ frontier S"
using exists_path_subpath_to_frontier [OF g _ g1] closure_closed [OF S] g0 by auto
show ?thesis
apply (rule that [OF ‹path h›])
using assms h
apply auto
apply (metis Diff_single_insert frontier_subset_eq insert_iff interior_subset subset_iff)
done
qed

subsection ‹Reparametrizing a closed curve to start at some chosen point›

definition shiftpath :: "real ⇒ (real ⇒ 'a::topological_space) ⇒ real ⇒ 'a"
where "shiftpath a f = (λx. if (a + x) ≤ 1 then f (a + x) else f (a + x - 1))"

lemma pathstart_shiftpath: "a ≤ 1 ⟹ pathstart (shiftpath a g) = g a"
unfolding pathstart_def shiftpath_def by auto

lemma pathfinish_shiftpath:
assumes "0 ≤ a"
and "pathfinish g = pathstart g"
shows "pathfinish (shiftpath a g) = g a"
using assms
unfolding pathstart_def pathfinish_def shiftpath_def
by auto

lemma endpoints_shiftpath:
assumes "pathfinish g = pathstart g"
and "a ∈ {0 .. 1}"
shows "pathfinish (shiftpath a g) = g a"
and "pathstart (shiftpath a g) = g a"
using assms
by (auto intro!: pathfinish_shiftpath pathstart_shiftpath)

lemma closed_shiftpath:
assumes "pathfinish g = pathstart g"
and "a ∈ {0..1}"
shows "pathfinish (shiftpath a g) = pathstart (shiftpath a g)"
using endpoints_shiftpath[OF assms]
by auto

lemma path_shiftpath:
assumes "path g"
and "pathfinish g = pathstart g"
and "a ∈ {0..1}"
shows "path (shiftpath a g)"
proof -
have *: "{0 .. 1} = {0 .. 1-a} ∪ {1-a .. 1}"
using assms(3) by auto
have **: "⋀x. x + a = 1 ⟹ g (x + a - 1) = g (x + a)"
using assms(2)[unfolded pathfinish_def pathstart_def]
by auto
show ?thesis
unfolding path_def shiftpath_def *
apply (rule continuous_on_union)
apply (rule closed_real_atLeastAtMost)+
apply (rule continuous_on_eq[of _ "g ∘ (λx. a + x)"])
prefer 3
apply (rule continuous_on_eq[of _ "g ∘ (λx. a - 1 + x)"])
prefer 3
apply (rule continuous_intros)+
prefer 2
apply (rule continuous_intros)+
apply (rule_tac[1-2] continuous_on_subset[OF assms(1)[unfolded path_def]])
using assms(3) and **
apply auto
done
qed

lemma shiftpath_shiftpath:
assumes "pathfinish g = pathstart g"
and "a ∈ {0..1}"
and "x ∈ {0..1}"
shows "shiftpath (1 - a) (shiftpath a g) x = g x"
using assms
unfolding pathfinish_def pathstart_def shiftpath_def
by auto

lemma path_image_shiftpath:
assumes "a ∈ {0..1}"
and "pathfinish g = pathstart g"
shows "path_image (shiftpath a g) = path_image g"
proof -
{ fix x
assume as: "g 1 = g 0" "x ∈ {0..1::real}" " ∀y∈{0..1} ∩ {x. ¬ a + x ≤ 1}. g x ≠ g (a + y - 1)"
then have "∃y∈{0..1} ∩ {x. a + x ≤ 1}. g x = g (a + y)"
proof (cases "a ≤ x")
case False
then show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x="1 + x - a" in bexI)
using as(1,2) and as(3)[THEN bspec[where x="1 + x - a"]] and assms(1)
apply (auto simp add: field_simps atomize_not)
done
next
case True
then show ?thesis
using as(1-2) and assms(1)
apply (rule_tac x="x - a" in bexI)
done
qed
}
then show ?thesis
using assms
unfolding shiftpath_def path_image_def pathfinish_def pathstart_def
qed

subsection ‹Special case of straight-line paths›

definition linepath :: "'a::real_normed_vector ⇒ 'a ⇒ real ⇒ 'a"
where "linepath a b = (λx. (1 - x) *⇩R a + x *⇩R b)"

lemma pathstart_linepath[simp]: "pathstart (linepath a b) = a"
unfolding pathstart_def linepath_def
by auto

lemma pathfinish_linepath[simp]: "pathfinish (linepath a b) = b"
unfolding pathfinish_def linepath_def
by auto

lemma continuous_linepath_at[intro]: "continuous (at x) (linepath a b)"
unfolding linepath_def
by (intro continuous_intros)

lemma continuous_on_linepath [intro,continuous_intros]: "continuous_on s (linepath a b)"
using continuous_linepath_at
by (auto intro!: continuous_at_imp_continuous_on)

lemma path_linepath[intro]: "path (linepath a b)"
unfolding path_def
by (rule continuous_on_linepath)

lemma path_image_linepath[simp]: "path_image (linepath a b) = closed_segment a b"
unfolding path_image_def segment linepath_def
by auto

lemma reversepath_linepath[simp]: "reversepath (linepath a b) = linepath b a"
unfolding reversepath_def linepath_def
by auto

lemma linepath_0 [simp]: "linepath 0 b x = x *⇩R b"

lemma arc_linepath:
assumes "a ≠ b"
shows "arc (linepath a b)"
proof -
{
fix x y :: "real"
assume "x *⇩R b + y *⇩R a = x *⇩R a + y *⇩R b"
then have "(x - y) *⇩R a = (x - y) *⇩R b"
with assms have "x = y"
by simp
}
then show ?thesis
unfolding arc_def inj_on_def
by (simp add:  path_linepath) (force simp: algebra_simps linepath_def)
qed

lemma simple_path_linepath[intro]: "a ≠ b ⟹ simple_path (linepath a b)"

lemma linepath_trivial [simp]: "linepath a a x = a"

lemma subpath_refl: "subpath a a g = linepath (g a) (g a)"
by (simp add: subpath_def linepath_def algebra_simps)

subsection ‹Bounding a point away from a path›

lemma not_on_path_ball:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::heine_borel"
assumes "path g"
and "z ∉ path_image g"
shows "∃e > 0. ball z e ∩ path_image g = {}"
proof -
obtain a where "a ∈ path_image g" "∀y ∈ path_image g. dist z a ≤ dist z y"
using distance_attains_inf[OF _ path_image_nonempty, of g z]
using compact_path_image[THEN compact_imp_closed, OF assms(1)] by auto
then show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x="dist z a" in exI)
using assms(2)
apply (auto intro!: dist_pos_lt)
done
qed

lemma not_on_path_cball:
fixes g :: "real ⇒ 'a::heine_borel"
assumes "path g"
and "z ∉ path_image g"
shows "∃e>0. cball z e ∩ (path_image g) = {}"
proof -
obtain e where "ball z e ∩ path_image g = {}" "e > 0"
using not_on_path_ball[OF assms] by auto
moreover have "cball z (e/2) ⊆ ball z e"
using ‹e > 0› by auto
ultimately show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x="e/2" in exI)
apply auto
done
qed

section ‹Path component, considered as a "joinability" relation (from Tom Hales)›

definition "path_component s x y ⟷
(∃g. path g ∧ path_image g ⊆ s ∧ pathstart g = x ∧ pathfinish g = y)"

abbreviation
"path_component_set s x ≡ Collect (path_component s x)"

lemmas path_defs = path_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def path_image_def path_component_def

lemma path_component_mem:
assumes "path_component s x y"
shows "x ∈ s" and "y ∈ s"
using assms
unfolding path_defs
by auto

lemma path_component_refl:
assumes "x ∈ s"
shows "path_component s x x"
unfolding path_defs
apply (rule_tac x="λu. x" in exI)
using assms
apply (auto intro!: continuous_intros)
done

lemma path_component_refl_eq: "path_component s x x ⟷ x ∈ s"
by (auto intro!: path_component_mem path_component_refl)

lemma path_component_sym: "path_component s x y ⟹ path_component s y x"
using assms
unfolding path_component_def
apply (erule exE)
apply (rule_tac x="reversepath g" in exI)
apply auto
done

lemma path_component_trans:
assumes "path_component s x y" and "path_component s y z"
shows "path_component s x z"
using assms
unfolding path_component_def
apply (elim exE)
apply (rule_tac x="g +++ ga" in exI)
done

lemma path_component_of_subset: "s ⊆ t ⟹ path_component s x y ⟹ path_component t x y"
unfolding path_component_def by auto

lemma path_connected_linepath:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
shows "closed_segment a b ⊆ s ⟹ path_component s a b"
apply (rule_tac x="linepath a b" in exI, auto)
done

text ‹Can also consider it as a set, as the name suggests.›

lemma path_component_set:
"path_component_set s x =
{y. (∃g. path g ∧ path_image g ⊆ s ∧ pathstart g = x ∧ pathfinish g = y)}"
by (auto simp: path_component_def)

lemma path_component_subset: "path_component_set s x ⊆ s"

lemma path_component_eq_empty: "path_component_set s x = {} ⟷ x ∉ s"
using path_component_mem path_component_refl_eq
by fastforce

lemma path_component_mono:
"s ⊆ t ⟹ (path_component_set s x) ⊆ (path_component_set t x)"

lemma path_component_eq:
"y ∈ path_component_set s x ⟹ path_component_set s y = path_component_set s x"
by (metis (no_types, lifting) Collect_cong mem_Collect_eq path_component_sym path_component_trans)

subsection ‹Path connectedness of a space›

definition "path_connected s ⟷
(∀x∈s. ∀y∈s. ∃g. path g ∧ path_image g ⊆ s ∧ pathstart g = x ∧ pathfinish g = y)"

lemma path_connected_component: "path_connected s ⟷ (∀x∈s. ∀y∈s. path_component s x y)"
unfolding path_connected_def path_component_def by auto

lemma path_connected_component_set: "path_connected s ⟷ (∀x∈s. path_component_set s x = s)"
unfolding path_connected_component path_component_subset
using path_component_mem by blast

lemma path_component_maximal:
"⟦x ∈ t; path_connected t; t ⊆ s⟧ ⟹ t ⊆ (path_component_set s x)"
by (metis path_component_mono path_connected_component_set)

subsection ‹Some useful lemmas about path-connectedness›

lemma convex_imp_path_connected:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "convex s"
shows "path_connected s"
unfolding path_connected_def
apply rule
apply rule
apply (rule_tac x = "linepath x y" in exI)
unfolding path_image_linepath
using assms [unfolded convex_contains_segment]
apply auto
done

lemma path_connected_imp_connected:
assumes "path_connected s"
shows "connected s"
unfolding connected_def not_ex
apply rule
apply rule
apply (rule ccontr)
unfolding not_not
apply (elim conjE)
proof -
fix e1 e2
assume as: "open e1" "open e2" "s ⊆ e1 ∪ e2" "e1 ∩ e2 ∩ s = {}" "e1 ∩ s ≠ {}" "e2 ∩ s ≠ {}"
then obtain x1 x2 where obt:"x1 ∈ e1 ∩ s" "x2 ∈ e2 ∩ s"
by auto
then obtain g where g: "path g" "path_image g ⊆ s" "pathstart g = x1" "pathfinish g = x2"
using assms[unfolded path_connected_def,rule_format,of x1 x2] by auto
have *: "connected {0..1::real}"
by (auto intro!: convex_connected convex_real_interval)
have "{0..1} ⊆ {x ∈ {0..1}. g x ∈ e1} ∪ {x ∈ {0..1}. g x ∈ e2}"
using as(3) g(2)[unfolded path_defs] by blast
moreover have "{x ∈ {0..1}. g x ∈ e1} ∩ {x ∈ {0..1}. g x ∈ e2} = {}"
using as(4) g(2)[unfolded path_defs]
unfolding subset_eq
by auto
moreover have "{x ∈ {0..1}. g x ∈ e1} ≠ {} ∧ {x ∈ {0..1}. g x ∈ e2} ≠ {}"
using g(3,4)[unfolded path_defs]
using obt
by (simp add: ex_in_conv [symmetric], metis zero_le_one order_refl)
ultimately show False
using *[unfolded connected_local not_ex, rule_format,
of "{x∈{0..1}. g x ∈ e1}" "{x∈{0..1}. g x ∈ e2}"]
using continuous_openin_preimage[OF g(1)[unfolded path_def] as(1)]
using continuous_openin_preimage[OF g(1)[unfolded path_def] as(2)]
by auto
qed

lemma open_path_component:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "open s"
shows "open (path_component_set s x)"
unfolding open_contains_ball
proof
fix y
assume as: "y ∈ path_component_set s x"
then have "y ∈ s"
apply -
apply (rule path_component_mem(2))
unfolding mem_Collect_eq
apply auto
done
then obtain e where e: "e > 0" "ball y e ⊆ s"
using assms[unfolded open_contains_ball]
by auto
show "∃e > 0. ball y e ⊆ path_component_set s x"
apply (rule_tac x=e in exI)
apply (rule,rule ‹e>0›)
apply rule
unfolding mem_ball mem_Collect_eq
proof -
fix z
assume "dist y z < e"
then show "path_component s x z"
apply (rule_tac path_component_trans[of _ _ y])
defer
apply (rule path_component_of_subset[OF e(2)])
apply (rule convex_imp_path_connected[OF convex_ball, unfolded path_connected_component, rule_format])
using ‹e > 0› as
apply auto
done
qed
qed

lemma open_non_path_component:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "open s"
shows "open (s - path_component_set s x)"
unfolding open_contains_ball
proof
fix y
assume as: "y ∈ s - path_component_set s x"
then obtain e where e: "e > 0" "ball y e ⊆ s"
using assms [unfolded open_contains_ball]
by auto
show "∃e>0. ball y e ⊆ s - path_component_set s x"
apply (rule_tac x=e in exI)
apply rule
apply (rule ‹e>0›)
apply rule
apply rule
defer
proof (rule ccontr)
fix z
assume "z ∈ ball y e" "¬ z ∉ path_component_set s x"
then have "y ∈ path_component_set s x"
unfolding not_not mem_Collect_eq using ‹e>0›
apply -
apply (rule path_component_trans, assumption)
apply (rule path_component_of_subset[OF e(2)])
apply (rule convex_imp_path_connected[OF convex_ball, unfolded path_connected_component, rule_format])
apply auto
done
then show False
using as by auto
qed (insert e(2), auto)
qed

lemma connected_open_path_connected:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "open s"
and "connected s"
shows "path_connected s"
unfolding path_connected_component_set
proof (rule, rule, rule path_component_subset, rule)
fix x y
assume "x ∈ s" and "y ∈ s"
show "y ∈ path_component_set s x"
proof (rule ccontr)
assume "¬ ?thesis"
moreover have "path_component_set s x ∩ s ≠ {}"
using ‹x ∈ s› path_component_eq_empty path_component_subset[of s x]
by auto
ultimately
show False
using ‹y ∈ s› open_non_path_component[OF assms(1)] open_path_component[OF assms(1)]
using assms(2)[unfolded connected_def not_ex, rule_format,
of "path_component_set s x" "s - path_component_set s x"]
by auto
qed
qed

lemma path_connected_continuous_image:
assumes "continuous_on s f"
and "path_connected s"
shows "path_connected (f ` s)"
unfolding path_connected_def
proof (rule, rule)
fix x' y'
assume "x' ∈ f ` s" "y' ∈ f ` s"
then obtain x y where x: "x ∈ s" and y: "y ∈ s" and x': "x' = f x" and y': "y' = f y"
by auto
from x y obtain g where "path g ∧ path_image g ⊆ s ∧ pathstart g = x ∧ pathfinish g = y"
using assms(2)[unfolded path_connected_def] by fast
then show "∃g. path g ∧ path_image g ⊆ f ` s ∧ pathstart g = x' ∧ pathfinish g = y'"
unfolding x' y'
apply (rule_tac x="f ∘ g" in exI)
unfolding path_defs
apply (intro conjI continuous_on_compose continuous_on_subset[OF assms(1)])
apply auto
done
qed

lemma path_connected_segment:
fixes a :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
shows "path_connected (closed_segment a b)"

lemma path_connected_open_segment:
fixes a :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
shows "path_connected (open_segment a b)"

lemma homeomorphic_path_connectedness:
"s homeomorphic t ⟹ path_connected s ⟷ path_connected t"
unfolding homeomorphic_def homeomorphism_def by (metis path_connected_continuous_image)

lemma path_connected_empty: "path_connected {}"
unfolding path_connected_def by auto

lemma path_connected_singleton: "path_connected {a}"
unfolding path_connected_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def path_image_def
apply clarify
apply (rule_tac x="λx. a" in exI)
done

lemma path_connected_Un:
assumes "path_connected s"
and "path_connected t"
and "s ∩ t ≠ {}"
shows "path_connected (s ∪ t)"
unfolding path_connected_component
proof (rule, rule)
fix x y
assume as: "x ∈ s ∪ t" "y ∈ s ∪ t"
from assms(3) obtain z where "z ∈ s ∩ t"
by auto
then show "path_component (s ∪ t) x y"
using as and assms(1-2)[unfolded path_connected_component]
apply -
apply (erule_tac[!] UnE)+
apply (rule_tac[2-3] path_component_trans[of _ _ z])
apply (auto simp add:path_component_of_subset [OF Un_upper1] path_component_of_subset[OF Un_upper2])
done
qed

lemma path_connected_UNION:
assumes "⋀i. i ∈ A ⟹ path_connected (S i)"
and "⋀i. i ∈ A ⟹ z ∈ S i"
shows "path_connected (⋃i∈A. S i)"
unfolding path_connected_component
proof clarify
fix x i y j
assume *: "i ∈ A" "x ∈ S i" "j ∈ A" "y ∈ S j"
then have "path_component (S i) x z" and "path_component (S j) z y"
using assms by (simp_all add: path_connected_component)
then have "path_component (⋃i∈A. S i) x z" and "path_component (⋃i∈A. S i) z y"
using *(1,3) by (auto elim!: path_component_of_subset [rotated])
then show "path_component (⋃i∈A. S i) x y"
by (rule path_component_trans)
qed

lemma path_component_path_image_pathstart:
assumes p: "path p" and x: "x ∈ path_image p"
shows "path_component (path_image p) (pathstart p) x"
using x
fix y
assume "x = p y" and y: "0 ≤ y" "y ≤ 1"
show "path_component (p ` {0..1}) (pathstart p) (p y)"
proof (cases "y=0")
case True then show ?thesis
next
case False have "continuous_on {0..1} (p o (op*y))"
apply (rule continuous_intros)+
using p [unfolded path_def] y
apply (auto simp: mult_le_one intro: continuous_on_subset [of _ p])
done
then have "path (λu. p (y * u))"
then show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x = "λu. p (y * u)" in exI)
apply (intro conjI)
using y False
apply (auto simp: mult_le_one pathstart_def pathfinish_def path_image_def)
done
qed
qed

lemma path_connected_path_image: "path p ⟹ path_connected(path_image p)"
unfolding path_connected_component
by (meson path_component_path_image_pathstart path_component_sym path_component_trans)

lemma path_connected_path_component:
"path_connected (path_component_set s x)"
proof -
{ fix y z
assume pa: "path_component s x y" "path_component s x z"
then have pae: "path_component_set s x = path_component_set s y"
using path_component_eq by auto
have yz: "path_component s y z"
using pa path_component_sym path_component_trans by blast
then have "∃g. path g ∧ path_image g ⊆ path_component_set s x ∧ pathstart g = y ∧ pathfinish g = z"
apply (rule_tac x=g in exI)
by (simp add: pae path_component_maximal path_connected_path_image pathstart_in_path_image)
}
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma path_component: "path_component s x y ⟷ (∃t. path_connected t ∧ t ⊆ s ∧ x ∈ t ∧ y ∈ t)"
apply (intro iffI)
apply (metis path_connected_path_image path_defs(5) pathfinish_in_path_image pathstart_in_path_image)
using path_component_of_subset path_connected_component by blast

lemma path_component_path_component [simp]:
"path_component_set (path_component_set s x) x = path_component_set s x"
proof (cases "x ∈ s")
case True show ?thesis
apply (rule subset_antisym)
by (simp add: True path_component_maximal path_component_refl path_connected_path_component)
next
case False then show ?thesis
by (metis False empty_iff path_component_eq_empty)
qed

lemma path_component_subset_connected_component:
"(path_component_set s x) ⊆ (connected_component_set s x)"
proof (cases "x ∈ s")
case True show ?thesis
apply (rule connected_component_maximal)
apply (auto simp: True path_component_subset path_component_refl path_connected_imp_connected path_connected_path_component)
done
next
case False then show ?thesis
using path_component_eq_empty by auto
qed

subsection ‹Sphere is path-connected›

lemma path_connected_punctured_universe:
assumes "2 ≤ DIM('a::euclidean_space)"
shows "path_connected (- {a::'a})"
proof -
let ?A = "{x::'a. ∃i∈Basis. x ∙ i < a ∙ i}"
let ?B = "{x::'a. ∃i∈Basis. a ∙ i < x ∙ i}"

have A: "path_connected ?A"
unfolding Collect_bex_eq
proof (rule path_connected_UNION)
fix i :: 'a
assume "i ∈ Basis"
then show "(∑i∈Basis. (a ∙ i - 1)*⇩R i) ∈ {x::'a. x ∙ i < a ∙ i}"
by simp
show "path_connected {x. x ∙ i < a ∙ i}"
using convex_imp_path_connected [OF convex_halfspace_lt, of i "a ∙ i"]
qed
have B: "path_connected ?B"
unfolding Collect_bex_eq
proof (rule path_connected_UNION)
fix i :: 'a
assume "i ∈ Basis"
then show "(∑i∈Basis. (a ∙ i + 1) *⇩R i) ∈ {x::'a. a ∙ i < x ∙ i}"
by simp
show "path_connected {x. a ∙ i < x ∙ i}"
using convex_imp_path_connected [OF convex_halfspace_gt, of "a ∙ i" i]
qed
obtain S :: "'a set" where "S ⊆ Basis" and "card S = Suc (Suc 0)"
using ex_card[OF assms]
by auto
then obtain b0 b1 :: 'a where "b0 ∈ Basis" and "b1 ∈ Basis" and "b0 ≠ b1"
unfolding card_Suc_eq by auto
then have "a + b0 - b1 ∈ ?A ∩ ?B"
by (auto simp: inner_simps inner_Basis)
then have "?A ∩ ?B ≠ {}"
by fast
with A B have "path_connected (?A ∪ ?B)"
by (rule path_connected_Un)
also have "?A ∪ ?B = {x. ∃i∈Basis. x ∙ i ≠ a ∙ i}"
unfolding neq_iff bex_disj_distrib Collect_disj_eq ..
also have "… = {x. x ≠ a}"
unfolding euclidean_eq_iff [where 'a='a]
also have "… = - {a}"
by auto
finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma path_connected_sphere:
assumes "2 ≤ DIM('a::euclidean_space)"
shows "path_connected {x::'a. norm (x - a) = r}"
proof (rule linorder_cases [of r 0])
assume "r < 0"
then have "{x::'a. norm(x - a) = r} = {}"
by auto
then show ?thesis
using path_connected_empty by simp
next
assume "r = 0"
then show ?thesis
using path_connected_singleton by simp
next
assume r: "0 < r"
have *: "{x::'a. norm(x - a) = r} = (λx. a + r *⇩R x) ` {x. norm x = 1}"
apply (rule set_eqI)
apply rule
unfolding image_iff
apply (rule_tac x="(1/r) *⇩R (x - a)" in bexI)
unfolding mem_Collect_eq norm_scaleR
using r
done
have **: "{x::'a. norm x = 1} = (λx. (1/norm x) *⇩R x) ` (- {0})"
apply (rule set_eqI)
apply rule
unfolding image_iff
apply (rule_tac x=x in bexI)
unfolding mem_Collect_eq
apply (auto split: split_if_asm)
done
have "continuous_on (- {0}) (λx::'a. 1 / norm x)"
by (auto intro!: continuous_intros)
then show ?thesis
unfolding * **
using path_connected_punctured_universe[OF assms]
by (auto intro!: path_connected_continuous_image continuous_intros)
qed

corollary connected_sphere: "2 ≤ DIM('a::euclidean_space) ⟹ connected {x::'a. norm (x - a) = r}"
using path_connected_sphere path_connected_imp_connected
by auto

corollary path_connected_complement_bounded_convex:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
assumes "bounded s" "convex s" and 2: "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows "path_connected (- s)"
proof (cases "s={}")
case True then show ?thesis
using convex_imp_path_connected by auto
next
case False
then obtain a where "a ∈ s" by auto
{ fix x y assume "x ∉ s" "y ∉ s"
then have "x ≠ a" "y ≠ a" using ‹a ∈ s› by auto
then have bxy: "bounded(insert x (insert y s))"
then obtain B::real where B: "0 < B" and Bx: "norm (a - x) < B" and By: "norm (a - y) < B"
and "s ⊆ ball a B"
using bounded_subset_ballD [OF bxy, of a] by (auto simp: dist_norm)
def C == "B / norm(x - a)"
{ fix u
assume u: "(1 - u) *⇩R x + u *⇩R (a + C *⇩R (x - a)) ∈ s" and "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1"
have CC: "1 ≤ 1 + (C - 1) * u"
using ‹x ≠ a› ‹0 ≤ u›
apply (simp add: C_def divide_simps norm_minus_commute)
using Bx by auto
have *: "⋀v. (1 - u) *⇩R x + u *⇩R (a + v *⇩R (x - a)) = a + (1 + (v - 1) * u) *⇩R (x - a)"
have "a + ((1 / (1 + C * u - u)) *⇩R x + ((u / (1 + C * u - u)) *⇩R a + (C * u / (1 + C * u - u)) *⇩R x)) =
(1 + (u / (1 + C * u - u))) *⇩R a + ((1 / (1 + C * u - u)) + (C * u / (1 + C * u - u))) *⇩R x"
also have "... = (1 + (u / (1 + C * u - u))) *⇩R a + (1 + (u / (1 + C * u - u))) *⇩R x"
using CC by (simp add: field_simps)
also have "... = x + (1 + (u / (1 + C * u - u))) *⇩R a + (u / (1 + C * u - u)) *⇩R x"
also have "... = x + ((1 / (1 + C * u - u)) *⇩R a +
((u / (1 + C * u - u)) *⇩R x + (C * u / (1 + C * u - u)) *⇩R a))"
finally have xeq: "(1 - 1 / (1 + (C - 1) * u)) *⇩R a + (1 / (1 + (C - 1) * u)) *⇩R (a + (1 + (C - 1) * u) *⇩R (x - a)) = x"
have False
using ‹convex s›
apply (drule_tac x=a in bspec)
apply (rule  ‹a ∈ s›)
apply (drule_tac x="a + (1 + (C - 1) * u) *⇩R (x - a)" in bspec)
using u apply (simp add: *)
apply (drule_tac x="1 / (1 + (C - 1) * u)" in spec)
using ‹x ≠ a› ‹x ∉ s› ‹0 ≤ u› CC
apply (auto simp: xeq)
done
}
then have pcx: "path_component (- s) x (a + C *⇩R (x - a))"
by (force simp: closed_segment_def intro!: path_connected_linepath)
def D == "B / norm(y - a)"  ―‹massive duplication with the proof above›
{ fix u
assume u: "(1 - u) *⇩R y + u *⇩R (a + D *⇩R (y - a)) ∈ s" and "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1"
have DD: "1 ≤ 1 + (D - 1) * u"
using ‹y ≠ a› ‹0 ≤ u›
apply (simp add: D_def divide_simps norm_minus_commute)
using By by auto
have *: "⋀v. (1 - u) *⇩R y + u *⇩R (a + v *⇩R (y - a)) = a + (1 + (v - 1) * u) *⇩R (y - a)"
have "a + ((1 / (1 + D * u - u)) *⇩R y + ((u / (1 + D * u - u)) *⇩R a + (D * u / (1 + D * u - u)) *⇩R y)) =
(1 + (u / (1 + D * u - u))) *⇩R a + ((1 / (1 + D * u - u)) + (D * u / (1 + D * u - u))) *⇩R y"
also have "... = (1 + (u / (1 + D * u - u))) *⇩R a + (1 + (u / (1 + D * u - u))) *⇩R y"
using DD by (simp add: field_simps)
also have "... = y + (1 + (u / (1 + D * u - u))) *⇩R a + (u / (1 + D * u - u)) *⇩R y"
also have "... = y + ((1 / (1 + D * u - u)) *⇩R a +
((u / (1 + D * u - u)) *⇩R y + (D * u / (1 + D * u - u)) *⇩R a))"
finally have xeq: "(1 - 1 / (1 + (D - 1) * u)) *⇩R a + (1 / (1 + (D - 1) * u)) *⇩R (a + (1 + (D - 1) * u) *⇩R (y - a)) = y"
have False
using ‹convex s›
apply (drule_tac x=a in bspec)
apply (rule  ‹a ∈ s›)
apply (drule_tac x="a + (1 + (D - 1) * u) *⇩R (y - a)" in bspec)
using u apply (simp add: *)
apply (drule_tac x="1 / (1 + (D - 1) * u)" in spec)
using ‹y ≠ a› ‹y ∉ s› ‹0 ≤ u› DD
apply (auto simp: xeq)
done
}
then have pdy: "path_component (- s) y (a + D *⇩R (y - a))"
by (force simp: closed_segment_def intro!: path_connected_linepath)
have pyx: "path_component (- s) (a + D *⇩R (y - a)) (a + C *⇩R (x - a))"
apply (rule path_component_of_subset [of "{x. norm(x - a) = B}"])
using ‹s ⊆ ball a B›
apply (force simp: ball_def dist_norm norm_minus_commute)
apply (rule path_connected_sphere [OF 2, of a B, simplified path_connected_component, rule_format])
using ‹x ≠ a›  using ‹y ≠ a›  B apply (auto simp: C_def D_def)
done
have "path_component (- s) x y"
by (metis path_component_trans path_component_sym pcx pdy pyx)
}
then show ?thesis
by (auto simp: path_connected_component)
qed

lemma connected_complement_bounded_convex:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
assumes "bounded s" "convex s" "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows  "connected (- s)"
using path_connected_complement_bounded_convex [OF assms] path_connected_imp_connected by blast

lemma connected_diff_ball:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
assumes "connected s" "cball a r ⊆ s" "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows "connected (s - ball a r)"
apply (rule connected_diff_open_from_closed [OF ball_subset_cball])
using assms connected_sphere
apply (auto simp: cball_diff_eq_sphere dist_norm)
done

subsection‹Relations between components and path components›

lemma open_connected_component:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
shows "open s ⟹ open (connected_component_set s x)"
apply (rename_tac y)
apply (drule_tac x=y in bspec)
apply (rule_tac x=e in exI)
by (metis mem_Collect_eq connected_component_eq connected_component_maximal centre_in_ball connected_ball)

corollary open_components:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
shows "⟦open u; s ∈ components u⟧ ⟹ open s"
by (simp add: components_iff) (metis open_connected_component)

lemma in_closure_connected_component:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes x: "x ∈ s" and s: "open s"
shows "x ∈ closure (connected_component_set s y) ⟷  x ∈ connected_component_set s y"
proof -
{ assume "x ∈ closure (connected_component_set s y)"
moreover have "x ∈ connected_component_set s x"
using x by simp
ultimately have "x ∈ connected_component_set s y"
using s by (meson Compl_disjoint closure_iff_nhds_not_empty connected_component_disjoint disjoint_eq_subset_Compl open_connected_component)
}
then show ?thesis
by (auto simp: closure_def)
qed

subsection‹Existence of unbounded components›

lemma cobounded_unbounded_component:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
assumes "bounded (-s)"
shows "∃x. x ∈ s ∧ ~ bounded (connected_component_set s x)"
proof -
obtain i::'a where i: "i ∈ Basis"
using nonempty_Basis by blast
obtain B where B: "B>0" "-s ⊆ ball 0 B"
using bounded_subset_ballD [OF assms, of 0] by auto
then have *: "⋀x. B ≤ norm x ⟹ x ∈ s"
by (force simp add: ball_def dist_norm)
have unbounded_inner: "~ bounded {x. inner i x ≥ B}"
apply (auto simp: bounded_def dist_norm)
apply (rule_tac x="x + (max B e + 1 + ¦i ∙ x¦) *⇩R i" in exI)
apply simp
using i
apply (auto simp: algebra_simps)
done
have **: "{x. B ≤ i ∙ x} ⊆ connected_component_set s (B *⇩R i)"
apply (rule connected_component_maximal)
apply (auto simp: i intro: convex_connected convex_halfspace_ge [of B])
apply (rule *)
apply (rule order_trans [OF _ Basis_le_norm [OF i]])
have "B *⇩R i ∈ s"
by (rule *) (simp add: norm_Basis [OF i])
then show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x="B *⇩R i" in exI, clarify)
apply (frule bounded_subset [of _ "{x. B ≤ i ∙ x}", OF _ **])
using unbounded_inner apply blast
done
qed

lemma cobounded_unique_unbounded_component:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
assumes bs: "bounded (-s)" and "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
and bo: "~ bounded(connected_component_set s x)"
"~ bounded(connected_component_set s y)"
shows "connected_component_set s x = connected_component_set s y"
proof -
obtain i::'a where i: "i ∈ Basis"
using nonempty_Basis by blast
obtain B where B: "B>0" "-s ⊆ ball 0 B"
using bounded_subset_ballD [OF bs, of 0] by auto
then have *: "⋀x. B ≤ norm x ⟹ x ∈ s"
by (force simp add: ball_def dist_norm)
have ccb: "connected (- ball 0 B :: 'a set)"
using assms by (auto intro: connected_complement_bounded_convex)
obtain x' where x': "connected_component s x x'" "norm x' > B"
using bo [unfolded bounded_def dist_norm, simplified, rule_format]
by (metis diff_zero norm_minus_commute not_less)
obtain y' where y': "connected_component s y y'" "norm y' > B"
using bo [unfolded bounded_def dist_norm, simplified, rule_format]
by (metis diff_zero norm_minus_commute not_less)
have x'y': "connected_component s x' y'"
apply (rule_tac x="- ball 0 B" in exI)
using x' y'
apply (auto simp: ccb dist_norm *)
done
show ?thesis
apply (rule connected_component_eq)
using x' y' x'y'
by (metis (no_types, lifting) connected_component_eq_empty connected_component_eq_eq connected_component_idemp connected_component_in)
qed

lemma cobounded_unbounded_components:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
shows "bounded (-s) ⟹ ∃c. c ∈ components s ∧ ~bounded c"
by (metis cobounded_unbounded_component components_def imageI)

lemma cobounded_unique_unbounded_components:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
shows  "⟦bounded (- s); c ∈ components s; ¬ bounded c; c' ∈ components s; ¬ bounded c'; 2 ≤ DIM('a)⟧ ⟹ c' = c"
unfolding components_iff
by (metis cobounded_unique_unbounded_component)

lemma cobounded_has_bounded_component:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
shows "⟦bounded (- s); ~connected s; 2 ≤ DIM('a)⟧ ⟹ ∃c. c ∈ components s ∧ bounded c"
by (meson cobounded_unique_unbounded_components connected_eq_connected_components_eq)

section‹The "inside" and "outside" of a set›

text‹The inside comprises the points in a bounded connected component of the set's complement.
The outside comprises the points in unbounded connected component of the complement.›

definition inside where
"inside s ≡ {x. (x ∉ s) ∧ bounded(connected_component_set ( - s) x)}"

definition outside where
"outside s ≡ -s ∩ {x. ~ bounded(connected_component_set (- s) x)}"

lemma outside: "outside s = {x. ~ bounded(connected_component_set (- s) x)}"
by (auto simp: outside_def) (metis Compl_iff bounded_empty connected_component_eq_empty)

lemma inside_no_overlap [simp]: "inside s ∩ s = {}"
by (auto simp: inside_def)

lemma outside_no_overlap [simp]:
"outside s ∩ s = {}"
by (auto simp: outside_def)

lemma inside_inter_outside [simp]: "inside s ∩ outside s = {}"
by (auto simp: inside_def outside_def)

lemma inside_union_outside [simp]: "inside s ∪ outside s = (- s)"
by (auto simp: inside_def outside_def)

lemma inside_eq_outside:
"inside s = outside s ⟷ s = UNIV"
by (auto simp: inside_def outside_def)

lemma inside_outside: "inside s = (- (s ∪ outside s))"
by (force simp add: inside_def outside)

lemma outside_inside: "outside s = (- (s ∪ inside s))"
by (auto simp: inside_outside) (metis IntI equals0D outside_no_overlap)

lemma union_with_inside: "s ∪ inside s = - outside s"
by (auto simp: inside_outside) (simp add: outside_inside)

lemma union_with_outside: "s ∪ outside s = - inside s"

lemma outside_mono: "s ⊆ t ⟹ outside t ⊆ outside s"
by (auto simp: outside bounded_subset connected_component_mono)

lemma inside_mono: "s ⊆ t ⟹ inside s - t ⊆ inside t"
by (auto simp: inside_def bounded_subset connected_component_mono)

lemma segment_bound_lemma:
fixes u::real
assumes "x ≥ B" "y ≥ B" "0 ≤ u" "u ≤ 1"
shows "(1 - u) * x + u * y ≥ B"
proof -
obtain dx dy where "dx ≥ 0" "dy ≥ 0" "x = B + dx" "y = B + dy"
with ‹0 ≤ u› ‹u ≤ 1› show ?thesis
qed

lemma cobounded_outside:
fixes s :: "'a :: real_normed_vector set"
assumes "bounded s" shows "bounded (- outside s)"
proof -
obtain B where B: "B>0" "s ⊆ ball 0 B"
using bounded_subset_ballD [OF assms, of 0] by auto
{ fix x::'a and C::real
assume Bno: "B ≤ norm x" and C: "0 < C"
have "∃y. connected_component (- s) x y ∧ norm y > C"
proof (cases "x = 0")
case True with B Bno show ?thesis by force
next
case False with B C show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x="((B+C)/norm x) *⇩R x" in exI)
apply (rule_tac x="closed_segment x (((B+C)/norm x) *⇩R x)" in exI)
apply simp
apply (rule_tac y="- ball 0 B" in order_trans)
prefer 2 apply force
apply (simp add: closed_segment_def ball_def dist_norm, clarify)
using segment_bound_lemma [of B "norm x" "B+C" ] Bno
qed
}
then show ?thesis
apply (rule bounded_subset [OF bounded_ball [of 0 B]])
apply (force simp add: dist_norm not_less bounded_pos)
done
qed

lemma unbounded_outside:
fixes s :: "'a::{real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
shows "bounded s ⟹ ~ bounded(outside s)"
using cobounded_imp_unbounded cobounded_outside by blast

lemma bounded_inside:
fixes s :: "'a::{real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
shows "bounded s ⟹ bounded(inside s)"
by (simp add: bounded_Int cobounded_outside inside_outside)

lemma connected_outside:
fixes s :: "'a::euclidean_space set"
assumes "bounded s" "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows "connected(outside s)"
apply (rule_tac s="connected_component_set (- s) x" in connected_component_of_subset)
apply (metis (no_types) assms cobounded_unbounded_component cobounded_unique_unbounded_component connected_component_eq_eq connected_component_idemp double_complement mem_Collect_eq)
apply clarify
apply (metis connected_component_eq_eq connected_component_in)
done

lemma outside_connected_component_lt:
"outside s = {x. ∀B. ∃y. B < norm(y) ∧ connected_component (- s) x y}"
apply (auto simp: outside bounded_def dist_norm)
apply (metis diff_0 norm_minus_cancel not_less)
by (metis less_diff_eq norm_minus_commute norm_triangle_ineq2 order.trans pinf(6))

lemma outside_connected_component_le:
"outside s =
{x. ∀B. ∃y. B ≤ norm(y) ∧
connected_component (- s) x y}"
by (meson gt_ex leD le_less_linear less_imp_le order.trans)

lemma not_outside_connected_component_lt:
fixes s :: "'a::euclidean_space set"
assumes s: "bounded s" and "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows "- (outside s) = {x. ∀B. ∃y. B < norm(y) ∧ ~ (connected_component (- s) x y)}"
proof -
obtain B::real where B: "0 < B" and Bno: "⋀x. x ∈ s ⟹ norm x ≤ B"
using s [simplified bounded_pos] by auto
{ fix y::'a and z::'a
assume yz: "B < norm z" "B < norm y"
have "connected_component (- cball 0 B) y z"
apply (rule connected_componentI [OF _ subset_refl])
apply (rule connected_complement_bounded_convex)
using assms yz
by (auto simp: dist_norm)
then have "connected_component (- s) y z"
apply (rule connected_component_of_subset)
apply (metis Bno Compl_anti_mono mem_cball_0 subset_iff)
done
} note cyz = this
show ?thesis
apply (auto simp: outside)
apply (metis Compl_iff bounded_iff cobounded_imp_unbounded mem_Collect_eq not_le)
by (metis B connected_component_trans cyz not_le)
qed

lemma not_outside_connected_component_le:
fixes s :: "'a::euclidean_space set"
assumes s: "bounded s"  "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows "- (outside s) = {x. ∀B. ∃y. B ≤ norm(y) ∧ ~ (connected_component (- s) x y)}"
apply (auto intro: less_imp_le simp: not_outside_connected_component_lt [OF assms])
by (meson gt_ex less_le_trans)

lemma inside_connected_component_lt:
fixes s :: "'a::euclidean_space set"
assumes s: "bounded s"  "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows "inside s = {x. (x ∉ s) ∧ (∀B. ∃y. B < norm(y) ∧ ~(connected_component (- s) x y))}"
by (auto simp: inside_outside not_outside_connected_component_lt [OF assms])

lemma inside_connected_component_le:
fixes s :: "'a::euclidean_space set"
assumes s: "bounded s"  "2 ≤ DIM('a)"
shows "inside s = {x. (x ∉ s) ∧ (∀B. ∃y. B ≤ norm(y) ∧ ~(connected_component (- s) x y))}"
by (auto simp: inside_outside not_outside_connected_component_le [OF assms])

lemma inside_subset:
assumes "connected u" and "~bounded u" and "t ∪ u = - s"
shows "inside s ⊆ t"
apply (auto simp: inside_def)
by (metis bounded_subset [of "connected_component_set (- s) _"] connected_component_maximal
Compl_iff Un_iff assms subsetI)

lemma frontier_interiors: "frontier s = - interior(s) - interior(-s)"
by (simp add: Int_commute frontier_def interior_closure)

lemma connected_inter_frontier:
"⟦connected s; s ∩ t ≠ {}; s - t ≠ {}⟧ ⟹ (s ∩ frontier t ≠ {})"
apply (simp add: frontier_interiors connected_open_in, safe)
apply (drule_tac x="s ∩ interior t" in spec, safe)
apply (drule_tac [2] x="s ∩ interior (-t)" in spec)
apply (auto simp: disjoint_eq_subset_Compl dest: interior_subset [THEN subsetD])
done

lemma connected_component_UNIV:
fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
shows "connected_component_set UNIV x = UNIV"
using connected_iff_eq_connected_component_set [of "UNIV::'a set"] connected_UNIV
by auto

lemma connected_component_eq_UNIV:
fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
shows "connected_component_set s x = UNIV ⟷ s = UNIV"
using connected_component_in connected_component_UNIV by blast

lemma components_univ [simp]: "components UNIV = {UNIV :: 'a::real_normed_vector set}"
by (auto simp: components_eq_sing_iff)

lemma interior_inside_frontier:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "bounded s"
shows "interior s ⊆ inside (frontier s)"
proof -
{ fix x y
assume x: "x ∈ interior s" and y: "y ∉ s"
and cc: "connected_component (- frontier s) x y"
have "connected_component_set (- frontier s) x ∩ frontier s ≠ {}"
apply (rule connected_inter_frontier, simp)
apply (metis IntI cc connected_component_in connected_component_refl empty_iff interiorE mem_Collect_eq set_rev_mp x)
using  y cc
by blast
then have "bounded (connected_component_set (- frontier s) x)"
using connected_component_in by auto
}
then show ?thesis
apply (auto simp: inside_def frontier_def)
apply (rule classical)
apply (rule bounded_subset [OF assms], blast)
done
qed

lemma inside_empty [simp]: "inside {} = ({} :: 'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set)"

lemma outside_empty [simp]: "outside {} = (UNIV :: 'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set)"
using inside_empty inside_union_outside by blast

lemma inside_same_component:
"⟦connected_component (- s) x y; x ∈ inside s⟧ ⟹ y ∈ inside s"
using connected_component_eq connected_component_in

lemma outside_same_component:
"⟦connected_component (- s) x y; x ∈ outside s⟧ ⟹ y ∈ outside s"
using connected_component_eq connected_component_in

lemma convex_in_outside:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
assumes s: "convex s" and z: "z ∉ s"
shows "z ∈ outside s"
proof (cases "s={}")
case True then show ?thesis by simp
next
case False then obtain a where "a ∈ s" by blast
with z have zna: "z ≠ a" by auto
{ assume "bounded (connected_component_set (- s) z)"
with bounded_pos_less obtain B where "B>0" and B: "⋀x. connected_component (- s) z x ⟹ norm x < B"
by (metis mem_Collect_eq)
def C ≡ "((B + 1 + norm z) / norm (z-a))"
have "C > 0"
have "¦norm (z + C *⇩R (z-a)) - norm (C *⇩R (z-a))¦ ≤ norm z"
moreover have "norm (C *⇩R (z-a)) > norm z + B"
using zna ‹B>0› by (simp add: C_def le_max_iff_disj field_simps)
ultimately have C: "norm (z + C *⇩R (z-a)) > B" by linarith
{ fix u::real
assume u: "0≤u" "u≤1" and ins: "(1 - u) *⇩R z + u *⇩R (z + C *⇩R (z - a)) ∈ s"
then have Cpos: "1 + u * C > 0"
by (meson ‹0 < C› add_pos_nonneg less_eq_real_def zero_le_mult_iff zero_less_one)
then have *: "(1 / (1 + u * C)) *⇩R z + (u * C / (1 + u * C)) *⇩R z = z"
then have False
using convexD_alt [OF s ‹a ∈ s› ins, of "1/(u*C + 1)"] ‹C>0› ‹z ∉ s› Cpos u
by (simp add: * divide_simps algebra_simps)
} note contra = this
have "connected_component (- s) z (z + C *⇩R (z-a))"
apply (rule connected_componentI [OF connected_segment [of z "z + C *⇩R (z-a)"]])
using contra
apply auto
done
then have False
using zna B [of "z + C *⇩R (z-a)"] C
by (auto simp: divide_simps max_mult_distrib_right)
}
then show ?thesis
by (auto simp: outside_def z)
qed

lemma outside_convex:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
assumes "convex s"
shows "outside s = - s"
by (metis ComplD assms convex_in_outside equalityI inside_union_outside subsetI sup.cobounded2)

lemma inside_convex:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
shows "convex s ⟹ inside s = {}"

lemma outside_subset_convex:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
shows "⟦convex t; s ⊆ t⟧ ⟹ - t ⊆ outside s"
using outside_convex outside_mono by blast

lemma outside_frontier_misses_closure:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "bounded s"
shows  "outside(frontier s) ⊆ - closure s"
unfolding outside_inside Lattices.boolean_algebra_class.compl_le_compl_iff
proof -
{ assume "interior s ⊆ inside (frontier s)"
hence "interior s ∪ inside (frontier s) = inside (frontier s)"
then have "closure s ⊆ frontier s ∪ inside (frontier s)"
using frontier_def by auto
}
then show "closure s ⊆ frontier s ∪ inside (frontier s)"
using interior_inside_frontier [OF assms] by blast
qed

lemma outside_frontier_eq_complement_closure:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
assumes "bounded s" "convex s"
shows "outside(frontier s) = - closure s"
by (metis Diff_subset assms convex_closure frontier_def outside_frontier_misses_closure
outside_subset_convex subset_antisym)

lemma inside_frontier_eq_interior:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
shows "⟦bounded s; convex s⟧ ⟹ inside(frontier s) = interior s"
using closure_subset interior_subset
done

lemma open_inside:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "closed s"
shows "open (inside s)"
proof -
{ fix x assume x: "x ∈ inside s"
have "open (connected_component_set (- s) x)"
using assms open_connected_component by blast
then obtain e where e: "e>0" and e: "⋀y. dist y x < e ⟶ connected_component (- s) x y"
using dist_not_less_zero
by (metis (no_types, lifting) Compl_iff connected_component_refl_eq inside_def mem_Collect_eq x)
then have "∃e>0. ball x e ⊆ inside s"
by (metis e dist_commute inside_same_component mem_ball subsetI x)
}
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma open_outside:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "closed s"
shows "open (outside s)"
proof -
{ fix x assume x: "x ∈ outside s"
have "open (connected_component_set (- s) x)"
using assms open_connected_component by blast
then obtain e where e: "e>0" and e: "⋀y. dist y x < e ⟶ connected_component (- s) x y"
using dist_not_less_zero
by (metis Int_iff outside_def connected_component_refl_eq  x)
then have "∃e>0. ball x e ⊆ outside s"
by (metis e dist_commute outside_same_component mem_ball subsetI x)
}
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma closure_inside_subset:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "closed s"
shows "closure(inside s) ⊆ s ∪ inside s"
by (metis assms closure_minimal open_closed open_outside sup.cobounded2 union_with_inside)

lemma frontier_inside_subset:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "closed s"
shows "frontier(inside s) ⊆ s"
proof -
have "closure (inside s) ∩ - inside s = closure (inside s) - interior (inside s)"
by (metis (no_types) Diff_Compl assms closure_closed interior_closure open_closed open_inside)
moreover have "- inside s ∩ - outside s = s"
by (metis (no_types) compl_sup double_compl inside_union_outside)
moreover have "closure (inside s) ⊆ - outside s"
by (metis (no_types) assms closure_inside_subset union_with_inside)
ultimately have "closure (inside s) - interior (inside s) ⊆ s"
by blast
then show ?thesis
by (simp add: frontier_def open_inside interior_open)
qed

lemma closure_outside_subset:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "closed s"
shows "closure(outside s) ⊆ s ∪ outside s"
apply (rule closure_minimal, simp)
by (metis assms closed_open inside_outside open_inside)

lemma frontier_outside_subset:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "closed s"
shows "frontier(outside s) ⊆ s"
apply (simp add: frontier_def open_outside interior_open)
by (metis Diff_subset_conv assms closure_outside_subset interior_eq open_outside sup.commute)

lemma inside_complement_unbounded_connected_empty:
"⟦connected (- s); ¬ bounded (- s)⟧ ⟹ inside s = {}"
by (meson Compl_iff bounded_subset connected_component_maximal order_refl)

lemma inside_bounded_complement_connected_empty:
fixes s :: "'a::{real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
shows "⟦connected (- s); bounded s⟧ ⟹ inside s = {}"
by (metis inside_complement_unbounded_connected_empty cobounded_imp_unbounded)

lemma inside_inside:
assumes "s ⊆ inside t"
shows "inside s - t ⊆ inside t"
unfolding inside_def
proof clarify
fix x
assume x: "x ∉ t" "x ∉ s" and bo: "bounded (connected_component_set (- s) x)"
show "bounded (connected_component_set (- t) x)"
proof (cases "s ∩ connected_component_set (- t) x = {}")
case True show ?thesis
apply (rule bounded_subset [OF bo])
apply (rule connected_component_maximal)
using x True apply auto
done
next
case False then show ?thesis
using assms [unfolded inside_def] x
apply (drule subsetD, assumption, auto)
by (metis (no_types, hide_lams) ComplI connected_component_eq_eq)
qed
qed

lemma inside_inside_subset: "inside(inside s) ⊆ s"
using inside_inside union_with_outside by fastforce

lemma inside_outside_intersect_connected:
"⟦connected t; inside s ∩ t ≠ {}; outside s ∩ t ≠ {}⟧ ⟹ s ∩ t ≠ {}"
apply (simp add: inside_def outside_def ex_in_conv [symmetric] disjoint_eq_subset_Compl, clarify)
by (metis (no_types, hide_lams) Compl_anti_mono connected_component_eq connected_component_maximal contra_subsetD double_compl)

lemma outside_bounded_nonempty:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
assumes "bounded s" shows "outside s ≠ {}"
by (metis (no_types, lifting) Collect_empty_eq Collect_mem_eq Compl_eq_Diff_UNIV Diff_cancel
Diff_disjoint UNIV_I assms ball_eq_empty bounded_diff cobounded_outside convex_ball
double_complement order_refl outside_convex outside_def)

lemma outside_compact_in_open:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector,perfect_space} set"
assumes s: "compact s" and t: "open t" and "s ⊆ t" "t ≠ {}"
shows "outside s ∩ t ≠ {}"
proof -
have "outside s ≠ {}"
by (simp add: compact_imp_bounded outside_bounded_nonempty s)
with assms obtain a b where a: "a ∈ outside s" and b: "b ∈ t" by auto
show ?thesis
proof (cases "a ∈ t")
case True with a show ?thesis by blast
next
case False
have front: "frontier t ⊆ - s"
using ‹s ⊆ t› frontier_disjoint_eq t by auto
{ fix γ
assume "path γ" and pimg_sbs: "path_image γ - {pathfinish γ} ⊆ interior (- t)"
and pf: "pathfinish γ ∈ frontier t" and ps: "pathstart γ = a"
def c ≡ "pathfinish γ"
have "c ∈ -s" unfolding c_def using front pf by blast
moreover have "open (-s)" using s compact_imp_closed by blast
ultimately obtain ε::real where "ε > 0" and ε: "cball c ε ⊆ -s"
using open_contains_cball[of "-s"] s by blast
then obtain d where "d ∈ t" and d: "dist d c < ε"
using closure_approachable [of c t] pf unfolding c_def
by (metis Diff_iff frontier_def)
then have "d ∈ -s" using ε
using dist_commute by (metis contra_subsetD mem_cball not_le not_less_iff_gr_or_eq)
have pimg_sbs_cos: "path_image γ ⊆ -s"
using pimg_sbs apply (auto simp: path_image_def)
apply (drule subsetD)
using ‹c ∈ - s› ‹s ⊆ t› interior_subset apply (auto simp: c_def)
done
have "closed_segment c d ≤ cball c ε"
apply (rule hull_minimal)
using  ‹ε > 0› d apply (auto simp: dist_commute)
done
with ε have "closed_segment c d ⊆ -s" by blast
moreover have con_gcd: "connected (path_image γ ∪ closed_segment c d)"
by (rule connected_Un) (auto simp: c_def ‹path γ› connected_path_image)
ultimately have "connected_component (- s) a d"
unfolding connected_component_def using pimg_sbs_cos ps by blast
then have "outside s ∩ t ≠ {}"
using outside_same_component [OF _ a]  by (metis IntI ‹d ∈ t› empty_iff)
} note * = this
have pal: "pathstart (linepath a b) ∈ closure (- t)"
by (auto simp: False closure_def)
show ?thesis
by (rule exists_path_subpath_to_frontier [OF path_linepath pal _ *]) (auto simp: b)
qed
qed

lemma inside_inside_compact_connected:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
assumes s: "closed s" and t: "compact t" and "connected t" "s ⊆ inside t"
shows "inside s ⊆ inside t"
proof (cases "inside t = {}")
case True with assms show ?thesis by auto
next
case False
consider "DIM('a) = 1" | "DIM('a) ≥ 2"
using antisym not_less_eq_eq by fastforce
then show ?thesis
proof cases
case 1 then show ?thesis
using connected_convex_1_gen assms False inside_convex by blast
next
case 2
have coms: "compact s"
using assms apply (simp add: s compact_eq_bounded_closed)
by (meson bounded_inside bounded_subset compact_imp_bounded)
then have bst: "bounded (s ∪ t)"
then obtain r where "0 < r" and r: "s ∪ t ⊆ ball 0 r"
using bounded_subset_ballD by blast
have outst: "outside s ∩ outside t ≠ {}"
proof -
have "- ball 0 r ⊆ outside s"
apply (rule outside_subset_convex)
using r by auto
moreover have "- ball 0 r ⊆ outside t"
apply (rule outside_subset_convex)
using r by auto
ultimately show ?thesis
by (metis Compl_subset_Compl_iff Int_subset_iff bounded_ball inf.orderE outside_bounded_nonempty outside_no_overlap)
qed
have "s ∩ t = {}" using assms
by (metis disjoint_iff_not_equal inside_no_overlap subsetCE)
moreover have "outside s ∩ inside t ≠ {}"
by (meson False assms(4) compact_eq_bounded_closed coms open_inside outside_compact_in_open t)
ultimately have "inside s ∩ t = {}"
using inside_outside_intersect_connected [OF ‹connected t›, of s]
by (metis "2" compact_eq_bounded_closed coms connected_outside inf.commute inside_outside_intersect_connected outst)
then show ?thesis
using inside_inside [OF ‹s ⊆ inside t›] by blast
qed
qed

lemma connected_with_inside:
fixes s :: "'a :: real_normed_vector set"
assumes s: "closed s" and cons: "connected s"
shows "connected(s ∪ inside s)"
proof (cases "s ∪ inside s = UNIV")
case True with assms show ?thesis by auto
next
case False
then obtain b where b: "b ∉ s" "b ∉ inside s" by blast
have *: "∃y t. y ∈ s ∧ connected t ∧ a ∈ t ∧ y ∈ t ∧ t ⊆ (s ∪ inside s)" if "a ∈ (s ∪ inside s)" for a
using that proof
assume "a ∈ s" then show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x=a in exI)
apply (rule_tac x="{a}" in exI)
done
next
assume a: "a ∈ inside s"
show ?thesis
apply (rule exists_path_subpath_to_frontier [OF path_linepath [of a b], of "inside s"])
using a apply (simp add: closure_def)
apply (rule_tac x="pathfinish h" in exI)
apply (rule_tac x="path_image h" in exI)
apply (simp add: pathfinish_in_path_image connected_path_image, auto)
using frontier_inside_subset s apply fastforce
by (metis (no_types, lifting) frontier_inside_subset insertE insert_Diff interior_eq open_inside pathfinish_in_path_image s subsetCE)
qed
show ?thesis
apply (clarify dest!: *)
apply (rename_tac u u' t t')
apply (rule_tac x="(s ∪ t ∪ t')" in exI)
apply (auto simp: intro!: connected_Un cons)
done
qed

text‹The proof is virtually the same as that above.›
lemma connected_with_outside:
fixes s :: "'a :: real_normed_vector set"
assumes s: "closed s" and cons: "connected s"
shows "connected(s ∪ outside s)"
proof (cases "s ∪ outside s = UNIV")
case True with assms show ?thesis by auto
next
case False
then obtain b where b: "b ∉ s" "b ∉ outside s" by blast
have *: "∃y t. y ∈ s ∧ connected t ∧ a ∈ t ∧ y ∈ t ∧ t ⊆ (s ∪ outside s)" if "a ∈ (s ∪ outside s)" for a
using that proof
assume "a ∈ s" then show ?thesis
apply (rule_tac x=a in exI)
apply (rule_tac x="{a}" in exI)
done
next
assume a: "a ∈ outside s"
show ?thesis
apply (rule exists_path_subpath_to_frontier [OF path_linepath [of a b], of "outside s"])
using a apply (simp add: closure_def)
apply (rule_tac x="pathfinish h" in exI)
apply (rule_tac x="path_image h" in exI)
apply (simp add: pathfinish_in_path_image connected_path_image, auto)
using frontier_outside_subset s apply fastforce
by (metis (no_types, lifting) frontier_outside_subset insertE insert_Diff interior_eq open_outside pathfinish_in_path_image s subsetCE)
qed
show ?thesis
apply (clarify dest!: *)
apply (rename_tac u u' t t')
apply (rule_tac x="(s ∪ t ∪ t')" in exI)
apply (auto simp: intro!: connected_Un cons)
done
qed

lemma inside_inside_eq_empty [simp]:
fixes s :: "'a :: {real_normed_vector, perfect_space} set"
assumes s: "closed s" and cons: "connected s"
shows "inside (inside s) = {}"
by (metis (no_types) unbounded_outside connected_with_outside [OF assms] bounded_Un
inside_complement_unbounded_connected_empty unbounded_outside union_with_outside)

lemma inside_in_components:
"inside s ∈ components (- s) ⟷ connected(inside s) ∧ inside s ≠ {}"
apply (auto intro: inside_same_component connected_componentI)
apply (metis IntI empty_iff inside_no_overlap)
done

text‹The proof is virtually the same as that above.›
lemma outside_in_components:
"outside s ∈ components (- s) ⟷ connected(outside s) ∧ outside s ≠ {}"
apply (auto intro: outside_same_component connected_componentI)
apply (metis IntI empty_iff outside_no_overlap)
done

lemma bounded_unique_outside:
fixes s :: "'a :: euclidean_space set"
shows "⟦bounded s; DIM('a) ≥ 2⟧ ⟹ (c ∈ components (- s) ∧ ~bounded c ⟷ c = outside s)"
apply (rule iffI)
apply (metis cobounded_unique_unbounded_components connected_outside double_compl outside_bounded_nonempty outside_in_components unbounded_outside)
by (simp add: connected_outside outside_bounded_nonempty outside_in_components unbounded_outside)

section‹ Homotopy of maps p,q : X=>Y with property P of all intermediate maps.›

text‹ We often just want to require that it fixes some subset, but to take in
the case of a loop homotopy, it's convenient to have a general property P.›

definition homotopic_with ::
"[('a::topological_space ⇒ 'b::topological_space) ⇒ bool, 'a set, 'b set, 'a ⇒ 'b, 'a ⇒ 'b] ⇒ bool"
where
"homotopic_with P X Y p q ≡
(∃h:: real × 'a ⇒ 'b.
continuous_on ({0..1} × X) h ∧
h ` ({0..1} × X) ⊆ Y ∧
(∀x. h(0, x) = p x) ∧
(∀x. h(1, x) = q x) ∧
(∀t ∈ {0..1}. P(λx. h(t, x))))"

text‹ We often want to just localize the ending function equality or whatever.›
proposition homotopic_with:
fixes X :: "'a::topological_space set" and Y :: "'b::topological_space set"
assumes "⋀h k. (⋀x. x ∈ X ⟹ h x = k x) ⟹ (P h ⟷ P k)"
shows "homotopic_with P X Y p q ⟷
(∃h :: real × 'a ⇒ 'b.
continuous_on ({0..1} × X) h ∧
h ` ({0..1} × X) ⊆ Y ∧
(∀x ∈ X. h(0,x) = p x) ∧
(∀x ∈ X. h(1,x) = q x) ∧
(∀t ∈ {0..1}. P(λx. h(t, x))))"
unfolding homotopic_with_def
apply (rule iffI, blast, clarify)
apply (rule_tac x="λ(u,v). if v ∈ X then h(u,v) else if u = 0 then p v else q v" in exI)
apply (auto simp:)
apply (force elim: continuous_on_eq)
apply (drule_tac x=t in bspec, force)
apply (subst assms; simp)
done

proposition homotopic_with_eq:
assumes h: "homotopic_with P X Y f g"
and f': "⋀x. x ∈ X ⟹ f' x = f x"
and g': "⋀x. x ∈ X ⟹ g' x = g x"
and P:  "(⋀h k. (⋀x. x ∈ X ⟹ h x = k x) ⟹ (P h ⟷ P k))"
shows "homotopic_with P X Y f' g'"
using h unfolding homotopic_with_def
apply safe
apply (rule_tac x="λ(u,v). if v ∈ X then h(u,v) else if u = 0 then f' v else g' v" in exI)
apply (simp add: f' g', safe)
apply (fastforce intro: continuous_on_eq)
apply fastforce
apply (subst P; fastforce)
done

proposition homotopic_with_equal:
assumes contf: "continuous_on X f" and fXY: "f ` X ⊆ Y"
and gf: "⋀x. x ∈ X ⟹ g x = f x"
and P:  "P f" "P g"
shows "homotopic_with P X Y f g"
unfolding homotopic_with_def
apply (rule_tac x="λ(u,v). if u = 1 then g v else f v" in exI)
using assms
apply (intro conjI)
apply (rule continuous_on_eq [where f = "f o snd"])
apply (rule continuous_intros | force)+
apply clarify
apply (case_tac "t=1"; force)
done

lemma image_Pair_const: "(λx. (x, c)) ` A = A × {c}"
by (auto simp:)

lemma homotopic_constant_maps:
"homotopic_with (λx. True) s t (λx. a) (λx. b) ⟷ s = {} ∨ path_component t a b"
proof (cases "s = {} ∨ t = {}")
case True with continuous_on_const show ?thesis
by (auto simp: homotopic_with path_component_def)
next
case False
then obtain c where "c ∈ s" by blast
show ?thesis
proof
assume "homotopic_with (λx. True) s t (λx. a) (λx. b)"
then obtain h :: "real × 'a ⇒ 'b"
where conth: "continuous_on ({0..1} × s) h"
and h: "h ` ({0..1} × s) ⊆ t" "(∀x∈s. h (0, x) = a)" "(∀x∈s. h (1, x) = b)"
by (auto simp: homotopic_with)
have "continuous_on {0..1} (h ∘ (λt. (t, c)))"
apply (rule continuous_intros conth | simp add: image_Pair_const)+
apply (blast intro:  ‹c ∈ s› continuous_on_subset [OF conth] )
done
with ‹c ∈ s› h show "s = {} ∨ path_component t a b"
apply (auto simp:)
apply (drule_tac x="h o (λt. (t, c))" in spec)
apply (auto simp: pathstart_def pathfinish_def path_image_def path_def)
done
next
assume "s = {} ∨ path_component t a b"
with False show "homotopic_with (λx. True) s t (λx. a) (λx. b)"
apply (clarsimp simp: homotopic_with path_component_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def path_image_def path_def)
apply (rule_tac x="g o fst" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros | force)+
done
qed
qed

subsection‹ Trivial properties.›

lemma homotopic_with_imp_property: "homotopic_with P X Y f g ⟹ P f ∧ P g"
unfolding homotopic_with_def Ball_def
apply clarify
apply (frule_tac x=0 in spec)
apply (drule_tac x=1 in spec)
apply (auto simp:)
done

lemma continuous_on_o_Pair: "⟦continuous_on (T × X) h; t ∈ T⟧ ⟹ continuous_on X (h o Pair t)"
by (fast intro: continuous_intros elim!: continuous_on_subset)

lemma homotopic_with_imp_continuous:
assumes "homotopic_with P X Y f g"
shows "continuous_on X f ∧ continuous_on X g"
proof -
obtain h :: "real × 'a ⇒ 'b"
where conth: "continuous_on ({0..1} × X) h"
and h: "∀x. h (0, x) = f x" "∀x. h (1, x) = g x"
using assms by (auto simp: homotopic_with_def)
have *: "t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ continuous_on X (h o (λx. (t,x)))" for t
by (rule continuous_intros continuous_on_subset [OF conth] | force)+
show ?thesis
using h *[of 0] *[of 1] by auto
qed

proposition homotopic_with_imp_subset1:
"homotopic_with P X Y f g ⟹ f ` X ⊆ Y"
by (simp add: homotopic_with_def image_subset_iff) (metis atLeastAtMost_iff order_refl zero_le_one)

proposition homotopic_with_imp_subset2:
"homotopic_with P X Y f g ⟹ g ` X ⊆ Y"
by (simp add: homotopic_with_def image_subset_iff) (metis atLeastAtMost_iff order_refl zero_le_one)

proposition homotopic_with_mono:
assumes hom: "homotopic_with P X Y f g"
and Q: "⋀h. ⟦continuous_on X h; image h X ⊆ Y ∧ P h⟧ ⟹ Q h"
shows "homotopic_with Q X Y f g"
using hom
apply (erule ex_forward)
apply (force simp: intro!: Q dest: continuous_on_o_Pair)
done

proposition homotopic_with_subset_left:
"⟦homotopic_with P X Y f g; Z ⊆ X⟧ ⟹ homotopic_with P Z Y f g"
apply (fast elim!: continuous_on_subset ex_forward)
done

proposition homotopic_with_subset_right:
"⟦homotopic_with P X Y f g; Y ⊆ Z⟧ ⟹ homotopic_with P X Z f g"
apply (fast elim!: continuous_on_subset ex_forward)
done

proposition homotopic_with_compose_continuous_right:
"⟦homotopic_with (λf. p (f ∘ h)) X Y f g; continuous_on W h; h ` W ⊆ X⟧
⟹ homotopic_with p W Y (f o h) (g o h)"
apply (rename_tac k)
apply (rule_tac x="k o (λy. (fst y, h (snd y)))" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros continuous_on_compose [where f=snd and g=h, unfolded o_def] | simp)+
apply (erule continuous_on_subset)
apply (fastforce simp: o_def)+
done

proposition homotopic_compose_continuous_right:
"⟦homotopic_with (λf. True) X Y f g; continuous_on W h; h ` W ⊆ X⟧
⟹ homotopic_with (λf. True) W Y (f o h) (g o h)"
using homotopic_with_compose_continuous_right by fastforce

proposition homotopic_with_compose_continuous_left:
"⟦homotopic_with (λf. p (h ∘ f)) X Y f g; continuous_on Y h; h ` Y ⊆ Z⟧
⟹ homotopic_with p X Z (h o f) (h o g)"
apply (rename_tac k)
apply (rule_tac x="h o k" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros continuous_on_compose [where f=snd and g=h, unfolded o_def] | simp)+
apply (erule continuous_on_subset)
apply (fastforce simp: o_def)+
done

proposition homotopic_compose_continuous_left:
"homotopic_with (λf. True) X Y f g ∧
continuous_on Y h ∧ image h Y ⊆ Z
⟹ homotopic_with (λf. True) X Z (h o f) (h o g)"
using homotopic_with_compose_continuous_left by fastforce

proposition homotopic_with_Pair:
assumes hom: "homotopic_with p s t f g" "homotopic_with p' s' t' f' g'"
and q: "⋀f g. ⟦p f; p' g⟧ ⟹ q(λ(x,y). (f x, g y))"
shows "homotopic_with q (s × s') (t × t')
(λ(x,y). (f x, f' y)) (λ(x,y). (g x, g' y))"
using hom
apply (rename_tac k k')
apply (rule_tac x="λz. ((k o (λx. (fst x, fst (snd x)))) z, (k' o (λx. (fst x, snd (snd x)))) z)" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros | erule continuous_on_subset | clarsimp)+
apply (auto intro!: q [unfolded case_prod_unfold])
done

lemma homotopic_on_empty: "homotopic_with (λx. True) {} t f g"
by (metis continuous_on_def empty_iff homotopic_with_equal image_subset_iff)

text‹Homotopy with P is an equivalence relation (on continuous functions mapping X into Y that satisfy P,
though this only affects reflexivity.›

proposition homotopic_with_refl:
"homotopic_with P X Y f f ⟷ continuous_on X f ∧ image f X ⊆ Y ∧ P f"
apply (rule iffI)
using homotopic_with_imp_continuous homotopic_with_imp_property homotopic_with_imp_subset2 apply blast
apply (rule_tac x="f o snd" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros | force)+
done

lemma homotopic_with_symD:
fixes X :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "homotopic_with P X Y f g"
shows "homotopic_with P X Y g f"
using assms
apply (rename_tac h)
apply (rule_tac x="h o (λy. (1 - fst y, snd y))" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros | erule continuous_on_subset | force simp add: image_subset_iff)+
done

proposition homotopic_with_sym:
fixes X :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
shows "homotopic_with P X Y f g ⟷ homotopic_with P X Y g f"
using homotopic_with_symD by blast

lemma split_01: "{0..1::real} = {0..1/2} ∪ {1/2..1}"
by force

lemma split_01_prod: "{0..1::real} × X = ({0..1/2} × X) ∪ ({1/2..1} × X)"
by force

proposition homotopic_with_trans:
fixes X :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "homotopic_with P X Y f g" and "homotopic_with P X Y g h"
shows "homotopic_with P X Y f h"
proof -
have clo1: "closedin (subtopology euclidean ({0..1/2} × X ∪ {1/2..1} × X)) ({0..1/2::real} × X)"
apply (simp add: closedin_closed split_01_prod [symmetric])
apply (rule_tac x="{0..1/2} × UNIV" in exI)
done
have clo2: "closedin (subtopology euclidean ({0..1/2} × X ∪ {1/2..1} × X)) ({1/2..1::real} × X)"
apply (simp add: closedin_closed split_01_prod [symmetric])
apply (rule_tac x="{1/2..1} × UNIV" in exI)
done
{ fix k1 k2:: "real × 'a ⇒ 'b"
assume cont: "continuous_on ({0..1} × X) k1" "continuous_on ({0..1} × X) k2"
and Y: "k1 ` ({0..1} × X) ⊆ Y" "k2 ` ({0..1} × X) ⊆ Y"
and geq: "∀x. k1 (1, x) = g x" "∀x. k2 (0, x) = g x"
and k12: "∀x. k1 (0, x) = f x" "∀x. k2 (1, x) = h x"
and P:   "∀t∈{0..1}. P (λx. k1 (t, x))" "∀t∈{0..1}. P (λx. k2 (t, x))"
def k ≡ "λy. if fst y ≤ 1 / 2 then (k1 o (λx. (2 *⇩R fst x, snd x))) y
else (k2 o (λx. (2 *⇩R fst x -1, snd x))) y"
have keq: "k1 (2 * u, v) = k2 (2 * u - 1, v)" if "u = 1/2"  for u v
have "continuous_on ({0..1} × X) k"
using cont
apply (rule clo1 clo2 continuous_on_cases_local continuous_intros | erule continuous_on_subset | simp add: linear image_subset_iff)+
done
moreover have "k ` ({0..1} × X) ⊆ Y"
using Y by (force simp add: k_def)
moreover have "∀x. k (0, x) = f x"
moreover have "(∀x. k (1, x) = h x)"
moreover have "∀t∈{0..1}. P (λx. k (t, x))"
using P
apply (case_tac "t ≤ 1/2")
apply (auto simp:)
done
ultimately have *: "∃k :: real × 'a ⇒ 'b.
continuous_on ({0..1} × X) k ∧ k ` ({0..1} × X) ⊆ Y ∧
(∀x. k (0, x) = f x) ∧ (∀x. k (1, x) = h x) ∧ (∀t∈{0..1}. P (λx. k (t, x)))"
by blast
} note * = this
show ?thesis
using assms by (auto intro: * simp add: homotopic_with_def)
qed

proposition homotopic_compose:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
shows "⟦homotopic_with (λx. True) s t f f'; homotopic_with (λx. True) t u g g'⟧
⟹ homotopic_with (λx. True) s u (g o f) (g' o f')"
apply (rule homotopic_with_trans [where g = "g o f'"])
apply (metis homotopic_compose_continuous_left homotopic_with_imp_continuous homotopic_with_imp_subset1)
by (metis homotopic_compose_continuous_right homotopic_with_imp_continuous homotopic_with_imp_subset2)

subsection‹Homotopy of paths, maintaining the same endpoints.›

definition homotopic_paths :: "['a set, real ⇒ 'a, real ⇒ 'a::topological_space] ⇒ bool"
where
"homotopic_paths s p q ≡
homotopic_with (λr. pathstart r = pathstart p ∧ pathfinish r = pathfinish p) {0..1} s p q"

lemma homotopic_paths:
"homotopic_paths s p q ⟷
(∃h. continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) h ∧
h ` ({0..1} × {0..1}) ⊆ s ∧
(∀x ∈ {0..1}. h(0,x) = p x) ∧
(∀x ∈ {0..1}. h(1,x) = q x) ∧
(∀t ∈ {0..1::real}. pathstart(h o Pair t) = pathstart p ∧
pathfinish(h o Pair t) = pathfinish p))"
by (auto simp: homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with pathstart_def pathfinish_def)

proposition homotopic_paths_imp_pathstart:
"homotopic_paths s p q ⟹ pathstart p = pathstart q"
by (metis (mono_tags, lifting) homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_imp_property)

proposition homotopic_paths_imp_pathfinish:
"homotopic_paths s p q ⟹ pathfinish p = pathfinish q"
by (metis (mono_tags, lifting) homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_imp_property)

lemma homotopic_paths_imp_path:
"homotopic_paths s p q ⟹ path p ∧ path q"
using homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_imp_continuous path_def by blast

lemma homotopic_paths_imp_subset:
"homotopic_paths s p q ⟹ path_image p ⊆ s ∧ path_image q ⊆ s"
by (simp add: homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_imp_subset1 homotopic_with_imp_subset2 path_image_def)

proposition homotopic_paths_refl [simp]: "homotopic_paths s p p ⟷ path p ∧ path_image p ⊆ s"
by (simp add: homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_refl path_def path_image_def)

proposition homotopic_paths_sym: "homotopic_paths s p q ⟹ homotopic_paths s q p"
by (metis (mono_tags) homotopic_paths_def homotopic_paths_imp_pathfinish homotopic_paths_imp_pathstart homotopic_with_symD)

proposition homotopic_paths_sym_eq: "homotopic_paths s p q ⟷ homotopic_paths s q p"
by (metis homotopic_paths_sym)

proposition homotopic_paths_trans [trans]:
"⟦homotopic_paths s p q; homotopic_paths s q r⟧ ⟹ homotopic_paths s p r"
apply (rule homotopic_with_trans, assumption)
by (metis (mono_tags, lifting) homotopic_with_imp_property homotopic_with_mono)

proposition homotopic_paths_eq:
"⟦path p; path_image p ⊆ s; ⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ p t = q t⟧ ⟹ homotopic_paths s p q"
apply (rule homotopic_with_eq)
apply (auto simp: path_def homotopic_with_refl pathstart_def pathfinish_def path_image_def elim: continuous_on_eq)
done

proposition homotopic_paths_reparametrize:
assumes "path p"
and pips: "path_image p ⊆ s"
and contf: "continuous_on {0..1} f"
and f01:"f ` {0..1} ⊆ {0..1}"
and [simp]: "f(0) = 0" "f(1) = 1"
and q: "⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ q(t) = p(f t)"
shows "homotopic_paths s p q"
proof -
have contp: "continuous_on {0..1} p"
by (metis ‹path p› path_def)
then have "continuous_on {0..1} (p o f)"
using contf continuous_on_compose continuous_on_subset f01 by blast
then have "path q"
by (simp add: path_def) (metis q continuous_on_cong)
have piqs: "path_image q ⊆ s"
by (metis (no_types, hide_lams) pips f01 image_subset_iff path_image_def q)
have fb0: "⋀a b. ⟦0 ≤ a; a ≤ 1; 0 ≤ b; b ≤ 1⟧ ⟹ 0 ≤ (1 - a) * f b + a * b"
using f01 by force
have fb1: "⟦0 ≤ a; a ≤ 1; 0 ≤ b; b ≤ 1⟧ ⟹ (1 - a) * f b + a * b ≤ 1" for a b
using f01 [THEN subsetD, of "f b"] by (simp add: convex_bound_le)
have "homotopic_paths s q p"
proof (rule homotopic_paths_trans)
show "homotopic_paths s q (p ∘ f)"
using q by (force intro: homotopic_paths_eq [OF  ‹path q› piqs])
next
show "homotopic_paths s (p ∘ f) p"
apply (rule_tac x="p o (λy. (1 - (fst y)) *⇩R ((f o snd) y) + (fst y) *⇩R snd y)"  in exI)
apply (rule conjI contf continuous_intros continuous_on_subset [OF contp] | simp)+
using pips [unfolded path_image_def]
apply (auto simp: fb0 fb1 pathstart_def pathfinish_def)
done
qed
then show ?thesis
qed

lemma homotopic_paths_subset: "⟦homotopic_paths s p q; s ⊆ t⟧ ⟹ homotopic_paths t p q"
using homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_subset_right by blast

text‹ A slightly ad-hoc but useful lemma in constructing homotopies.›
lemma homotopic_join_lemma:
fixes q :: "[real,real] ⇒ 'a::topological_space"
assumes p: "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λy. p (fst y) (snd y))"
and q: "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λy. q (fst y) (snd y))"
and pf: "⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ pathfinish(p t) = pathstart(q t)"
shows "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λy. (p(fst y) +++ q(fst y)) (snd y))"
proof -
have 1: "(λy. p (fst y) (2 * snd y)) = (λy. p (fst y) (snd y)) o (λy. (fst y, 2 * snd y))"
by (rule ext) (simp )
have 2: "(λy. q (fst y) (2 * snd y - 1)) = (λy. q (fst y) (snd y)) o (λy. (fst y, 2 * snd y - 1))"
by (rule ext) (simp )
show ?thesis
apply (rule continuous_on_cases_le)
apply (simp_all only: 1 2)
apply (rule continuous_intros continuous_on_subset [OF p] continuous_on_subset [OF q] | force)+
using pf
apply (auto simp: mult.commute pathstart_def pathfinish_def)
done
qed

text‹ Congruence properties of homotopy w.r.t. path-combining operations.›

lemma homotopic_paths_reversepath_D:
assumes "homotopic_paths s p q"
shows   "homotopic_paths s (reversepath p) (reversepath q)"
using assms
apply (simp add: homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_def, clarify)
apply (rule_tac x="h o (λx. (fst x, 1 - snd x))" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros)+
apply (auto simp: reversepath_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def elim!: continuous_on_subset)
done

proposition homotopic_paths_reversepath:
"homotopic_paths s (reversepath p) (reversepath q) ⟷ homotopic_paths s p q"
using homotopic_paths_reversepath_D by force

proposition homotopic_paths_join:
"⟦homotopic_paths s p p'; homotopic_paths s q q'; pathfinish p = pathstart q⟧ ⟹ homotopic_paths s (p +++ q) (p' +++ q')"
apply (simp add: homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_def, clarify)
apply (rename_tac k1 k2)
apply (rule_tac x="(λy. ((k1 o Pair (fst y)) +++ (k2 o Pair (fst y))) (snd y))" in exI)
apply (rule conjI continuous_intros homotopic_join_lemma)+
apply (auto simp: joinpaths_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def path_image_def)
done

proposition homotopic_paths_continuous_image:
"⟦homotopic_paths s f g; continuous_on s h; h ` s ⊆ t⟧ ⟹ homotopic_paths t (h o f) (h o g)"
unfolding homotopic_paths_def
apply (rule homotopic_with_compose_continuous_left [of _ _ _ s])
apply (auto simp: pathstart_def pathfinish_def elim!: homotopic_with_mono)
done

subsection‹Group properties for homotopy of paths›

text‹So taking equivalence classes under homotopy would give the fundamental group›

proposition homotopic_paths_rid:
"⟦path p; path_image p ⊆ s⟧ ⟹ homotopic_paths s (p +++ linepath (pathfinish p) (pathfinish p)) p"
apply (subst homotopic_paths_sym)
apply (rule homotopic_paths_reparametrize [where f = "λt. if  t ≤ 1 / 2 then 2 *⇩R t else 1"])
apply (simp_all del: le_divide_eq_numeral1)
apply (subst split_01)
apply (rule continuous_on_cases continuous_intros | force simp: pathfinish_def joinpaths_def)+
done

proposition homotopic_paths_lid:
"⟦path p; path_image p ⊆ s⟧ ⟹ homotopic_paths s (linepath (pathstart p) (pathstart p) +++ p) p"
using homotopic_paths_rid [of "reversepath p" s]
by (metis homotopic_paths_reversepath path_image_reversepath path_reversepath pathfinish_linepath
pathfinish_reversepath reversepath_joinpaths reversepath_linepath)

proposition homotopic_paths_assoc:
"⟦path p; path_image p ⊆ s; path q; path_image q ⊆ s; path r; path_image r ⊆ s; pathfinish p = pathstart q;
pathfinish q = pathstart r⟧
⟹ homotopic_paths s (p +++ (q +++ r)) ((p +++ q) +++ r)"
apply (subst homotopic_paths_sym)
apply (rule homotopic_paths_reparametrize
[where f = "λt. if  t ≤ 1 / 2 then inverse 2 *⇩R t
else if  t ≤ 3 / 4 then t - (1 / 4)
else 2 *⇩R t - 1"])
apply (simp_all del: le_divide_eq_numeral1)
apply (rule continuous_on_cases_1 continuous_intros)+
apply (auto simp: joinpaths_def)
done

proposition homotopic_paths_rinv:
assumes "path p" "path_image p ⊆ s"
shows "homotopic_paths s (p +++ reversepath p) (linepath (pathstart p) (pathstart p))"
proof -
have "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λx. (subpath 0 (fst x) p +++ reversepath (subpath 0 (fst x) p)) (snd x))"
using assms
apply (simp add: joinpaths_def subpath_def reversepath_def path_def del: le_divide_eq_numeral1)
apply (rule continuous_on_cases_le)
apply (rule_tac [2] continuous_on_compose [of _ _ p, unfolded o_def])
apply (rule continuous_on_compose [of _ _ p, unfolded o_def])
apply (auto intro!: continuous_intros simp del: eq_divide_eq_numeral1)
apply (force elim!: continuous_on_subset simp add: mult_le_one)+
done
then show ?thesis
using assms
apply (subst homotopic_paths_sym_eq)
unfolding homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_def
apply (rule_tac x="(λy. (subpath 0 (fst y) p +++ reversepath(subpath 0 (fst y) p)) (snd y))" in exI)
apply (simp add: path_defs joinpaths_def subpath_def reversepath_def)
apply (force simp: mult_le_one)
done
qed

proposition homotopic_paths_linv:
assumes "path p" "path_image p ⊆ s"
shows "homotopic_paths s (reversepath p +++ p) (linepath (pathfinish p) (pathfinish p))"
using homotopic_paths_rinv [of "reversepath p" s] assms by simp

subsection‹ Homotopy of loops without requiring preservation of endpoints.›

definition homotopic_loops :: "'a::topological_space set ⇒ (real ⇒ 'a) ⇒ (real ⇒ 'a) ⇒ bool"  where
"homotopic_loops s p q ≡
homotopic_with (λr. pathfinish r = pathstart r) {0..1} s p q"

lemma homotopic_loops:
"homotopic_loops s p q ⟷
(∃h. continuous_on ({0..1::real} × {0..1}) h ∧
image h ({0..1} × {0..1}) ⊆ s ∧
(∀x ∈ {0..1}. h(0,x) = p x) ∧
(∀x ∈ {0..1}. h(1,x) = q x) ∧
(∀t ∈ {0..1}. pathfinish(h o Pair t) = pathstart(h o Pair t)))"
by (simp add: homotopic_loops_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def homotopic_with)

proposition homotopic_loops_imp_loop:
"homotopic_loops s p q ⟹ pathfinish p = pathstart p ∧ pathfinish q = pathstart q"
using homotopic_with_imp_property homotopic_loops_def by blast

proposition homotopic_loops_imp_path:
"homotopic_loops s p q ⟹ path p ∧ path q"
unfolding homotopic_loops_def path_def
using homotopic_with_imp_continuous by blast

proposition homotopic_loops_imp_subset:
"homotopic_loops s p q ⟹ path_image p ⊆ s ∧ path_image q ⊆ s"
unfolding homotopic_loops_def path_image_def
by (metis homotopic_with_imp_subset1 homotopic_with_imp_subset2)

proposition homotopic_loops_refl:
"homotopic_loops s p p ⟷
path p ∧ path_image p ⊆ s ∧ pathfinish p = pathstart p"
by (simp add: homotopic_loops_def homotopic_with_refl path_image_def path_def)

proposition homotopic_loops_sym: "homotopic_loops s p q ⟹ homotopic_loops s q p"

proposition homotopic_loops_sym_eq: "homotopic_loops s p q ⟷ homotopic_loops s q p"
by (metis homotopic_loops_sym)

proposition homotopic_loops_trans:
"⟦homotopic_loops s p q; homotopic_loops s q r⟧ ⟹ homotopic_loops s p r"
unfolding homotopic_loops_def by (blast intro: homotopic_with_trans)

proposition homotopic_loops_subset:
"⟦homotopic_loops s p q; s ⊆ t⟧ ⟹ homotopic_loops t p q"

proposition homotopic_loops_eq:
"⟦path p; path_image p ⊆ s; pathfinish p = pathstart p; ⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ p(t) = q(t)⟧
⟹ homotopic_loops s p q"
unfolding homotopic_loops_def
apply (rule homotopic_with_eq)
apply (rule homotopic_with_refl [where f = p, THEN iffD2])
apply (simp_all add: path_image_def path_def pathstart_def pathfinish_def)
done

proposition homotopic_loops_continuous_image:
"⟦homotopic_loops s f g; continuous_on s h; h ` s ⊆ t⟧ ⟹ homotopic_loops t (h ∘ f) (h ∘ g)"
unfolding homotopic_loops_def
apply (rule homotopic_with_compose_continuous_left)
apply (erule homotopic_with_mono)

subsection‹Relations between the two variants of homotopy›

proposition homotopic_paths_imp_homotopic_loops:
"⟦homotopic_paths s p q; pathfinish p = pathstart p; pathfinish q = pathstart p⟧ ⟹ homotopic_loops s p q"
by (auto simp: homotopic_paths_def homotopic_loops_def intro: homotopic_with_mono)

proposition homotopic_loops_imp_homotopic_paths_null:
assumes "homotopic_loops s p (linepath a a)"
shows "homotopic_paths s p (linepath (pathstart p) (pathstart p))"
proof -
have "path p" by (metis assms homotopic_loops_imp_path)
have ploop: "pathfinish p = pathstart p" by (metis assms homotopic_loops_imp_loop)
have pip: "path_image p ⊆ s" by (metis assms homotopic_loops_imp_subset)
obtain h where conth: "continuous_on ({0..1::real} × {0..1}) h"
and hs: "h ` ({0..1} × {0..1}) ⊆ s"
and [simp]: "⋀x. x ∈ {0..1} ⟹ h(0,x) = p x"
and [simp]: "⋀x. x ∈ {0..1} ⟹ h(1,x) = a"
and ends: "⋀t. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ pathfinish (h ∘ Pair t) = pathstart (h ∘ Pair t)"
using assms by (auto simp: homotopic_loops homotopic_with)
have conth0: "path (λu. h (u, 0))"
unfolding path_def
apply (rule continuous_on_compose [of _ _ h, unfolded o_def])
apply (force intro: continuous_intros continuous_on_subset [OF conth])+
done
have pih0: "path_image (λu. h (u, 0)) ⊆ s"
using hs by (force simp: path_image_def)
have c1: "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λx. h (fst x * snd x, 0))"
apply (rule continuous_on_compose [of _ _ h, unfolded o_def])
apply (force simp: mult_le_one intro: continuous_intros continuous_on_subset [OF conth])+
done
have c2: "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λx. h (fst x - fst x * snd x, 0))"
apply (rule continuous_on_compose [of _ _ h, unfolded o_def])
apply (force simp: mult_left_le mult_le_one intro: continuous_intros continuous_on_subset [OF conth])+
apply (rule continuous_on_subset [OF conth])
apply (auto simp: algebra_simps add_increasing2 mult_left_le)
done
have [simp]: "⋀t. ⟦0 ≤ t ∧ t ≤ 1⟧ ⟹ h (t, 1) = h (t, 0)"
using ends by (simp add: pathfinish_def pathstart_def)
have adhoc_le: "c * 4 ≤ 1 + c * (d * 4)" if "¬ d * 4 ≤ 3" "0 ≤ c" "c ≤ 1" for c d::real
proof -
have "c * 3 ≤ c * (d * 4)" using that less_eq_real_def by auto
with ‹c ≤ 1› show ?thesis by fastforce
qed
have *: "⋀p x. (path p ∧ path(reversepath p)) ∧
(path_image p ⊆ s ∧ path_image(reversepath p) ⊆ s) ∧
(pathfinish p = pathstart(linepath a a +++ reversepath p) ∧
pathstart(reversepath p) = a) ∧ pathstart p = x
⟹ homotopic_paths s (p +++ linepath a a +++ reversepath p) (linepath x x)"
by (metis homotopic_paths_lid homotopic_paths_join
homotopic_paths_trans homotopic_paths_sym homotopic_paths_rinv)
have 1: "homotopic_paths s p (p +++ linepath (pathfinish p) (pathfinish p))"
using ‹path p› homotopic_paths_rid homotopic_paths_sym pip by blast
moreover have "homotopic_paths s (p +++ linepath (pathfinish p) (pathfinish p))
(linepath (pathstart p) (pathstart p) +++ p +++ linepath (pathfinish p) (pathfinish p))"
apply (rule homotopic_paths_sym)
using homotopic_paths_lid [of "p +++ linepath (pathfinish p) (pathfinish p)" s]
by (metis 1 homotopic_paths_imp_path homotopic_paths_imp_pathstart homotopic_paths_imp_subset)
moreover have "homotopic_paths s (linepath (pathstart p) (pathstart p) +++ p +++ linepath (pathfinish p) (pathfinish p))
((λu. h (u, 0)) +++ linepath a a +++ reversepath (λu. h (u, 0)))"
apply (rule_tac x="λy. (subpath 0 (fst y) (λu. h (u, 0)) +++ (λu. h (Pair (fst y) u)) +++ subpath (fst y) 0 (λu. h (u, 0))) (snd y)" in exI)
apply (intro conjI homotopic_join_lemma)
using ploop
apply (simp_all add: path_defs joinpaths_def o_def subpath_def conth c1 c2)
apply (force simp: algebra_simps mult_le_one mult_left_le intro: hs [THEN subsetD] adhoc_le)
done
moreover have "homotopic_paths s ((λu. h (u, 0)) +++ linepath a a +++ reversepath (λu. h (u, 0)))
(linepath (pathstart p) (pathstart p))"
apply (rule *)
apply (simp add: pih0 pathstart_def pathfinish_def conth0)
done
ultimately show ?thesis
by (blast intro: homotopic_paths_trans)
qed

proposition homotopic_loops_conjugate:
fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
assumes "path p" "path q" and pip: "path_image p ⊆ s" and piq: "path_image q ⊆ s"
and papp: "pathfinish p = pathstart q" and qloop: "pathfinish q = pathstart q"
shows "homotopic_loops s (p +++ q +++ reversepath p) q"
proof -
have contp: "continuous_on {0..1} p"  using ‹path p› [unfolded path_def] by blast
have contq: "continuous_on {0..1} q"  using ‹path q› [unfolded path_def] by blast
have c1: "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λx. p ((1 - fst x) * snd x + fst x))"
apply (rule continuous_on_compose [of _ _ p, unfolded o_def])
apply (force simp: mult_le_one intro!: continuous_intros)
apply (rule continuous_on_subset [OF contp])
apply (auto simp: algebra_simps add_increasing2 mult_right_le_one_le sum_le_prod1)
done
have c2: "continuous_on ({0..1} × {0..1}) (λx. p ((fst x - 1) * snd x + 1))"
apply (rule continuous_on_compose [of _ _ p, unfolded o_def])
apply (force simp: mult_le_one intro!: continuous_intros)
apply (rule continuous_on_subset [OF contp])
apply (auto simp: algebra_simps add_increasing2 mult_left_le_one_le)
done
have ps1: "⋀a b. ⟦b * 2 ≤ 1; 0 ≤ b; 0 ≤ a; a ≤ 1⟧ ⟹ p ((1 - a) * (2 * b) + a) ∈ s"
using sum_le_prod1
by (force simp: algebra_simps add_increasing2 mult_left_le intro: pip [unfolded path_image_def, THEN subsetD])
have ps2: "⋀a b. ⟦¬ 4 * b ≤ 3; b ≤ 1; 0 ≤ a; a ≤ 1⟧ ⟹ p ((a - 1) * (4 * b - 3) + 1) ∈ s"
apply (rule pip [unfolded path_image_def, THEN subsetD])
apply (rule image_eqI, blast)
by (metis add_mono_thms_linordered_semiring(1) affine_ineq linear mult.commute mult.left_neutral mult_right_mono not_le
have qs: "⋀a b. ⟦4 * b ≤ 3; ¬ b * 2 ≤ 1⟧ ⟹ q (4 * b - 2) ∈ s"
using path_image_def piq by fastforce
have "homotopic_loops s (p +++ q +++ reversepath p)
(linepath (pathstart q) (pathstart q) +++ q +++ linepath (pathstart q) (pathstart q))"
apply (rule_tac x="(λy. (subpath (fst y) 1 p +++ q +++ subpath 1 (fst y) p) (snd y))" in exI)
apply (intro conjI homotopic_join_lemma)
using papp qloop
apply (simp_all add: path_defs joinpaths_def o_def subpath_def c1 c2)
apply (force simp: contq intro: continuous_on_compose [of _ _ q, unfolded o_def] continuous_on_id continuous_on_snd)
apply (auto simp: ps1 ps2 qs)
done
moreover have "homotopic_loops s (linepath (pathstart q) (pathstart q) +++ q +++ linepath (pathstart q) (pathstart q)) q"
proof -
have "homotopic_paths s (linepath (pathfinish q) (pathfinish q) +++ q) q"
using ‹path q› homotopic_paths_lid qloop piq by auto
hence 1: "⋀f. homotopic_paths s f q ∨ ¬ homotopic_paths s f (linepath (pathfinish q) (pathfinish q) +++ q)"
using homotopic_paths_trans by blast
hence "homotopic_paths s (linepath (pathfinish q) (pathfinish q) +++ q +++ linepath (pathfinish q) (pathfinish q)) q"
proof -
have "homotopic_paths s (q +++ linepath (pathfinish q) (pathfinish q)) q"
by (simp add: ‹path q› homotopic_paths_rid piq)
thus ?thesis
by (metis (no_types) 1 ‹path q› homotopic_paths_join homotopic_paths_rinv homotopic_paths_sym
homotopic_paths_trans qloop pathfinish_linepath piq)
qed
thus ?thesis
by (metis (no_types) qloop homotopic_loops_sym homotopic_paths_imp_homotopic_loops homotopic_paths_imp_pathfinish homotopic_paths_sym)
qed
ultimately show ?thesis
by (blast intro: homotopic_loops_trans)
qed

subsection‹ Homotopy of "nearby" function, paths and loops.›

lemma homotopic_with_linear:
fixes f g :: "_ ⇒ 'b::real_normed_vector"
assumes contf: "continuous_on s f"
and contg:"continuous_on s g"
and sub: "⋀x. x ∈ s ⟹ closed_segment (f x) (g x) ⊆ t"
shows "homotopic_with (λz. True) s t f g"
apply (rule_tac x="λy. ((1 - (fst y)) *⇩R f(snd y) + (fst y) *⇩R g(snd y))" in exI)
apply (intro conjI)
apply (rule subset_refl continuous_intros continuous_on_subset [OF contf] continuous_on_compose2 [where g=f]
continuous_on_subset [OF contg] continuous_on_compose2 [where g=g]| simp)+
using sub closed_segment_def apply fastforce+
done

lemma homotopic_paths_linear:
fixes g h :: "real ⇒ 'a::real_normed_vector"
assumes "path g" "path h" "pathstart h = pathstart g" "pathfinish h = pathfinish g"
"⋀t x. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ closed_segment (g t) (h t) ⊆ s"
shows "homotopic_paths s g h"
using assms
unfolding path_def
apply (simp add: pathstart_def pathfinish_def homotopic_paths_def homotopic_with_def)
apply (rule_tac x="λy. ((1 - (fst y)) *⇩R g(snd y) + (fst y) *⇩R h(snd y))" in exI)
apply (auto intro!: continuous_intros intro: continuous_on_compose2 [where g=g] continuous_on_compose2 [where g=h] )
apply (force simp: closed_segment_def)
done

lemma homotopic_loops_linear:
fixes g h :: "real ⇒ 'a::real_normed_vector"
assumes "path g" "path h" "pathfinish g = pathstart g" "pathfinish h = pathstart h"
"⋀t x. t ∈ {0..1} ⟹ closed_segment (g t) (h t) ⊆ s"
shows "homotopic_loops s g h"
using assms
unfolding path_def
apply (simp add: pathstart_def pathfinish_def homotopic_loops_def homotopic_with_def)
apply (rule_tac x="λy. ((1 - (fst y)) *⇩R g(snd y) + (fst y) *⇩R h(snd y))" in exI)
apply (auto intro!: continuous_intros intro: continuous_on_compose2 [where g=g] continuous_on_compose2 [where g=h])
apply (force simp: closed_segment_def)
done

lemma homotopic_paths_nearby_explicit:
assumes "path g" "path h" "pathstart h = pathstart g" "pathfinish h = pathfinish g"
and no: "⋀t x. ⟦t ∈ {0..1}; x ∉ s⟧ ⟹ norm(h t - g t) < norm(g t - x)"
shows "homotopic_paths s g h"
apply (rule homotopic_paths_linear [OF assms(1-4)])
by (metis no segment_bound(1) subsetI norm_minus_commute not_le)

lemma homotopic_loops_nearby_explicit:
assumes "path g" "path h" "pathfinish g = pathstart g" "pathfinish h = pathstart h"
and no: "⋀t x. ⟦t ∈ {0..1}; x ∉ s⟧ ⟹ norm(h t - g t) < norm(g t - x)"
shows "homotopic_loops s g h"
apply (rule homotopic_loops_linear [OF assms(1-4)])
by (metis no segment_bound(1) subsetI norm_minus_commute not_le)

lemma homotopic_nearby_paths:
fixes g h :: "real ⇒ 'a::euclidean_space"
assumes "path g" "open s" "path_image g ⊆ s"
shows "∃e. 0 < e ∧
(∀h. path h ∧
pathstart h = pathstart g ∧ pathfinish h = pathfinish g ∧
(∀t ∈ {0..1}. norm(h t - g t) < e) ⟶ homotopic_paths s g h)"
proof -
obtain e where "e > 0" and e: "⋀x y. x ∈ path_image g ⟹ y ∈ - s ⟹ e ≤ dist x y"
using separate_compact_closed [of "path_image g" "-s"] assms by force
show ?thesis
apply (intro exI conjI)
using e [unfolded dist_norm]
apply (auto simp: intro!: homotopic_paths_nearby_explicit assms  ‹e > 0›)
by (metis atLeastAtMost_iff imageI le_less_trans not_le path_image_def)
qed

lemma homotopic_nearby_loops:
fixes g h :: "real ⇒ 'a::euclidean_space"
assumes "path g" "open s" "path_image g ⊆ s" "pathfinish g = pathstart g"
shows "∃e. 0 < e ∧
(∀h. path h ∧ pathfinish h = pathstart h ∧
(∀t ∈ {0..1}. norm(h t - g t) < e) ⟶ homotopic_loops s g h)"
proof -
obtain e where "e > 0" and e: "⋀x y. x ∈ path_image g ⟹ y ∈ - s ⟹ e ≤ dist x y"
using separate_compact_closed [of "path_image g" "-s"] assms by force
show ?thesis
apply (intro exI conjI)
using e [unfolded dist_norm]
apply (auto simp: intro!: homotopic_loops_nearby_explicit assms  ‹e > 0›)
by (metis atLeastAtMost_iff imageI le_less_trans not_le path_image_def)
qed

subsection‹ Homotopy and subpaths›

lemma homotopic_join_subpaths1:
assumes "path g" and pag: "path_image g ⊆ s"
and u: "u ∈ {0..1}" and v: "v ∈ {0..1}" and w: "w ∈ {0..1}" "u ≤ v" "v ≤ w"
shows "homotopic_paths s (subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g) (subpath u w g)"
proof -
have 1: "t * 2 ≤ 1 ⟹ u + t * (v * 2) ≤ v + t * (u * 2)" for t
using affine_ineq ‹u ≤ v› by fastforce
have 2: "t * 2 > 1 ⟹ u + (2*t - 1) * v ≤ v + (2*t - 1) * w" for t
by (metis add_mono_thms_linordered_semiring(1) diff_gt_0_iff_gt less_eq_real_def mult.commute mult_right_mono ‹u ≤ v› ‹v ≤ w›)
have t2: "⋀t::real. t*2 = 1 ⟹ t = 1/2" by auto
show ?thesis
apply (rule homotopic_paths_subset [OF _ pag])
using assms
apply (cases "w = u")
using homotopic_paths_rinv [of "subpath u v g" "path_image g"]
apply (force simp: closed_segment_eq_real_ivl image_mono path_image_def subpath_refl)
apply (rule homotopic_paths_sym)
apply (rule homotopic_paths_reparametrize
[where f = "λt. if  t ≤ 1 / 2
then inverse((w - u)) *⇩R (2 * (v - u)) *⇩R t
else inverse((w - u)) *⇩R ((v - u) + (w - v) *⇩R (2 *⇩R t - 1))"])
using ‹path g› path_subpath u w apply blast
using ‹path g› path_image_subpath_subset u w(1) apply blast
apply simp_all
apply (subst split_01)
apply (rule continuous_on_cases continuous_intros | force simp: pathfinish_def joinpaths_def)+
apply (force dest!: t2)
apply (force simp: algebra_simps mult_left_mono affine_ineq dest!: 1 2)
apply (force simp: algebra_simps)
done
qed

lemma homotopic_join_subpaths2:
assumes "homotopic_paths s (subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g) (subpath u w g)"
shows "homotopic_paths s (subpath w v g +++ subpath v u g) (subpath w u g)"
by (metis assms homotopic_paths_reversepath_D pathfinish_subpath pathstart_subpath reversepath_joinpaths reversepath_subpath)

lemma homotopic_join_subpaths3:
assumes hom: "homotopic_paths s (subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g) (subpath u w g)"
and "path g" and pag: "path_image g ⊆ s"
and u: "u ∈ {0..1}" and v: "v ∈ {0..1}" and w: "w ∈ {0..1}"
shows "homotopic_paths s (subpath v w g +++ subpath w u g) (subpath v u g)"
proof -
have "homotopic_paths s (subpath u w g +++ subpath w v g) ((subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g) +++ subpath w v g)"
apply (rule homotopic_paths_join)
using hom homotopic_paths_sym_eq apply blast
apply (metis ‹path g› homotopic_paths_eq pag path_image_subpath_subset path_subpath subset_trans v w)
done
also have "homotopic_paths s ((subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g) +++ subpath w v g) (subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g +++ subpath w v g)"
apply (rule homotopic_paths_sym [OF homotopic_paths_assoc])
using assms by (simp_all add: path_image_subpath_subset [THEN order_trans])
also have "homotopic_paths s (subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g +++ subpath w v g)
(subpath u v g +++ linepath (pathfinish (subpath u v g)) (pathfinish (subpath u v g)))"
apply (rule homotopic_paths_join)
apply (metis ‹path g› homotopic_paths_eq order.trans pag path_image_subpath_subset path_subpath u v)
apply (metis (no_types, lifting) ‹path g› homotopic_paths_linv order_trans pag path_image_subpath_subset path_subpath pathfinish_subpath reversepath_subpath v w)
done
also have "homotopic_paths s (subpath u v g +++ linepath (pathfinish (subpath u v g)) (pathfinish (subpath u v g))) (subpath u v g)"
apply (rule homotopic_paths_rid)
using ‹path g› path_subpath u v apply blast
apply (meson ‹path g› order.trans pag path_image_subpath_subset u v)
done
finally have "homotopic_paths s (subpath u w g +++ subpath w v g) (subpath u v g)" .
then show ?thesis
using homotopic_join_subpaths2 by blast
qed

proposition homotopic_join_subpaths:
"⟦path g; path_image g ⊆ s; u ∈ {0..1}; v ∈ {0..1}; w ∈ {0..1}⟧
⟹ homotopic_paths s (subpath u v g +++ subpath v w g) (subpath u w g)"
apply (rule le_cases3 [of u v w])
using homotopic_join_subpaths1 homotopic_join_subpaths2 homotopic_join_subpaths3 by metis+

end
```