Tangible User Interfaces workshop:
Design Challenge Exercise B
This page describes results from one of three design challenges considered in the afternoon session of the CHI 2007 workshop on Tangible User Interfaces in Context and Theory.
"Process Instructions Conveyed on Aircraft Parts: the 'Stay-out' Problem"
(introduced by Wendy Leung and Anthony Majoros, Boeing)
Background to the Question:
In the aerospace manufacturing industry, there is a problem called the
Stay-out Marking Problem that tangible user interfaces may help solve.
'Stay-outs' are small areas that are marked on aircraft skin (the outer
surface of the aircraft fuselage or wing) to encircle specific
locations. The locations within the marked areas are those where holes
for fasteners (usually rivets) are planned, but where the actual
drilling operation must be delayed or postponed until a later step in
the manufacturing process. The reason for delaying hole drilling even
though blueprints call for holes is that some additional part is planned
such that it will line up over or behind the hole location. Therefore,
if the additional part is first set in place (with clamps) and then both
the skin and additional part are drilled through in one operation, the
holes will be--by definition--perfectly aligned. If, on the other hand,
the hole in the skin is first drilled and then the hole in the
additional part is drilled in a separate operation, the part may not
align perfectly on its intended position. The challenge is marking or
identifying stay-outs so mechanics never drill a stay-out hole before it
should be drilled.
- Improve marking medium such as medium that requires special solution to wash off
- Anoto Paper - http://www.anoto.com/ Paper and pen that knows what has been written and then will transmit the written data to a server (PC or mobile phone) via bluetooth. Paper has unique coordinates (that creates a pattern) for every millmeter of paper that the pen (pen that contains a digital camera and bluetooth) can pick up and transmit to a server.
- Embed or stick the anoto paper onto the aircraft part.
- Use a Pen with camera to read what part this is and relay this information to the mobile device that will then display the appropriate information to the user.
- OR embed the camera and bluetooth onto the drill/tool that will detect the anoto pattern on aircraft skin and then transmit this data to a server that will tell the drill to light up green or red, signaling to the driller to drill this area or not.
- E-ink - www.eink.com eletronic ink that is printed on thin flexible plastic. The ink content can be changed dynamically. Potentially use this as the paper to place on the aircraft skin to identify the stay out area at one point in time and then change the information accordingly.
- Augmented Reality - project onto aircraft parts the blueprint and the stay out area markings
- Bi-statix - graphite trace used as the marking medium onto the aircraft skin. The bistatix will emit a frequency that a drill/tool will detect its antenna frequency to identify which part can be drilled and which can't.
- Computer vision to detect the aircraft part, and use mobile device to add more information on to the part. The assembler can then use the mobile device to read the information about the part later on in the process.
- Ink that stores information about who marked this, when, and etc. Only the proper operator can see the appropriate markings.
- RFID or barcode - knows it has been marked and report to the next user what it means.
- Drill can read anoto paper or RFID/barcode and have the drill as the display device to let the user know to continue drilling or not.
- Add information to the blueprint itself
- Track markings - computers then add informational markings
- No markings for holes initially? clear surface
- Overlap with other regions marked for other purposes
- Marks wear off, or stickers get damaged
- Prevent 1. wrong drill 2. drillling too early, even if hole in blue print
- Each plane design has different but similar parts design that requires a different configuration
- Information is separate from part vs. information in part.