Theory Finite_Cartesian_Product

theory Finite_Cartesian_Product
imports Euclidean_Space Numeral_Type
(*  Title:      HOL/Multivariate_Analysis/Finite_Cartesian_Product.thy
    Author:     Amine Chaieb, University of Cambridge
*)

section ‹Definition of finite Cartesian product types.›

theory Finite_Cartesian_Product
imports
  Euclidean_Space
  L2_Norm
  "~~/src/HOL/Library/Numeral_Type"
begin

subsection ‹Finite Cartesian products, with indexing and lambdas.›

typedef ('a, 'b) vec = "UNIV :: (('b::finite) ⇒ 'a) set"
  morphisms vec_nth vec_lambda ..

notation
  vec_nth (infixl "$" 90) and
  vec_lambda (binder "χ" 10)

(*
  Translate "'b ^ 'n" into "'b ^ ('n :: finite)". When 'n has already more than
  the finite type class write "vec 'b 'n"
*)

syntax "_finite_vec" :: "type ⇒ type ⇒ type" ("(_ ^/ _)" [15, 16] 15)

parse_translation ‹
  let
    fun vec t u = Syntax.const @{type_syntax vec} $ t $ u;
    fun finite_vec_tr [t, u] =
      (case Term_Position.strip_positions u of
        v as Free (x, _) =>
          if Lexicon.is_tid x then
            vec t (Syntax.const @{syntax_const "_ofsort"} $ v $
              Syntax.const @{class_syntax finite})
          else vec t u
      | _ => vec t u)
  in
    [(@{syntax_const "_finite_vec"}, K finite_vec_tr)]
  end
›

lemma vec_eq_iff: "(x = y) ⟷ (∀i. x$i = y$i)"
  by (simp add: vec_nth_inject [symmetric] fun_eq_iff)

lemma vec_lambda_beta [simp]: "vec_lambda g $ i = g i"
  by (simp add: vec_lambda_inverse)

lemma vec_lambda_unique: "(∀i. f$i = g i) ⟷ vec_lambda g = f"
  by (auto simp add: vec_eq_iff)

lemma vec_lambda_eta: "(χ i. (g$i)) = g"
  by (simp add: vec_eq_iff)


subsection ‹Group operations and class instances›

instantiation vec :: (zero, finite) zero
begin
  definition "0 ≡ (χ i. 0)"
  instance ..
end

instantiation vec :: (plus, finite) plus
begin
  definition "op + ≡ (λ x y. (χ i. x$i + y$i))"
  instance ..
end

instantiation vec :: (minus, finite) minus
begin
  definition "op - ≡ (λ x y. (χ i. x$i - y$i))"
  instance ..
end

instantiation vec :: (uminus, finite) uminus
begin
  definition "uminus ≡ (λ x. (χ i. - (x$i)))"
  instance ..
end

lemma zero_index [simp]: "0 $ i = 0"
  unfolding zero_vec_def by simp

lemma vector_add_component [simp]: "(x + y)$i = x$i + y$i"
  unfolding plus_vec_def by simp

lemma vector_minus_component [simp]: "(x - y)$i = x$i - y$i"
  unfolding minus_vec_def by simp

lemma vector_uminus_component [simp]: "(- x)$i = - (x$i)"
  unfolding uminus_vec_def by simp

instance vec :: (semigroup_add, finite) semigroup_add
  by standard (simp add: vec_eq_iff add.assoc)

instance vec :: (ab_semigroup_add, finite) ab_semigroup_add
  by standard (simp add: vec_eq_iff add.commute)

instance vec :: (monoid_add, finite) monoid_add
  by standard (simp_all add: vec_eq_iff)

instance vec :: (comm_monoid_add, finite) comm_monoid_add
  by standard (simp add: vec_eq_iff)

instance vec :: (cancel_semigroup_add, finite) cancel_semigroup_add
  by standard (simp_all add: vec_eq_iff)

instance vec :: (cancel_ab_semigroup_add, finite) cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  by standard (simp_all add: vec_eq_iff diff_diff_eq)

instance vec :: (cancel_comm_monoid_add, finite) cancel_comm_monoid_add ..

instance vec :: (group_add, finite) group_add
  by standard (simp_all add: vec_eq_iff)

instance vec :: (ab_group_add, finite) ab_group_add
  by standard (simp_all add: vec_eq_iff)


subsection ‹Real vector space›

instantiation vec :: (real_vector, finite) real_vector
begin

definition "scaleR ≡ (λ r x. (χ i. scaleR r (x$i)))"

lemma vector_scaleR_component [simp]: "(scaleR r x)$i = scaleR r (x$i)"
  unfolding scaleR_vec_def by simp

instance
  by standard (simp_all add: vec_eq_iff scaleR_left_distrib scaleR_right_distrib)

end


subsection ‹Topological space›

instantiation vec :: (topological_space, finite) topological_space
begin

definition [code del]:
  "open (S :: ('a ^ 'b) set) ⟷
    (∀x∈S. ∃A. (∀i. open (A i) ∧ x$i ∈ A i) ∧
      (∀y. (∀i. y$i ∈ A i) ⟶ y ∈ S))"

instance proof
  show "open (UNIV :: ('a ^ 'b) set)"
    unfolding open_vec_def by auto
next
  fix S T :: "('a ^ 'b) set"
  assume "open S" "open T" thus "open (S ∩ T)"
    unfolding open_vec_def
    apply clarify
    apply (drule (1) bspec)+
    apply (clarify, rename_tac Sa Ta)
    apply (rule_tac x="λi. Sa i ∩ Ta i" in exI)
    apply (simp add: open_Int)
    done
next
  fix K :: "('a ^ 'b) set set"
  assume "∀S∈K. open S" thus "open (⋃K)"
    unfolding open_vec_def
    apply clarify
    apply (drule (1) bspec)
    apply (drule (1) bspec)
    apply clarify
    apply (rule_tac x=A in exI)
    apply fast
    done
qed

end

lemma open_vector_box: "∀i. open (S i) ⟹ open {x. ∀i. x $ i ∈ S i}"
  unfolding open_vec_def by auto

lemma open_vimage_vec_nth: "open S ⟹ open ((λx. x $ i) -` S)"
  unfolding open_vec_def
  apply clarify
  apply (rule_tac x="λk. if k = i then S else UNIV" in exI, simp)
  done

lemma closed_vimage_vec_nth: "closed S ⟹ closed ((λx. x $ i) -` S)"
  unfolding closed_open vimage_Compl [symmetric]
  by (rule open_vimage_vec_nth)

lemma closed_vector_box: "∀i. closed (S i) ⟹ closed {x. ∀i. x $ i ∈ S i}"
proof -
  have "{x. ∀i. x $ i ∈ S i} = (⋂i. (λx. x $ i) -` S i)" by auto
  thus "∀i. closed (S i) ⟹ closed {x. ∀i. x $ i ∈ S i}"
    by (simp add: closed_INT closed_vimage_vec_nth)
qed

lemma tendsto_vec_nth [tendsto_intros]:
  assumes "((λx. f x) ⤏ a) net"
  shows "((λx. f x $ i) ⤏ a $ i) net"
proof (rule topological_tendstoI)
  fix S assume "open S" "a $ i ∈ S"
  then have "open ((λy. y $ i) -` S)" "a ∈ ((λy. y $ i) -` S)"
    by (simp_all add: open_vimage_vec_nth)
  with assms have "eventually (λx. f x ∈ (λy. y $ i) -` S) net"
    by (rule topological_tendstoD)
  then show "eventually (λx. f x $ i ∈ S) net"
    by simp
qed

lemma isCont_vec_nth [simp]: "isCont f a ⟹ isCont (λx. f x $ i) a"
  unfolding isCont_def by (rule tendsto_vec_nth)

lemma vec_tendstoI:
  assumes "⋀i. ((λx. f x $ i) ⤏ a $ i) net"
  shows "((λx. f x) ⤏ a) net"
proof (rule topological_tendstoI)
  fix S assume "open S" and "a ∈ S"
  then obtain A where A: "⋀i. open (A i)" "⋀i. a $ i ∈ A i"
    and S: "⋀y. ∀i. y $ i ∈ A i ⟹ y ∈ S"
    unfolding open_vec_def by metis
  have "⋀i. eventually (λx. f x $ i ∈ A i) net"
    using assms A by (rule topological_tendstoD)
  hence "eventually (λx. ∀i. f x $ i ∈ A i) net"
    by (rule eventually_all_finite)
  thus "eventually (λx. f x ∈ S) net"
    by (rule eventually_mono, simp add: S)
qed

lemma tendsto_vec_lambda [tendsto_intros]:
  assumes "⋀i. ((λx. f x i) ⤏ a i) net"
  shows "((λx. χ i. f x i) ⤏ (χ i. a i)) net"
  using assms by (simp add: vec_tendstoI)

lemma open_image_vec_nth: assumes "open S" shows "open ((λx. x $ i) ` S)"
proof (rule openI)
  fix a assume "a ∈ (λx. x $ i) ` S"
  then obtain z where "a = z $ i" and "z ∈ S" ..
  then obtain A where A: "∀i. open (A i) ∧ z $ i ∈ A i"
    and S: "∀y. (∀i. y $ i ∈ A i) ⟶ y ∈ S"
    using ‹open S› unfolding open_vec_def by auto
  hence "A i ⊆ (λx. x $ i) ` S"
    by (clarsimp, rule_tac x="χ j. if j = i then x else z $ j" in image_eqI,
      simp_all)
  hence "open (A i) ∧ a ∈ A i ∧ A i ⊆ (λx. x $ i) ` S"
    using A ‹a = z $ i› by simp
  then show "∃T. open T ∧ a ∈ T ∧ T ⊆ (λx. x $ i) ` S" by - (rule exI)
qed

instance vec :: (perfect_space, finite) perfect_space
proof
  fix x :: "'a ^ 'b" show "¬ open {x}"
  proof
    assume "open {x}"
    hence "∀i. open ((λx. x $ i) ` {x})" by (fast intro: open_image_vec_nth)
    hence "∀i. open {x $ i}" by simp
    thus "False" by (simp add: not_open_singleton)
  qed
qed


subsection ‹Metric space›
(* TODO: Product of uniform spaces and compatibility with metric_spaces! *)

instantiation vec :: (metric_space, finite) dist
begin

definition
  "dist x y = setL2 (λi. dist (x$i) (y$i)) UNIV"

instance ..
end

instantiation vec :: (metric_space, finite) uniformity_dist
begin

definition [code del]:
  "(uniformity :: (('a, 'b) vec × ('a, 'b) vec) filter) =
    (INF e:{0 <..}. principal {(x, y). dist x y < e})"

instance
  by standard (rule uniformity_vec_def)
end

declare uniformity_Abort[where 'a="'a :: metric_space ^ 'b :: finite", code]

instantiation vec :: (metric_space, finite) metric_space
begin

lemma dist_vec_nth_le: "dist (x $ i) (y $ i) ≤ dist x y"
  unfolding dist_vec_def by (rule member_le_setL2) simp_all

instance proof
  fix x y :: "'a ^ 'b"
  show "dist x y = 0 ⟷ x = y"
    unfolding dist_vec_def
    by (simp add: setL2_eq_0_iff vec_eq_iff)
next
  fix x y z :: "'a ^ 'b"
  show "dist x y ≤ dist x z + dist y z"
    unfolding dist_vec_def
    apply (rule order_trans [OF _ setL2_triangle_ineq])
    apply (simp add: setL2_mono dist_triangle2)
    done
next
  fix S :: "('a ^ 'b) set"
  have *: "open S ⟷ (∀x∈S. ∃e>0. ∀y. dist y x < e ⟶ y ∈ S)"
  proof
    assume "open S" show "∀x∈S. ∃e>0. ∀y. dist y x < e ⟶ y ∈ S"
    proof
      fix x assume "x ∈ S"
      obtain A where A: "∀i. open (A i)" "∀i. x $ i ∈ A i"
        and S: "∀y. (∀i. y $ i ∈ A i) ⟶ y ∈ S"
        using ‹open S› and ‹x ∈ S› unfolding open_vec_def by metis
      have "∀i∈UNIV. ∃r>0. ∀y. dist y (x $ i) < r ⟶ y ∈ A i"
        using A unfolding open_dist by simp
      hence "∃r. ∀i∈UNIV. 0 < r i ∧ (∀y. dist y (x $ i) < r i ⟶ y ∈ A i)"
        by (rule finite_set_choice [OF finite])
      then obtain r where r1: "∀i. 0 < r i"
        and r2: "∀i y. dist y (x $ i) < r i ⟶ y ∈ A i" by fast
      have "0 < Min (range r) ∧ (∀y. dist y x < Min (range r) ⟶ y ∈ S)"
        by (simp add: r1 r2 S le_less_trans [OF dist_vec_nth_le])
      thus "∃e>0. ∀y. dist y x < e ⟶ y ∈ S" ..
    qed
  next
    assume *: "∀x∈S. ∃e>0. ∀y. dist y x < e ⟶ y ∈ S" show "open S"
    proof (unfold open_vec_def, rule)
      fix x assume "x ∈ S"
      then obtain e where "0 < e" and S: "∀y. dist y x < e ⟶ y ∈ S"
        using * by fast
      def r  "λi::'b. e / sqrt (of_nat CARD('b))"
      from ‹0 < e› have r: "∀i. 0 < r i"
        unfolding r_def by simp_all
      from ‹0 < e› have e: "e = setL2 r UNIV"
        unfolding r_def by (simp add: setL2_constant)
      def A  "λi. {y. dist (x $ i) y < r i}"
      have "∀i. open (A i) ∧ x $ i ∈ A i"
        unfolding A_def by (simp add: open_ball r)
      moreover have "∀y. (∀i. y $ i ∈ A i) ⟶ y ∈ S"
        by (simp add: A_def S dist_vec_def e setL2_strict_mono dist_commute)
      ultimately show "∃A. (∀i. open (A i) ∧ x $ i ∈ A i) ∧
        (∀y. (∀i. y $ i ∈ A i) ⟶ y ∈ S)" by metis
    qed
  qed
  show "open S = (∀x∈S. ∀F (x', y) in uniformity. x' = x ⟶ y ∈ S)"
    unfolding * eventually_uniformity_metric
    by (simp del: split_paired_All add: dist_vec_def dist_commute)
qed

end

lemma Cauchy_vec_nth:
  "Cauchy (λn. X n) ⟹ Cauchy (λn. X n $ i)"
  unfolding Cauchy_def by (fast intro: le_less_trans [OF dist_vec_nth_le])

lemma vec_CauchyI:
  fixes X :: "nat ⇒ 'a::metric_space ^ 'n"
  assumes X: "⋀i. Cauchy (λn. X n $ i)"
  shows "Cauchy (λn. X n)"
proof (rule metric_CauchyI)
  fix r :: real assume "0 < r"
  hence "0 < r / of_nat CARD('n)" (is "0 < ?s") by simp
  def N  "λi. LEAST N. ∀m≥N. ∀n≥N. dist (X m $ i) (X n $ i) < ?s"
  def M  "Max (range N)"
  have "⋀i. ∃N. ∀m≥N. ∀n≥N. dist (X m $ i) (X n $ i) < ?s"
    using X ‹0 < ?s› by (rule metric_CauchyD)
  hence "⋀i. ∀m≥N i. ∀n≥N i. dist (X m $ i) (X n $ i) < ?s"
    unfolding N_def by (rule LeastI_ex)
  hence M: "⋀i. ∀m≥M. ∀n≥M. dist (X m $ i) (X n $ i) < ?s"
    unfolding M_def by simp
  {
    fix m n :: nat
    assume "M ≤ m" "M ≤ n"
    have "dist (X m) (X n) = setL2 (λi. dist (X m $ i) (X n $ i)) UNIV"
      unfolding dist_vec_def ..
    also have "… ≤ setsum (λi. dist (X m $ i) (X n $ i)) UNIV"
      by (rule setL2_le_setsum [OF zero_le_dist])
    also have "… < setsum (λi::'n. ?s) UNIV"
      by (rule setsum_strict_mono, simp_all add: M ‹M ≤ m› ‹M ≤ n›)
    also have "… = r"
      by simp
    finally have "dist (X m) (X n) < r" .
  }
  hence "∀m≥M. ∀n≥M. dist (X m) (X n) < r"
    by simp
  then show "∃M. ∀m≥M. ∀n≥M. dist (X m) (X n) < r" ..
qed

instance vec :: (complete_space, finite) complete_space
proof
  fix X :: "nat ⇒ 'a ^ 'b" assume "Cauchy X"
  have "⋀i. (λn. X n $ i) ⇢ lim (λn. X n $ i)"
    using Cauchy_vec_nth [OF ‹Cauchy X›]
    by (simp add: Cauchy_convergent_iff convergent_LIMSEQ_iff)
  hence "X ⇢ vec_lambda (λi. lim (λn. X n $ i))"
    by (simp add: vec_tendstoI)
  then show "convergent X"
    by (rule convergentI)
qed


subsection ‹Normed vector space›

instantiation vec :: (real_normed_vector, finite) real_normed_vector
begin

definition "norm x = setL2 (λi. norm (x$i)) UNIV"

definition "sgn (x::'a^'b) = scaleR (inverse (norm x)) x"

instance proof
  fix a :: real and x y :: "'a ^ 'b"
  show "norm x = 0 ⟷ x = 0"
    unfolding norm_vec_def
    by (simp add: setL2_eq_0_iff vec_eq_iff)
  show "norm (x + y) ≤ norm x + norm y"
    unfolding norm_vec_def
    apply (rule order_trans [OF _ setL2_triangle_ineq])
    apply (simp add: setL2_mono norm_triangle_ineq)
    done
  show "norm (scaleR a x) = ¦a¦ * norm x"
    unfolding norm_vec_def
    by (simp add: setL2_right_distrib)
  show "sgn x = scaleR (inverse (norm x)) x"
    by (rule sgn_vec_def)
  show "dist x y = norm (x - y)"
    unfolding dist_vec_def norm_vec_def
    by (simp add: dist_norm)
qed

end

lemma norm_nth_le: "norm (x $ i) ≤ norm x"
unfolding norm_vec_def
by (rule member_le_setL2) simp_all

lemma bounded_linear_vec_nth: "bounded_linear (λx. x $ i)"
apply standard
apply (rule vector_add_component)
apply (rule vector_scaleR_component)
apply (rule_tac x="1" in exI, simp add: norm_nth_le)
done

instance vec :: (banach, finite) banach ..


subsection ‹Inner product space›

instantiation vec :: (real_inner, finite) real_inner
begin

definition "inner x y = setsum (λi. inner (x$i) (y$i)) UNIV"

instance proof
  fix r :: real and x y z :: "'a ^ 'b"
  show "inner x y = inner y x"
    unfolding inner_vec_def
    by (simp add: inner_commute)
  show "inner (x + y) z = inner x z + inner y z"
    unfolding inner_vec_def
    by (simp add: inner_add_left setsum.distrib)
  show "inner (scaleR r x) y = r * inner x y"
    unfolding inner_vec_def
    by (simp add: setsum_right_distrib)
  show "0 ≤ inner x x"
    unfolding inner_vec_def
    by (simp add: setsum_nonneg)
  show "inner x x = 0 ⟷ x = 0"
    unfolding inner_vec_def
    by (simp add: vec_eq_iff setsum_nonneg_eq_0_iff)
  show "norm x = sqrt (inner x x)"
    unfolding inner_vec_def norm_vec_def setL2_def
    by (simp add: power2_norm_eq_inner)
qed

end


subsection ‹Euclidean space›

text ‹Vectors pointing along a single axis.›

definition "axis k x = (χ i. if i = k then x else 0)"

lemma axis_nth [simp]: "axis i x $ i = x"
  unfolding axis_def by simp

lemma axis_eq_axis: "axis i x = axis j y ⟷ x = y ∧ i = j ∨ x = 0 ∧ y = 0"
  unfolding axis_def vec_eq_iff by auto

lemma inner_axis_axis:
  "inner (axis i x) (axis j y) = (if i = j then inner x y else 0)"
  unfolding inner_vec_def
  apply (cases "i = j")
  apply clarsimp
  apply (subst setsum.remove [of _ j], simp_all)
  apply (rule setsum.neutral, simp add: axis_def)
  apply (rule setsum.neutral, simp add: axis_def)
  done

lemma setsum_single:
  assumes "finite A" and "k ∈ A" and "f k = y"
  assumes "⋀i. i ∈ A ⟹ i ≠ k ⟹ f i = 0"
  shows "(∑i∈A. f i) = y"
  apply (subst setsum.remove [OF assms(1,2)])
  apply (simp add: setsum.neutral assms(3,4))
  done

lemma inner_axis: "inner x (axis i y) = inner (x $ i) y"
  unfolding inner_vec_def
  apply (rule_tac k=i in setsum_single)
  apply simp_all
  apply (simp add: axis_def)
  done

instantiation vec :: (euclidean_space, finite) euclidean_space
begin

definition "Basis = (⋃i. ⋃u∈Basis. {axis i u})"

instance proof
  show "(Basis :: ('a ^ 'b) set) ≠ {}"
    unfolding Basis_vec_def by simp
next
  show "finite (Basis :: ('a ^ 'b) set)"
    unfolding Basis_vec_def by simp
next
  fix u v :: "'a ^ 'b"
  assume "u ∈ Basis" and "v ∈ Basis"
  thus "inner u v = (if u = v then 1 else 0)"
    unfolding Basis_vec_def
    by (auto simp add: inner_axis_axis axis_eq_axis inner_Basis)
next
  fix x :: "'a ^ 'b"
  show "(∀u∈Basis. inner x u = 0) ⟷ x = 0"
    unfolding Basis_vec_def
    by (simp add: inner_axis euclidean_all_zero_iff vec_eq_iff)
qed

lemma DIM_cart[simp]: "DIM('a^'b) = CARD('b) * DIM('a)"
  apply (simp add: Basis_vec_def)
  apply (subst card_UN_disjoint)
     apply simp
    apply simp
   apply (auto simp: axis_eq_axis) [1]
  apply (subst card_UN_disjoint)
     apply (auto simp: axis_eq_axis)
  done

end

end