Condor uses priorities to determine machine allocation for jobs. This section details the priorities and the allocation of machines (negotiation).
For accounting purposes, each user is identified by username@uid_domain. Each user is assigned a priority value even if submitting jobs from different machines in the same domain, or even if submitting from multiple machines in the different domains.
The numerical priority value assigned to a user is inversely related to the goodness of the priority. A user with a numerical priority of 5 gets more resources than a user with a numerical priority of 50. There are two priority values assigned to Condor users:
However, if the user decreases the number of resources used, the RUP gets better. The rate at which the priority value decays can be set by the macro PRIORITY_HALFLIFE , a time period defined in seconds. Intuitively, if the PRIORITY_HALFLIFE in a pool is set to 86400 (one day), and if a user whose RUP was 10 removes all his jobs, the user's RUP would be 5 one day later, 2.5 two days later, and so on.
The number of resources that a user may receive is inversely related to the ratio between the EUPs of submitting users. Therefore user A with EUP=5 will receive twice as many resources as user B with EUP=10 and four times as many resources as user C with EUP=20. However, if A does not use the full number of allocated resources, the available resources are repartitioned and distributed among remaining users according to the inverse ratio rule.
Condor supplies mechanisms to directly support two policies in which EUP may be useful:
The priority boost factors for individual users can be set with the setfactor option of condor_ userprio. Details may be found in the condor_ userprio manual page on page .
To ensure that preemptions do not lead to thrashing, a PREEMPTION_REQUIREMENTS expression is defined to specify the conditions that must be met for a preemption to occur. It is usually defined to deny preemption if a current running job has been running for a relatively short period of time. This effectively limits the number of preemptions per resource per time interval.
Note that PREEMPTION_REQUIREMENTS only applies to preemptions due to user priority. It does not have any effect if the machine rank expression prefers a different job, or if the startd policy expression causes the job to vacate due to other activity on the machine. See section 3.5.10 for a general discussion of limiting preemption.
The RUP of a user u at time t, , is calculated
every time interval using the formula
The EUP of user u at time t,
is calculated by
As mentioned previously, the RUP calculation is designed so that at steady state, each user's RUP stabilizes at the number of resources used by that user. The definition of ensures that the calculation of can be calculated over non-uniform time intervals without affecting the calculation. The time interval varies due to events internal to the system, but Condor guarantees that unless the central manager machine is down, no matches will be unaccounted for due to this variance.
Negotiation is the method Condor undergoes periodically to match queued jobs with resources capable of running jobs. The condor_ negotiator daemon is responsible for negotiation.
During a negotiation cycle, the condor_ negotiator daemon accomplishes the following ordered list of items.
The condor_ negotiatior asks the condor_ schedd for the "next job" from a given submitter/user. Typically, the condor_ schedd returns jobs in the order of job priority. If priorities are the same, job submission time is used; older jobs go first. If a cluster has multiple procs in it and one of the jobs cannot be matched, the condor_ schedd will not return any more jobs in that cluster on that negotiation pass. This is an optimization based on the theory that the cluster jobs are similar. The configuration variable NEGOTIATE_ALL_JOBS_IN_CLUSTER disables the cluster-skipping optimization. Use of the configuration variable SIGNIFICANT_ATTRIBUTES will change the definition of what the condor_ schedd considers a cluster from the default definition of all jobs that share the same ClusterId.
By default, Condor does all accounting on a per-user basis, and this accounting is primarily used to compute priorities for Condor's fair-share scheduling algorithms. However, accounting can also be done on a per-group basis. Multiple users can all submit jobs into the same accounting group, and all of the jobs will be treated with the same priority.
To use an accounting group, each job inserts an attribute into the job ClassAd which defines the accounting group name for the job. A common name is decided upon and used for the group. The following line is an example that defines the attribute within the job's submit description file:
+AccountingGroup = "group_physics"
The AccountingGroup attribute is a string, and it therefore must be enclosed in double quote marks. The string may have a maximum length of 40 characters. The name should not be qualified with a domain. Certain parts of the Condor system do append the value $(UID_DOMAIN) (as specified in the configuration file on the submit machine) to this string for internal use. For example, if the value of UID_DOMAIN is example.com, and the accounting group name is as specified, condor_ userprio will show statistics for this accounting group using the appended domain, for example
Effective User Name Priority ------------------------------ --------- email@example.com 0.50 firstname.lastname@example.org 23.11 email@example.com 111.13 ...
Additionally, the condor_ userprio command allows administrators to remove an entity from the accounting system in Condor. The -delete option to condor_ userprio accomplishes this if all the jobs from a given accounting group are completed, and the administrator wishes to remove that group from the system. The -delete option identifies the accounting group with the fully-qualified name of the accounting group. For example
condor_userprio -delete firstname.lastname@example.org
Condor removes entities itself as they are no longer relevant. Intervention by an administrator to delete entities can be beneficial when the use of thousands of short term accounting groups leads to scalability issues.
Note that the name of an accounting group may include a period (.), and the period character has no special interpretation for group accounting. For group users, as described in the next section, a period does have special meaning.
The use of group quotas modifies the negotiation for available resources (machines) within a Condor pool. This solves the difficulties inherent when priorities assigned based on each single user are insufficient. This may be the case when different groups (of varying size) own computers, and the groups choose to combine their computers to form a Condor pool. Consider an imaginary Condor pool example with thirty computers. Twenty computers are owned by the physics group and ten computers are owned by the chemistry group. One notion of fair allocation could be implemented by configuring the twenty machines owned by the physics group to prefer (using the RANK configuration macro) jobs submitted by the users identified as associated with the physics group. Likewise, the ten machines owned by the chemistry group are configured to prefer jobs from users associated with the the chemistry group. This routes jobs to execute on specific machines, perhaps causing more preemption than necessary. The (fair allocation) policy desired is likely somewhat different, if these thirty machines have been pooled. It does not tie users to specific sets of machines, but to numbers of machines (a quota). Given thirty similar machines, the desired policy allows users within the physics group to have preference on up to twenty of the machines within the pool, and the machines can be any of the machines that are available.
A quota for a set of users requires an identification for the set; members are called group users. Jobs to be negotiated for under the group quota specify the group user with the AccountingGroup job ClassAd, as described above.
The syntax for specifying a group user is
groupis a name chosen for the group. Group names are not required to begin with the string "group_", as in the examples "group_physics.newton" and "group_chemistry.curie", but it is a useful convention because group names must not conflict with user names. The period character between the group and the user name is a required part of the syntax.
Configuration controls the order of negotiation for
groups and individual users,
as well as sets quotas
(preferentially allocated number of machines)
for the groups.
A declared number of virtual machines specifies the quota for each group
in section 3.3.18).
The sum of the quotas for all groups must be less than or equal to
the number of virtual machines in the entire pool.
If the sum is less than the number of
virtual machines in the entire pool,
the remaining machines are
allocated to the
comprised of the general
users not submitting jobs in a group.
Where group users are specified for jobs, accounting is done per group user. It is no longer done by group, or by individual user.
Negotiation is changed when group quotas are used.
Condor negotiates first for defined groups,
and then for independent job submitters.
Given jobs belonging to different groups,
Condor negotiates first for the group
currently utilizing the smallest percentage of machines
in its quota.
Condor negotiates for the group
currently utilizing the second smallest percentage of machines
in its quota.
The last group will be the one with the highest percentage
of machines in its quota.
As an example, again use the imaginary pool and groups
If various users within
jobs running on 15 computers,
then the physics group has 75% of the
machines within its quota.
If various users within
jobs running on 5 computers,
then the chemistry group has 50% of the
machines within its quota.
Negotiation will take place for the chemistry group first.
For independent job submissions (those not part of any group),
the classic Condor user fair share algorithm still applies.
Note that there is no verification that a user is a member of the group that he claims. We rely on societal pressure for enforcement.
Configuration variables affect group quotas. See section 3.3.18 for detailed descriptions of the variables mentioned. Group names that may be given quotas to be used in negotiation are listed in the GROUP_NAMES macro. The names chosen must not conflict with Condor user names. Quotas (by group) are defined in numbers of virtual machines. Each group may assign an initial value for each group user's user priority factor with the GROUP_PRIO_FACTOR_<groupname> macro. If a group is currently allocated its entire quota of machines, and a group user has a submitted job that is not running, the GROUP_AUTOREGROUP macro allows the job to be considered a second time within the negotiation cycle along with all other individual users' jobs.