LS(1)                            User Commands                           LS(1)
NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are  mandatory  for  short  options
       too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
              file status information) with -l: show ctime and  sort  by  name
              otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              control  whether  color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
              may be 'never', 'always', or 'auto'

       -d, --directory
              list directory entries instead of contents, and do not  derefer-
              ence symbolic links

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append '*'

       --format=WORD
              across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       -G, --no-group
              like -l, but do not list group

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow  each  command line symbolic link that points to a direc-
              tory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell  PATTERN  (overridden
              by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
              none  (default),  slash  (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify
              (-F)

       -i, --inode
              with -l, print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
              tion  for  the file the link references rather than for the link
              itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters  spe-
              cially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show  non  graphic  characters  as-is (default unless program is
              'ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,  shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              with -l, print size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              extension  -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c,
              time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

       --time=WORD
              with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time:  atime,
              access,  use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if
              --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
              locale,  +FORMAT.   FORMAT is interpreted like 'date'; if FORMAT
              is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent  files
              and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-',
              STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with  -l:  show  access
              time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do  not  sort;  list entries in directory order.  In combination
              with one_per_line format '-1', it will  show  files  immediately
              and it has no memory limitations.

       -v     sort by version

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file per line

       SELinux options:

       --lcontext
              Display  security  context.    Enable -l. Lines will probably be
              too wide for most displays.

       -Z, --context
              Display security context so it fits on most displays.   Displays
              only mode, user, group, security context and file name.

       --scontext
              Display only security context and file name.

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       SIZE  may  be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol-
       lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
       P, E, Z, Y.

       By  default,  color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is
       equivalent to using --color=none.  Using the --color option without the
       optional  WHEN  argument  is  equivalent to using --color=always.  With
       --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard  output  is  con-
       nected  to  a  terminal  (tty).  The environment variable LS_COLORS can
       influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

       Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software.  You may redistribute copies  of  it  under  the
       terms       of       the      GNU      General      Public      License
       <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.  There is NO WARRANTY,  to  the
       extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       The  full  documentation  for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the  com-
       mand

              info ls

       should give you access to the complete manual.

ls 5.97                           March 2012                             LS(1)