CRYPTSETUP(8)                Maintainance Commands               CRYPTSETUP(8)
       cryptsetup  -  setup cryptographic volumes for dm-crypt (including LUKS

       cryptsetup <options> <action> <action args>

       cryptsetup is used to conveniently setup up  dm-crypt  managed  device-
       mapper  mappings.  For  basic  dm-crypt mappings, there are five opera-

       These strings are valid for <action>, followed by their <action args>:

       create <name> <device>

              creates  a  mapping  with  <name>  backed  by  device  <device>.
              <options>  can be [--hash, --cipher, --verify-passphrase, --key-
              file, --key-size, --offset, --skip, --readonly]

       remove <name>

              removes an existing mapping <name>. No options.

       status <name>

              reports the status for the mapping <name>. No options.

       reload <name>

              modifies an active mapping <name>. Same options as for create.

       resize <name>

              resizes an active mapping <name>. <options> must include --size

       LUKS, Linux Unified Key Setup, is a standard for hard disk  encryption.
       It  standardizes  a partition header, as well as the format of the bulk
       data. LUKS can manage multiple passwords, that can  be  revoked  effec-
       tively and that are protected against dictionary attacks with PBKDF2.

       These are valid LUKS actions:

       luksFormat <device> [<key file>]

              initializes a LUKS partition and set the initial key, either via
              prompting or via <key file>.  <options> can be [--cipher, --ver-
              ify-passphrase, --key-size]

       luksOpen <device> <name>

              opens  the  LUKS partition <device> and sets up a mapping <name>
              after successful  verification  of  the  supplied  key  material
              (either   via   key  file  by  --key-file,  or  via  prompting).
              <options> can be [--key-file, --readonly].

       luksClose <name>

              identical to remove.

       luksAddKey <device> [<new key file>]

              add a new key file/passphrase. An  existing  passphrase  or  key
              file  (via  --key-file)  must be supplied. The key file with the
              new material is supplied as after luksAddKey as positional argu-
              ment. <options> can be [--key-file].

       luksDelKey <key slot number>

              remove key from key slot. No options.

       luksUUID <device>

              print UUID, if <device> has a LUKS header. No options.

       isLuks <device>

              returns true, if <device> is a LUKS partition. Otherwise, false.
              No options.

       luksDump <device>

              dumps the header information of a LUKS partition. No options.

       For more information about LUKS, see

       --hash, -h
              specifies hash to use for password hashing. This option is  only
              relevant  for  the "create" action. The hash string is passed to
              libgcrypt, so all hashes accepted by gcrypt are supported.

       --cipher, -c
              set cipher specification  string.  Usually,  this  is  "aes-cbc-
              plain".  For  pre-2.6.10  kernels, use "aes-plain" as they don't
              understand the new cipher spec strings. To use ESSIV, use  "aes-

       --verify-passphrase, -y
              query  for  passwords  twice.  Useful, when creating a (regular)
              mapping for the first time, or when running luksFormat.

       --key-file, -d
              use file as key material. With LUKS, key  material  supplied  in
              key  files  via  -d are always used for existing passphrases. If
              you want to set a new key via a key file,  you  have  to  use  a
              positional arg to luksFormat or luksAddKey.

       --key-size, -s
              set  key  size in bits. Usually, this is 128, 192 or 256. Can be
              used for create or  luksFormat,  all  other  LUKS  actions  will
              ignore  this flag, as the key-size is specified by the partition

       --size, -b
              force the size of the underlaying device in sectors.

       --offset, -o
              start offset in the backend device.

       --skip, -p
              how many sectors of the encrypted data to skip at the beginning.
              This  is  different from the --offset options with respect to IV
              calculations. Using --offset will shift the IV  calculcation  by
              the same negative amount. Hence, if --offset n, sector n will be
              the first sector on the mapping with IV 0.  Using  --skip  would
              have  resulted in sector n being the first sector also, but with
              IV n.

              setup a read-only mapping.

       --iter-time, -i
              The number of microseconds to spend with  PBKDF2  password  pro-
              cessing. This options is only relevant to LUKS key setting oper-
              ations as luksFormat or luksAddKey.

       --batch-mode, -q
              Do not ask for confirmation. This option is  only  relevant  for

       --timeout, -t
              The  number  of  seconds  to wait before timeout. This option is
              relevant evertime a password is asked,  like  create,  luksOpen,
              luksFormat or luksAddKey.

              Align  payload  at  a  boundary of value 512-byte sectors.  This
              option is relevant for luksFormat.  If your block  device  lives
              on  a  RAID  it is useful to align the filesystem at full stripe
              boundaries so it can take advantage of the RAID's geometry.  See
              for instance the sunit and swidth options in the mkfs.xfs manual
              page.  By default the payload is aligned at an  8  sector  (4096
              byte) boundary.

              Show the version.

       From  a  file descriptor or a terminal: Password processing is new-line
       sensitive, meaning the reading will stop after encountering \n. It will
       processed  the read material with the default hash or the hash given by
       --hash. After hashing it will be cropped to the key size  given  by  -s
       (or default 256bit).

       From  a  key file: It will be cropped to the size given by -s. If there
       is insufficient key material in the key file, cryptsetup will quit with
       an error.

       Password  processing is totally different for LUKS. LUKS uses PBKDF2 to
       protect against dictionary attacks (see RFC 2898).   LUKS  will  always
       use  SHA1  in  HMAC mode, and no other mode is supported at the moment.
       Hence, -h is ignored.

       LUKS will always do an exhaustive password reading. Hence, password can
       not  be read from /dev/random, /dev/zero or any other stream, that does
       not terminate.

       LUKS saves the processing options when a password is set to the respec-
       tive  key  slot.   Therefore, no options can be given to luksOpen.  For
       any password creation action  (luksAddKey,  or  luksFormat),  the  user
       specify,  how  much  the  time  the password processing should consume.
       Increasing the time will lead to a more secure password, but also  will
       take  luksOpen longer to complete. The default setting of one second is
       sufficient for good security.

       Mathematic can't be bribed. Make sure you  keep  your  passwords  save.
       There  are  a few nice tricks for constructing a fallback, when suddely
       out of (or after being) blue, your brain refuses  to  cooperate.  These
       fallbacks  are  possible  with LUKS, as it's only possible with LUKS to
       have multiple passwords.

       cryptsetup is written by Christophe Saout <>
       LUKS extensions, and man  page  by  Clemens  Fruhwirth  <clemens@endor->

       Report bugs to <>.

       Copyright (C) 2004 Christophe Saout
       Copyright (C) 2004-2006 Clemens Fruhwirth

       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR  A  PARTICULAR

       dm-crypt website,

       LUKS website,

       dm-crypt TWiki,

cryptsetup 1.0.3                  March 2005                     CRYPTSETUP(8)